The effect of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism on brain structure and function has been previously investigated separately and regionally; this prevents us from obtaining a full picture of the effect of this gene variant. Additionally, gender difference must not be overlooked because estrogen exerts an interfering effect on COMT activity. We examined 323 young healthy Chinese Han subjects and analyzed the gray matter volume (GMV) differences between Val/Val individuals and Met carriers in a voxel-wise manner throughout the whole brain. We were interested in genotype effects and genotype × gender interactions. We then extracted these brain regions with GMV differences as seeds to compute resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the rest of the brain; we also tested the genotypic differences and gender interactions in the rsFCs. Val/Val individuals showed decreased GMV in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) compared with Met carriers; decreased GMV in the medial superior frontal gyrus (mSFG) was found only in male Val/Val subjects. The rsFC analysis revealed that both the PCC and mSFG were functionally correlated with brain regions of the default mode network (DMN). Both of these regions showed decreased rsFCs with different parts of the frontopolar cortex of the DMN in Val/Val individuals than Met carriers. Our findings suggest that the COMT Val158Met polymorphism modulates both the structure and functional connectivity within the DMN and that gender interactions should be considered in studies of the effect of this genetic variant, especially those involving prefrontal morphology.
Mangrove wetland is a unique ecosystem and has rich bioresources. In this article, the roots, stems, branches, leaves, barks, fruits, and flowers from 12 species of the mangrove plants and six species of the accompanying mangrove plants, seawater and sediments in mangrove ecosystems in China were used as sources for isolation of yeasts. A total of 269 yeasts strains were obtained from the samples. The results of routine identification and phylogenetic analysis showed that they belonged to 22 genera and 45 species. Of all the 269 strains, Candida spp. was predominant with the proportion of 44.61%, followed by Kluyveromyces spp. (8.55%), Pichia spp. (7.44%), Kodamaea ohmeri (5.58%), Issatchenkia spp. (4.83%) and Debaryomyces hansenii (4.46%). We also found that strains N02-2.3 and ST3-1Y3 belonged to the undescribed species of Pichia sp. and Trichosporon sp. respectively while strain HN-12 was not related to any known yeast strains. This means that different yeast strains of Candida spp. especially C. tropicalis were widely distributed in the mangrove ecosystems and may have an important role in the mangrove ecosystems. The results also showed that some of them may have potential applications.
Yeast diversity; Mangrove ecosystems; Diversity; Candida spp.; Undescribed yeasts
Artemisinin analogue SM934 was previously reported to possess immunosuppressive properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effects and the underlying mechanisms of SM934 in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).
Female C57BL/6 mice immunized with MOG35–55 were treated with or without SM934, then the clinical scores and other relevant parameters were assessed. Th1, Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cell profiles were determined through ELISA, qRT-PCR, flow cytometry and BrdU incorporation assay. The effects of SM934 on Th1, Th17 and Treg cells differentiation were explored through intracellular staining and flow cytometry examination.
In vivo, administration of SM934 significantly inhibited the development of EAE and suppressed the elevation of serum IL-17. Ex vivo, upon antigen-recall stimulation, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-6 production were decreased, whereas IL-10 and TGF-β production were increased from the splenocytes isolated from SM934-treated mice. Consistently, both flow cytometry and qRT-PCR results showed that SM934 treatment significantly increased the Treg, while strongly suppressed the Th17 and Th1, responses in the peripheral. Furthermore, in the spinal lesion, SM934 treatment dramatically decreased the infiltration of CD4+ T cells, within which the Treg cells percentage was enlarged, whereas the Th17, but not Th1 percentage, was significantly decreased comparing with the vehicle-treated groups. Finally, both BrdU incorporation and in vitro Treg differentiation assays revealed that SM934 treatment could directly promote the expansion of Treg cells in vivo and in vitro.
Taken together, this study demonstrated that SM934 treatment could ameliorate the murine EAE disease, which might be mediated by inducing Treg differentiation and expansion.
