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1.  A Comparison between Revised NCEP ATP III and IDF Definitions in Diagnosing Metabolic Syndrome in an Urban Sri Lankan Population: The Ragama Health Study 
ISRN Endocrinology  2013;2013:320176.
Background. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) within individual cohorts varies with the definition used. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of MetS between IDF and revised NCEP ATP III criteria in an urban Sri Lankan population and to investigate the characteristics of discrepant cases. Methods. 2985 individuals, aged 35–65 years, were recruited to the study. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements and laboratory investigations were carried out following standard protocols. Results. Age and sex-adjusted prevalences of MetS were 46.1% and 38.9% by revised NCEP and IDF definitions, respectively. IDF criteria failed to identify 21% of men and 7% of women identified by the revised NCEP criteria. The discrepant group had more adverse metabolic profiles despite having a lower waist circumference than those diagnosed by both criteria. Conclusion. MetS is common in this urban Sri Lankan cohort regardless of the definition used. The revised NCEP definition was more appropriate in identifying the metabolically abnormal but nonobese individuals, especially among the males predisposed to type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Further research is needed to determine the suitability of the currently accepted Asian-specific cut-offs for waist circumference in Sri Lankan adults.
PMCID: PMC3600172  PMID: 23533799
2.  Association of genetic variation in FTO with risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes with data from 96,551 East and South Asians 
Diabetologia  2011;55(4):981-995.
FTO harbours the strongest known obesity-susceptibility locus in Europeans. While there is growing evidence for a role for FTO in obesity risk in Asians, its association with type 2 diabetes, independently of BMI, remains inconsistent. To test whether there is an association of the FTO locus with obesity and type 2 diabetes, we conducted a meta-analysis of 32 populations including 96,551 East and South Asians.
All studies published on the association between FTO-rs9939609 (or proxy [r2 > 0.98]) and BMI, obesity or type 2 diabetes in East or South Asians were invited. Each study group analysed their data according to a standardised analysis plan. Association with type 2 diabetes was also adjusted for BMI. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to pool all effect sizes.
The FTO-rs9939609 minor allele increased risk of obesity by 1.25-fold/allele (p = 9.0 × 10−19), overweight by 1.13-fold/allele (p = 1.0 × 10−11) and type 2 diabetes by 1.15-fold/allele (p = 5.5 × 10−8). The association with type 2 diabetes was attenuated after adjustment for BMI (OR 1.10-fold/allele, p = 6.6 × 10−5). The FTO-rs9939609 minor allele increased BMI by 0.26 kg/m2 per allele (p = 2.8 × 10−17), WHR by 0.003/allele (p = 1.2 × 10−6), and body fat percentage by 0.31%/allele (p = 0.0005). Associations were similar using dominant models. While the minor allele is less common in East Asians (12–20%) than South Asians (30–33%), the effect of FTO variation on obesity-related traits and type 2 diabetes was similar in the two populations.
FTO is associated with increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes, with effect sizes similar in East and South Asians and similar to those observed in Europeans. Furthermore, FTO is also associated with type 2 diabetes independently of BMI.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-011-2370-7) contains peer-reviewed but unedited supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
PMCID: PMC3296006  PMID: 22109280
Asians; FTO; Meta-analysis; Obesity; Type 2 diabetes
3.  Ictal magnetoencephalographic study in a patient with ring 20 syndrome 
Methods: MEG and simultaneous EEG were recorded with a 204 channel whole head MEG system. Ten habitual seizures occurred during the acquisition, which was done twice. The equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) for ictal discharges on MEG were calculated using a single dipole model. The ECDs were superimposed on a magnetic resonance image.
Results: During the seizures, EEG showed prolonged bursts of 5–6 Hz high voltage slow waves with spike components, dominantly in the bilateral frontal region. MEG showed epileptiform discharges corresponding to the ictal EEG. Ictal discharges on MEG were dominant in the frontal area in the initial portion, and then spread in the bilateral temporal area in the middle of the seizure. ECDs obtained from the spikes of the initial portion were clustered in the medial frontal lobe.
Conclusions: The source of the ictal MEG was localised in the medial frontal lobe. The findings suggest that the mechanism underlying epilepsy in this case might be similar to medial frontal lobe epilepsy. Ictal MEG is a valuable tool for detecting the site of seizure onset.
