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1.  Clinical value of lncRNA MALAT1 as a prognostic marker in human cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis 
BMJ Open  2015;5(9):e008653.
Background
Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is found to be overexpressed and associated with clinicopathological features in patients with cancer.
Objectives
To evaluate the clinical value of MALAT1 as a prognostic marker in human cancers by a comprehensive meta-analysis of published studies.
Data sources
The data on the prognostic impact of MALAT1 in cancer were collected from 11 September 2003 to 10 July 2015.
Setting and participants
Fourteen eligible studies with a total of 1373 patients conducted in 3 countries (9 in China, 3 in Japan and 2 in Germany) were matched to our inclusion criteria.
Outcome measures
Pooled HRs with 95% CIs were calculated to estimate the strength of the link between MALAT1 and clinical prognoses. The combined HRs heterogeneity was tested using a χ2-based Cochran Q test and Higgins I2 statistic. Publication bias was evaluated using a funnel plot with Egger's bias indicator test.
Results
A significant association between MALAT1 overexpression and poor overall survival (OS) (HR=1.95; 95% CI 1.57 to 2.41) was observed. Residence region (Germany and China), cancer type (respiratory, digestive or other system disease), sample size and paper quality did not alter the predictive value of MALAT1 on OS in investigated cancers. MALAT1 expression was an independent prognostic marker for OS in patients with cancer using univariate and multivariate analyses. Subgroup analysis showed that the elevated MALAT1 appeared to be a powerful prognostic marker for patients with respiratory, digestive and other system cancers. A similar effect was also seen in different regions. Furthermore, the overexpression of MALAT1 was associated with disease-free, recurrence-free and progression-free survivals.
Conclusions
MALAT1 may potentially be used as a new prognostic marker to predict poorer survival of patients with cancer. More clinical studies on the different types of human cancer not yet investigated need to be conducted.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008653
PMCID: PMC4593150  PMID: 26423854
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
2.  Unidirectional hybridization and reproductive barriers between two heterostylous primrose species in north-west Yunnan, China 
Annals of Botany  2014;113(5):763-775.
Background and Aims
Heteromorphy in flowers has a profound effect on breeding patterns within a species, but little is known about how it affects reproductive barriers between species. The heterostylous genus Primula is very diverse in the Himalaya region, but hybrids there have been little researched. This study examines in detail a natural hybrid zone between P. beesiana and P. bulleyana.
Methods
Chloroplast sequencing, AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers and morphological comparisons were employed to characterize putative hybrids in the field, using synthetic F1s from hand pollination as controls. Pollinator visits to parent species and hybrids were observed in the field. Hand pollinations were conducted to compare pollen tube growth, seed production and seed viability for crosses involving different morphs, species and directions of crossing.
Key Results
Molecular data revealed all hybrid derivatives examined to be backcrosses of first or later generations towards P. bulleyana: all had the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) of this species. Some individuals had morphological traits suggesting they were hybrids, but they were genetically similar to P. bulleyana; they might have been advanced generation backcrosses. Viable F1s could not be produced with P. bulleyana pollen on P. beesiana females, irrespective of the flower morphs used. Within-morph crosses for each species had very low (<10 %) seed viability, whereas crosses between pin P. bulleyana (female) and pin P. beesiana had a higher seed viability of 30 %. Thus genetic incompatibility mechanisms back up mechanical barriers to within-morph crosses in each species, but are not the same between the two species. The two species share their main pollinators, and pollinators were observed to fly between P. bulleyana and hybrids, suggesting that pollinator behaviour may not be an important isolating factor.
Conclusions
Hybridization is strongly asymmetric, with P. bulleyana the only possible mother and all detected hybrids being backcrosses in this direction. Partial ecological isolation and inhibition of heterospecific pollen, and possibly complete barriers to F1 formation on P. beesiana, may be enough to make F1 formation very rare in these species. Therefore, with no F1 detected, this hybrid zone may have a finite life span as successive generations become more similar to P. bulleyana.
doi:10.1093/aob/mct312
PMCID: PMC3962241  PMID: 24492637
Unidirectional hybridization; reproductive barriers; F1 formation; primrose; Primula; heterostyly
3.  New Coxsackievirus B4 Genotype Circulating in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e90379.
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) surveillance was initiated in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China in 2007, a crucial scrutiny for monitoring the prevalence of enterovirus serotypes associated with HFMD patients. However, this surveillance mostly focused on enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16; therefore, information on other enterovirus serotypes is limited. To identify the other circulating enterovirus serotypes in the HFMD outbreaks in Inner Mongolia in 2010, clinical samples from HFMD patients were investigated. Six coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4) strains were isolated and phylogenetic analyses of VP1 sequences were performed. Full-length genome sequences of two representative CVB4 isolates were acquired and similarity plot and bootscanning analyses were performed. The phylogenetic dendrogram indicated that all CVB4 strains could be divided into 5 genotypes (Genotypes I–V) with high bootstrap support (90–100%). The CVB4 prototype strain (JVB) was the sole member of genotype I. CVB4 strains belonging to genotype II, which were once common in Europe and the Americas, seemingly disappeared and gave way to genotype III and IV strains, which appear to be the dominant circulating strains in the world. All Chinese CVB4 strains belonged to Genotype V, a newly identified genotype supported by a high bootstrap value (100%), and are circulating only in mainland of China. Intertypic recombination occurred in the Chinese CVB4 strains with novel unknown serotype EV-B donor sequences. Two Chinese CVB4 strains had a virulent residue at position 129 of VP1, and one strain also had a virulent residue at position 16 of VP4. Increased surveillance is needed to monitor the emergence of new genetic lineages of enteroviruses in areas that are often associated with large-scale outbreaks. In addition, continued monitoring of enteroviruses by clinical surveillance and genetic characterization should be enhanced.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090379
PMCID: PMC3940859  PMID: 24595311
4.  Emergence and Continuous Evolution of Genotype 1E Rubella Viruses in China 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2012;50(2):353-363.
In China, rubella vaccination was introduced into the national immunization program in 2008, and a rubella epidemic occurred in the same year. In order to know whether changes in the genotypic distribution of rubella viruses have occurred in the postvaccination era, we investigate in detail the epidemiological profile of rubella in China and estimate the evolutionary rate, molecular clock phylogeny, and demographic history of the predominant rubella virus genotypes circulating in China using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo phylodynamic analyses. 1E was found to be the predominant rubella virus genotype since its initial isolation in China in 2001, and no genotypic shift has occurred since then. The results suggest that the global 1E genotype may have diverged in 1995 and that it has evolved at a mutation rate of 1.65 × 10−3 per site per year. The Chinese 1E rubella virus isolates were grouped into either cluster 1 or cluster 2, which likely originated in 1997 and 2006, respectively. Cluster 1 viruses were found in all provinces examined in this study and had a mutation rate of 1.90 × 10−3 per site per year. The effective number of infections remained constant until 2007, and along with the introduction of rubella vaccine into the national immunization program, although the circulation of cluster 1 viruses has not been interrupted, some viral lineages have disappeared, and the epidemic started a decline that led to a decrease in the effective population size. Cluster 2 viruses were found only in Hainan Province, likely because of importation.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01264-11
PMCID: PMC3264136  PMID: 22162559

Results 1-4 (4)