In this study, we mainly investigate the role of Th17 cells, Th1 cells, and their related cytokines in the pathophysiology of AML. BM and PB were extracted from ND, CR, and relapsed-refractory AML patients and controls. Th subsets frequencies were examined by flow cytometry. BM plasma Th-associated cytokines levels were determined by ELISA. The frequencies of Th17 and Th1, and IFN-γ or TGF-β concentrations were significantly decreased in ND compared with CR patients or controls. Th17 percentage was significantly lower in BM than in PB for ND patients but was higher in BM for CR patients. However, in CR or relapsed-refractory patients, Th1 percentage in BM was higher than that in PB. Moreover, BM IL-17A level showed a decreased trend in ND patients. A significant elevation of plasma IL-6 level was found in ND compared with CR patients or controls. IL-17A showed the positive correlation with IL-6 concentration. And Th17 cells frequencies and TGF-β1 concentration were increased in BM from AML patients achieving CR after chemotherapy. Moreover, a significant decrease of BM plasma TGF-β1 level was found in M3 patients compared with the other subtypes. Our findings suggest that Th17 and related cytokines may be implicated in AML pathogenesis.
The use of titanium during maxillofacial fixation is limited due to its palpability, mutagenic effects and interference with imaging, which lead to the requirement for subsequent removal. The use of a biologically absorbable fixation material will potentially eliminate these limitations. In this meta-analysis, we analyzed the complications of absorbable fixation in maxillofacial surgery.
We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Systematic Reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for trials published through December 2012. Data extracted from literature were analyzed with Review manager 5.0.24.
Relevant data was extracted from 20 studies (1673 participants) and revealed that patients in the absorbable group had significantly more complications than those in the titanium group (RR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.02–1.42; P = 0.03) in all enrolled maxillofacial surgeries. For bimaxillary operation subgroup, the absorbable fixation group did not have a significant increase in complications when compared with the titanium group (RR = 1.89; 95% CI: 0.85–4.22; P = 0.12). There was no significant difference observed between the absorbable and titanium groups receiving a bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO) (RR = 1.45; 95% CI: 0.84–2.48; P = 0.18) and Le Fort I osteotomy (RR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.34–1.23; P = 0.18). The combined results of the five trials revealed that the absorbable group had a significantly lower rate of complications compared to the titanium group (RR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.52–0.97; P = 0.03) in fracture fixation.
This meta-analysis shows that absorbable fixation systems used for fixation in maxillofacial surgery do not have adequate safety profiles. Subgroup indicated the safety of absorbable fixation systems was superior during fracture fixation. The absorbable fixation systems tend to have a similar favorable safety profile as titanium fixation during Le Fort I, bimaxillary operation and BSSRO.
Although vitamin D deficiency is a common feature among patients presenting with active tuberculosis, the full scope of vitamin D action during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is poorly understood. As macrophages are the primary site of Mtb infection and are sites of vitamin D signaling, we have used these cells to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying modulation of the immune response by the hormonal form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D). We found that the virulent Mtb strain H37Rv elicits a broad host transcriptional response. Transcriptome profiling also revealed that the profile of target genes regulated by 1,25D is substantially altered by infection, and that 1,25D generally boosts infection-stimulated cytokine/chemokine responses. We further focused on the role of 1,25D- and infection-induced interleukin 1β (IL-1β) expression in response to infection. 1,25D enhanced IL-1β expression via a direct transcriptional mechanism. Secretion of IL-1β from infected cells required the NLRP3/caspase-1 inflammasome. The impact of IL-1β production was investigated in a novel model wherein infected macrophages were co-cultured with primary human small airway epithelial cells. Co-culture significantly prolonged survival of infected macrophages, and 1,25D/infection-induced IL-1β secretion from macrophages reduced mycobacterial burden by stimulating the anti-mycobacterial capacity of co-cultured lung epithelial cells. These effects were independent of 1,25D-stimulated autophagy in macrophages but dependent upon epithelial IL1R1 signaling and IL-1β-driven epithelial production of the antimicrobial peptide DEFB4/HBD2. These data provide evidence that the anti-microbial actions of vitamin D extend beyond the macrophage by modulating paracrine signaling, reinforcing its role in innate immune regulation in humans.
In 2010 there were ∼9 million cases of tuberculosis and 1.4 million deaths, representing the second largest cause of death worldwide and the leading cause of death from a curable disease. M. tuberculosis (Mtb) replicates within cells of the immune system called macrophages over an approximate 72 hour period, ultimately inducing cell death. Notably, macrophages are sites of vitamin D signaling, and there is broad evidence that vitamin D modulates macrophage responses to Mtb. Elevated levels of TB have long been associated with vitamin D deficiency, strongly suggesting that vitamin D supplementation may be of therapeutic benefit. In this study we profile the host macrophage response to Mtb infection through the use of high-throughput genomics techniques. From this we have discovered that the dominant function of vitamin D is the modulation of the levels of specific cytokines, mediators of immune cell to cell signaling. Of particular interest was the increase in IL-1β signaling, which we show to be directly regulated by vitamin D. We also show that this increase in IL-1β is critical for driving a signaling cascade between macrophages and lung epithelial cells leading to epithelial antimicrobial peptide production that helps to contain Mtb infection in our model culture system.