PMCID: PMC1738970  PMID: 14966172
4.  Structural Comparison of Ten Serotypes of Staphylocoagulases in Staphylococcus aureus 
Journal of Bacteriology  2005;187(11):3698-3707.
Staphylocoagulase detection is the hallmark of a Staphylococcus aureus infection. Ten different serotypes of staphylocoagulases have been reported to date. We determined the nucleotide sequences of seven staphylocoagulase genes (coa) and their surrounding regions to compare structures of all 10 staphylocoagulase serotypes, and we inferred their derivations. We found that all staphylocoagulases are comprised of six regions: signal sequence, D1 region, D2 region, central region, repeat region, and C-terminal sequence. Amino acids at both ends, 33 amino acids in the N terminal (the signal sequences and the seven N-terminal amino acids in the D1 region) and 5 amino acids in the C terminal, were exactly identical among the 10 serotypes. The central regions were conserved with identities between 80.6 and 94.1% and similarities between 82.8 and 94.6%. Repeat regions comprising tandem repeats of 27 amino acids with a 92% identity on average were polymorphic in the number of repeats. On the other hand, D1 regions other than the seven N-terminal amino acids and D2 regions were less homologous, with diverged identities from 41.5 to 84.5% and 47.0 to 88.9%, respectively, and similarities from 53.5 to 88.7% and 56.8 to 91.9%, respectively, although the predicted prothrombin-binding sites were conserved among them. In contrast, flanking regions of coa were highly homologous, with nucleotide identities of more than 97.1%. Phylogenetic relations among coa did not correlate with those among the flanking regions or housekeeping genes used for multilocus sequence typing. These data indicate that coa could be transmitted to S. aureus, while the less homologous regions in coa presumed to be responsible for different antigenicities might have evolved independently.
PMCID: PMC1112059  PMID: 15901693
5.  Reversible brain dysfunction in MELAS: MEG, and 1H MRS analysis 
This case report describes a follow up investigation of a patient with impaired word discrimination due to mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like syndrome (MELAS) using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) and auditory evoked magnetic fields (AEFs). The initial 1H MRS showed no N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and marked accumulation of lactate (Lac) in the stroke-like lesion of MELAS, which was silent in neural activity according to AEFs. The follow up investigations, however, demonstrated that NAA reappeared, that the formerly increased Lac signal was significantly reduced, and that the magnitude of AEFs of the lesion was markedly increased. Metabolic and functional changes in 1H MRS and AEFs reflected the neurological recovery very well. The stroke-like lesion was shown, using AEFs and 1H MRS, to be able to function properly, although brain tissue of the lesion initially had severe damage due to mitochondrial dysfunction.

PMCID: PMC1737354  PMID: 11309465
6.  Association of the TNFa13 microsatellite with systemic sclerosis in Japanese patients 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2000;59(4):293-296.
OBJECTIVES—To elucidate the contribution of microsatellite polymorphisms of TNFa and TNFb alleles to the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc) by comparing the allele distribution among populations with different HLA susceptibility genes in SSc.
METHODS—TNFa and TNFb microsatellite polymorphisms were determined by PCR in 54 Japanese and 50 German SSc patients and in normal controls. HLA-DR genotyping was carried out by PCR-SSCP.
RESULTS—The frequency of TNFa13 was significantly increased in Japanese SSc (p=0.011, OR=8.53, 95% confidence intervals (95%CI)=2.46, 32.51, and p<1.0 × 10E-5, OR=10.35, 95%CI=4.88, 22.09) and SSc with antitopoisomerase I antibody (a-Scl-70) (p=0.021, OR=33.25, 95%CI=3.39, 800.76, and p<1.0 × 10E-5, OR=24.42, 95%CI=8.40, 72.83), compared with the German patient group and German controls, respectively. This increase was not only attributable to a higher prevalence of TNFa13 in Japanese compared with Germans (p=0.005, OR=3.55, 95%CI=1.60, 7.85) but was also caused by an increase in SSc, especially in the a-Scl-70 positive patients (p=0.028, OR=6.88, 95%CI=1.16, 22.60) compared with Japanese controls. TNFa13 was positively in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-DRB1*1502 (LD=0.053, t=2.69). Association analysis indicated that both TNFa13 and DRB1*1502 might have comparable probabilities of being susceptibility factors for SSc with a-Scl-70 in Japanese. Prevalences of TNFa6 and 13 were significantly increased and prevalences of TNFa2, and 7 were significantly decreased in Japanese controls as compared with German controls.