Primitive proteins are proposed to have utilized organic cofactors more frequently than transition metals in redox reactions. Thus, an experimental validation on whether a protein constituted solely by early amino acids and an organic cofactor can perform electron transfer activity is an urgent challenge. In this paper, by substituting “late amino acids (C, F, M, T, W, and Y)” with “early amino acids (A, L, and V)” in a flavodoxin, we constructed a flavodoxin mutant and evaluated its characteristic properties. The major results showed that: (1) The flavodoxin mutant has structural characteristics similar to wild-type protein; (2) Although the semiquinone and hydroquinone flavodoxin mutants possess lower stability than the corresponding form of wild-type flavodoxin, the redox potential of double electron reduction Em,7 (fld) reached −360 mV, indicating that the flavodoxin mutant constituted solely by early amino acids can exert effective electron transfer activity.
origin of life; primitive redox protein; cofactor; early amino acid
Gene discovery in the Malaysian giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) has been limited to small scale data collection, despite great interest in various research fields related to the commercial significance of this species. Next generation sequencing technologies that have been developed recently and enabled whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), have allowed generation of large scale functional genomics data sets in a shorter time than was previously possible. Using this technology, transcriptome sequencing of three tissue types: hepatopancreas, gill and muscle, has been undertaken to generate functional genomics data for M. rosenbergii at a massive scale. De novo assembly of 75-bp paired end Ilumina reads has generated 102,230 unigenes. Sequence homology search and in silico prediction have identified known and novel protein coding candidate genes (∼24%), non-coding RNA, and repetitive elements in the transcriptome. Potential markers consisting of simple sequence repeats associated with known protein coding genes have been successfully identified. Using KEGG pathway enrichment, differentially expressed genes in different tissues were systematically represented. The functions of gill and hepatopancreas in the context of neuroactive regulation, metabolism, reproduction, environmental stress and disease responses are described and support relevant experimental studies conducted previously in M. rosenbergii and other crustaceans. This large scale gene discovery represents the most extensive transcriptome data for freshwater prawn. Comparison with model organisms has paved the path to address the possible conserved biological entities shared between vertebrates and crustaceans. The functional genomics resources generated from this study provide the basis for constructing hypotheses for future molecular research in the freshwater shrimp.
DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) is one of two human de novo DNA methyltransferases essential for the regulation of gene expression. DNMT3A mutations and deletions have been previously observed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic sydromes and myeloproliferative neoplasms. However, the involvement of DNMT3A in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has rarely been reported. In the present study, PCR and direct sequencing was performed to analyze mutations of DNMT3A amino acid residue 882 in 99 acute leukemia patients, including 57 AML patients, 41 ALL patients and a single biphenotypic acute leukemia (BAL) patient. DNMT3A expression was detected in mono-nuclear cells of the bone marrow in these patients and in normal individuals using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and 17.5% (10/57) of AML patients were found to exhibit DNMT3A mutations. Four missense mutations were observed in the DNMT3A-mutated AML patients, including R882 mutations and a novel single nucleotide polymorphism resulting in the M880V amino acid substitution. However, the ALL and BAL patients were not found to exhibit DNMT3A mutations. The DNMT3A expression levels in the AML patients were significantly higher compared with those of the ALL patients or normal controls. The reduced expression levels of DNMT3A were associated with a significantly lower complete remission rate in the AML patients. However, in the ALL patients, no statistical significance was identified. The results of the present study indicate that DNMT3A may play varying roles in the regulation of DNA methylation in AML and ALL.
DNMT3A; R882 mutations; acute myeloid leukemia; acute lymphoblastic leukemia; gene expression
Existence of G-quadruplex DNA in vivo always attract widespread interest in the field of biology and biological chemistry. We reported our findings for the existence of G-quadruplex structures in promoter region of oncogenes confirmed by G-quadruplex DNA cross-linking strategy. Probes for selective G-quadruplex cross-linking was designed and synthesized that show high selectivity for G-quadruplex cross-linking. Further biological studies demonstrated its good inhibition activity against murine melanoma cells. To further investigate if G-quadruplex DNA was formed in vivo and as the target, a derivative was synthesized and pull-down process toward chromosome DNAs combined with circular dichroism and high throughput deep sequencing were performed. Several simulated intracellular conditions, including X. laevis oocytes, Ficoll 70 and PEG, was used to investigate the compound's pure cross-linking ability upon preformed G-quadruplex. Thus, as a potent G-quadruplex cross-linking agent, our strategy provided both valuable evidence of G-quadruplex structures in vivo and intense potential in anti-cancer therapy.
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are reported to support tumorigenesis by stimulating angiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation, and invasion in most solid tumors. However, the roles of CAFs in the liver cancer microenvironment have not been thoroughly studied. In our previous study, we successfully isolated CAFs from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (H-CAFs) and proved that H-CAFs suppressed the activation of NK cells and thereby created favorable conditions for HCC progression. In our present study, we found that the proliferation of MHCC97L and Hep3B cells was significantly promoted by treatment with conditioned medium from H-CAFs. Pathological analysis also revealed that H-CAFs increased the proportion of Ki-67 (+) malignant cells and prevented them from undergoing necrosis. Moreover, the concentration of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) cytokine in the conditioned medium of H-CAFs was higher than conditioned medium from normal skin fibroblasts (NSFs). Anti-HGF significantly reduced the proliferation-promoting capability of H-CAFs. In addition, we found that the abundance of H-CAFs correlated positively with tumor size. These results indicate that H-CAFs are an important factor for promoting the growth of HCC in vitro and in vivo, and that HGF plays a key role in HCC proliferation induced by H-CAFs.
Intramural duodenal hematoma (IDH) is a rare complication following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Blunt damage caused by the endoscope or an accessory has been suggested as the main reason for IDH. Surgical treatment of isolated duodenal hematoma after blunt trauma is traditionally reserved for rare cases of perforation or persistent symptoms despite conservative management. Typical clinical symptoms of IDH include abdominal pain and vomiting. Diagnosis of IDH can be confirmed by imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Duodenal hematoma is mainly treated by drainage, which includes open surgery drainage and percutaneous transhepatic cholangial drainage, both causing great trauma. Here we present a case of massive IDH following ERCP, which was successfully managed by minimally invasive management: intranasal hematoma aspiration combined with needle knife opening under a duodenoscope.
Duodenal hematoma; Duodenal obstruction; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Non-operative method
Zheng classification study based on infrared thermal imaging technology has not been reported before. To detect the relative temperature of viscera and bowels of different syndromes patients with pulmonary disease and to summarize the characteristics of different Zheng classifications, the infrared thermal imaging technology was used in the clinical trial. The results showed that the infrared thermal images characteristics of different Zheng classifications of pulmonary disease were distinctly different. The influence on viscera and bowels was deeper in phlegm-heat obstructing lung syndrome group than in cold-phlegm obstructing lung syndrome group. It is helpful to diagnose Zheng classification and to improve the diagnosis rate by analyzing the infrared thermal images of patients. The application of infrared thermal imaging technology provided objective measures for medical diagnosis and treatment in the field of Zheng studies and provided a new methodology for Zheng classification.
An analytical method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of irinotecan, its active metabolite SN38, and glucuronidated SN38 (SN38-G) in both porcine and human plasma. Calibration curves were linear within the concentration range of 0.5–100 ng/mL for SN38 and SN38-G, and 5–1000 ng/mL for irinotecan. Sample pretreatment involved solid-phase extraction of 0.1 mL aliquots of plasma. Irinotecan, SN38, SN38-G, and the internal standards, irinotecan-d10, tolbutamide, and camptothecin, respectively, were separated on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC™ BEH RP18 column (2.1×50 mm, 1.7 µm), using a mobile phase composed of methanol and 0.1% formic acid. Accuracy of quality control samples in human plasma ranged from 98.5–110.3%, 99.5–101.7% and 96.2–98.9% for irinotecan, SN38, and SN38-G, respectively. Precision of the three analytes in the same order ranged from 0.8–2.8%, 2.4–5.7%, and 2.4–2.8%. All three analytes proved stable in plasma through four freeze/thaw cycles, as well as through six hours in whole blood at room temperature. The method was likewise validated in porcine plasma with comparable accuracies and precisions also within the generally acceptable range. The validated method was applied to both preclinical and clinical trials involving hepatic chemoembolization of irinotecan drug-eluting beads to study the pharmacokinetics of the three analytes.
Irinotecan; SN38; camptothecin; mass spectrometry; ultra-high performance liquid chromatography
Six1 is one of the transcription factors that act as master regulators of development and are frequently dysregulated in cancers. However, the role of Six1 in pancreatic cancer is not clear. Here we show that the relative expression of Six1 mRNA is increased in pancreatic cancer and correlated with advanced tumor stage. In vitro functional assays demonstrate that forced overexpression of Six1 significantly enhances the growth rate and proliferation ability of pancreatic cancer cells. Knockdown of endogenous Six1 decreases the proliferation of these cells dramatically. Furthermore, Six1 promotes the growth of pancreatic cancer cells in a xenograft assay. We also show that the gene encoding cyclin D1 is a direct transcriptional target of Six1 in pancreatic cancer cells. Overexpression of Six1 upregulates cyclin D1 mRNA and protein, and significantly enhances the activity of the cyclin D1 promoter in PANC-1 cells. We demonstrate that Six1 promotes cell cycle progression and proliferation by upregulation of cyclin D1. These data suggest that Six1 is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer and may contribute to the increased cell proliferation through upregulation of cyclin D1.
Cyclophilin A (CypA) is a ubiquitously distributed protein present both in intracellular and extracellular spaces. In atherosclerosis, various cells, including endothelial cells, monocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells and platelets, secrete CypA in response to excessive levels of reactive oxygen species. Atherosclerosis, a complicated disease, is the result of the interplay of different risk factors. Researchers have found that CypA links many risk factors, including hyperlipidemia, hypertension and diabetes, to atherosclerosis that develop into a vicious cycle. Furthermore, most studies have shown that secreted CypA participates in the developmental process of atherosclerosis via many important intracellular mechanisms. CypA can cause injury to and apoptosis of endothelial cells, leading to dysfunction of the endothelium. CypA may also induce the activation and migration of leukocytes, producing proinflammatory cytokines that promote inflammation in blood vessels. In addition, CypA can promote the proliferation of monocytes/macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells, leading to the formation of foam cells and the remodelling of the vascular wall. Studies investigating the roles of CypA in atherosclerosis may provide new direction for preventive and interventional treatment strategies in atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis; Cyclophilin A; CD147
The gene encoding the GroEL chaperonin is duplicated in nearly 30% of bacterial genomes; and although duplicated groEL genes have been comprehensively determined to have distinct physiological functions in different species, the mechanisms involved have not been characterized to date. Myxococcus xanthus DK1622 has two copies of the groEL gene, each of which can be deleted without affecting cell viability; however, the deletion of either gene does result in distinct defects in the cellular heat-shock response, predation, and development. In this study, we show that, from the expression levels of different groELs, the distinct functions of groEL1 and groEL2 in predation and development are probably the result of the substrate selectivity of the paralogous GroEL chaperonins, whereas the lethal effect of heat shock due to the deletion of groEL1 is caused by a decrease in the total groEL expression level. Following a bioinformatics analysis of the composition characteristics of GroELs from different bacteria, we performed region-swapping assays in M. xanthus, demonstrating that the differences in the apical and the C-terminal equatorial regions determine the substrate specificity of the two GroELs. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicated that the GGM repeat sequence at the C-terminus of GroEL1 plays an important role in functional divergence. Divergent functions of duplicated GroELs, which have similar patterns of variation in different bacterial species, have thus evolved mainly via alteration of the apical and the C-terminal equatorial regions. We identified the specific substrates of strain DK1622's GroEL1 and GroEL2 using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry techniques. Although 68 proteins bound to both GroEL1 and GroEL2, 83 and 46 proteins bound exclusively to GroEL1 or GroEL2, respectively. The GroEL-specific substrates exhibited distinct molecular sizes and secondary structures, providing an encouraging indication for GroEL evolution for functional divergence.
GroEL is a type I chaperonin, involved in protein folding, assembly, and transport. It is a major group of heat-shock proteins that are over-expressed at high temperatures and has fundamental roles in growth and survival at non-permissive temperatures. Because of its importance in many cellular processes, the groEL gene is ubiquitously distributed in bacteria. Most bacterial species possess a single groEL gene, while others (close to 30% of sequenced bacterial genomes) have two or more groEL copies. Many studies have described the functional divergence of duplicated groEL genes in different bacterial species, but the involved mechanisms have not yet been characterized. Myxobacteria are characterized by their unique multicellular behaviors. Myxococcus xanthus DK1622, the model strain of myxobacteria, possesses a large genome (9.14 Mb), containing many gene duplications, including two copies of the groEL gene. Gene duplications and their functional divergence are suggested for complex cellular behaviors, which, however, have not yet been testified. In this paper, using combined proteomic and genetic approaches, we explored how the duplicated groEL genes of M. xanthus DK1622 evolved to fit the functional divergence for social behaviors.
Immunological mechanisms are increasingly recognized in the progression of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Early-stage MDS (E-MDS) is characterized by autoimmune-mediated myelosuppression whereas late-stage MDS (L-MDS) involves immune evasion, giving dysplastic cells growth potential to progress into acute myeloid leukemia. T-helper (Th) 22 is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory autoimmunity and tumorigenesis. The roles of Th22 cells in the pathophysiology of E-MDS and L-MDS remain unsettled.
Design and Methods
We studied 37 MDS patients (E-MDS, n = 17; L-MDS, n = 20) and 20 healthy controls to characterize their peripheral blood (PB), as well as 25 MDS patients and 10 healthy controls to characterize their bone marrow(BM). The expression of Interleukin-22 (IL-22), IL-17 or interferon gamma (IFN-γ) was examined in E-MDS, L-MDS patients and controls by flow cytometry. The mRNA expression levels of RAR-related orphan receptor C (RORC), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and IL-23 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The levels of IL-22 and IL-17 both in PB and BM plasma were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
In E-MDS, peripheral Th17 cells were significantly elevated and correlated with peripheral Th22 cells compared with healthy controls and L-MDS. Significantly higher levels of peripheral Th22 expansion, mRNA expression of IL-6, TNF-α and lower level of RORC mRNA expression were observed in L-MDS compared with E-MDS. No statistical difference was found in IL-23 mRNA expression or plasma IL-22, IL-17 levels among E-MDS, L-MDS and controls.
Our data demonstrated that L-MDS cohort had increased frequencies of peripheral Th22 cells and higher mRNA expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, indicating that Th22 cells along with Th17 cells or not are involved in the dynamic immune responses of MDS.
In monolayer culture, primary articular chondrocytes have an intrinsic tendency to lose their phenotype during expansion. The molecular events underlying this chondrocyte dedifferentiation are still largely unknown. Several transcription factors are important for chondrocyte differentiation. The Ets transcription factor family may be involved in skeletal development. One family member, the Erg gene, is mainly expressed during cartilage formation. To further investigate the potential role of Erg in the maintenance of the chondrocyte phenotype, we isolated and cultured chondrocytes from the rib cartilage of embryos of transgenic mice that express a dominant negative form of Erg (DN-Erg) during cartilage formation. DN-Erg expression in chondrocytes cultured for up to 20 days did not affect the early dedifferentiation usually observed in cultured chondrocytes. However, lipid droplets accumulated in DN-Erg chondrocytes, suggesting adipocyte emergence. Transcriptomic analysis using a DNA microarray, validated by quantitative RT-PCR, revealed strong differential gene expression, with a decrease in chondrogenesis-related markers and an increase in adipogenesis-related gene expression in cultured DN-Erg chondrocytes. These results indicate that Erg is involved in either maintaining the chondrogenic phenotype in vitro or in cell fate orientation. Along with the in vitro studies, we compared adipocyte presence in wild-type and transgenic mice skeletons. Histological investigations revealed an increase in the number of adipocytes in the bone marrow of adult DN-Erg mice even though no adipocytes were detected in embryonic cartilage or bone. These findings suggest that the Ets transcription factor family may contribute to the homeostatic balance in skeleton cell plasticity.
One strategy adopted by vaccinia virus (VV) to evade the host immune system is to encode homologs of TNF receptors (TNFR) that block TNFα function. The response to VV skin infection under conditions of TNFα deficiency, however, has not been reported. We found that TNFR1−/− mice developed larger primary lesions, numerous satellite lesions and higher skin virus levels after VV scarification. Following their recovery, these TNFR1−/− mice were fully protected against challenge with a lethal intranasal dose of VV, suggesting these mice developed an effective memory immune response. A functional systemic immune response of TNFR1−/− mice was further demonstrated by enhanced production of VV-specific IFNγ and VV-specific CD8+ T cells in spleens and draining lymph nodes. Interestingly, bone marrow (BM) reconstitution studies using WT BM in TNFR1−/− host mice, but not TNFR1−/− BM in WT host mice, reproduced the original results seen in TNFR1−/− mice, indicating that TNFR1 deficiency in resident skin cells, rather than hematopoietic cells, accounts for the impaired cutaneous immune response. Our data suggest that lack of TNFR1 leads to a skin-specific immune deficiency and that resident skin cells play a crucial role in mediating an optimal immune defense to VV cutaneous infection via TNFα/TNFR1 signaling.
The title compound, C16H16N2O2, was synthesized using a novel tandem annulation reaction between 1-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethanone and ethyl (E)-4-bromobut-2-enoate under mild conditions. The dihedral angles formed by the mean plane of the five-membered imidazole ring with the dihydropyridin and benzene rings are 1.54 (9) and 1.85 (9)°, respectively.
Gastric cancer stem-like cells (GCSCs) have been identified to possess the ability of self-renewal and tumor initiation. However, the mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. Here, we isolated and characterized the GCSCs by side population (SP) sorting procedure and cultured sphere cells (SC) from human gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901, BGC-823, MGC-803, HGC-27 and MKN-28. The sorting and culture assay revealed that SP cells proliferated in an asymmetric division manner. In addition, SP cells exhibited a higher potential of spheroid colony formation and greater drug resistance than non-SP cells (NSP). Moreover, the SC were found with enhanced capabilities of drug resistance in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Sox2 mRNA and protein was highly and significantly overexpressed in the SP cells and SC. Importantly, downregulation of Sox2 with siRNA obviously reduced spheroid colony formation and doxorubicin efflux, as well as increased apoptosis rate in sphere cells in vitro and suppressed tumorigenicity in vivo. These results suggest that both SP cells and cultured SC enrich with GCSCs and that Sox2 plays a pivotal role in sustaining stem cell properties and might be a potential target for gastric cancer therapy.
side population; gastric cancer stem-like cells; CD44; Sox2; chemoresistance
Induction of terminal differentiation of neoplastic cells offers potential for a novel approach to cancer therapy. One of the agents being investigated for this purpose in preclinical studies is 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D), which can convert myeloid leukemia cells into normal monocyte-like cells, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are not fully understood. Here, we report that 1,25D upregulates the expression of hKSR-2, a new member of a small family of proteins that exhibit evolutionarily conserved function of potentiating ras signaling. The upregulation of hKSR-2 is direct, as it occurs in the presence of cycloheximide, and occurs primarily at the transcriptional level, via activation of vitamin D receptor, which acts as a ligand-activated transcription factor. Two VDRE-type motifs identified in the hKSR-2 gene bind VDR-RXR alpha heterodimers present in nuclear extracts of 1,25D-treated HL60 cells, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that these VDRE motifs bind VDR in 1,25D-dependent manner in intact cells, coincident with the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to these motifs. Treatment of the cells with siRNA to hKSR-2 reduced the proportion of the most highly differentiated cells in 1,25D-treated cultures. These results demonstrate that hKSR-2 is a direct target of 1,25D in HL60 cells, and is required for optimal monocytic differentiation.
KSR; Vitamin D; vitamin D receptor; si RNA; ras-signaling; differentiation
The recent history of activity input onto granule cells (GCs) in the main olfactory bulb can affect the strength of lateral inhibition, which functions to generate contrast enhancement. However, at the plasticity level, it is unknown whether and how the prior modification of lateral inhibition modulates the subsequent induction of long-lasting changes of the excitatory olfactory nerve (ON) inputs to mitral cells (MCs). Here we found that the repetitive stimulation of two distinct excitatory inputs to the GCs induced a persistent modification of lateral inhibition in MCs in opposing directions. This bidirectional modification of inhibitory inputs differentially regulated the subsequent synaptic plasticity of the excitatory ON inputs to the MCs, which was induced by the repetitive pairing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) with postsynaptic bursts. The regulation of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) was achieved by the regulation of the inter-spike-interval (ISI) of the postsynaptic bursts. This novel form of inhibition-dependent regulation of plasticity may contribute to the encoding or processing of olfactory information in the olfactory bulb.