CONCLUSION—TNFa13 is a genetic marker for SSc with a-Scl-70 in Japanese patients. Various differences in the prevalences of TNFa alleles between Japanese and German controls were established.

PMCID: PMC1753116  PMID: 10733477
7.  Polymorphisms of the TAP1 and TAP2 transporter genes in Japanese SLE. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1996;55(12):924-926.
OBJECTIVE: To determine how polymorphism of transporter associated with antigen processing 1 and 2 (TAP1 and 2) alleles contributed to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Japanese patients. METHODS: TAP1 and TAP2 typing was carried out in 52 Japanese patients with SLE and 95 normal subjects by the PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) method. HLA-DR typing and HLA-DRB1*15 genotyping were carried out by the PCR method and PCR-SSCP (single stranded DNA conformation polymorphism) method, respectively. RESULTS: No particular TAP 1 allele was associated with Japanese SLE or with immunological subgroup of SLE. TAP2H showed a tendency towards increased frequency in SLE (5.8% v 0% in control), but the corrected P value was not significant. No other particular association of TAP2 allele was observed. Furthermore, these was no evidence for linkage disequilibrium between any TAP1/TAP2 alleles and HLA-DRB1*1501--which is reported to be weakly but significantly association with Japanese SLE--in either the normal control or the SLE patient group. CONCLUSIONS: Neither the TAP1 nor the TAP2 gene appears to determine disease susceptibility to SLE in Japanese, and these results are in keeping with those reported in Caucasian SLE patients.
PMCID: PMC1010346  PMID: 9014588
8.  Association of complement alleles C4AQ0 and C4B5 with rheumatoid arthritis in Koreans. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1996;55(10):776-778.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of complement C4 allotypes with rheumatoid arthritis in Koreans. METHODS: 65 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 255 controls were typed for C4 allotypes and HLA-A, B, C, DR, and DQ antigens. RESULTS: The frequencies of C4AQ0 (32.3% v 14.9%, P < 0.005) and C4B5 (29.2% v 12.2%, P < 0.005) were significantly increased in rheumatoid arthritis patients compared with healthy control subjects. Among rheumatoid patients, the frequency of C4AQ0 was significantly increased in both the rheumatoid factor (RF) positive (27.3%) and the RF negative (66.7%) subgroups. The frequencies of C4B5 and HLA-DR4 were significantly increased only in RF positive subgroup. C4B5 was strongly associated with HLA-DR4, whereas C4AQ0 did not show association with DR4. CONCLUSIONS: In Koreans, C4AQ0 and C4B5 are associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis, as in the Japanese. C4B5 is strongly associated with HLA-DR4. C4AQ0 is considered to be a DR4 independent risk factor, and a disease susceptibility allele in linkage disequilibrium with C4AQ0 is suggested in Korean patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
PMCID: PMC1010299  PMID: 8984946
9.  The burden of diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose in an urban population of Sri Lanka 
Diabetic Medicine  2013;30(3):326-332.
To describe the burden of diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose in middle-aged residents (35–64 years) in an urban area of Sri Lanka.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Ragama Medical Officer of Health area, from which 2986 participants (1349 men and 1637 women) were randomly selected from the electoral registry between January and December 2007. The participants underwent a physical examination and had their height, weight, waist and hip circumferences and blood pressure measured by trained personnel. Fasting blood samples were taken for measurement of glucose, HbA1c and lipids. The prevalence of diabetes (fasting plasma glucose > 7 mmol/l) and impaired fasting glycaemia (fasting plasma glucose 5.6–6.9 mmol/l) and major predictors of diabetes in Sri Lanka were estimated from the population-based data.
Age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes mellitus in this urban population was 20.3% in men and 19.8% in women. Through the present screening, 263 patients with diabetes and 1262 with impaired fasting glucose levels were identified. The prevalence of newly detected diabetes was 35.7% of all patients with diabetes. Among patients with diabetes, only 23.8% were optimally controlled. In the regression models, high BMI, high waist circumference, high blood pressure and hypercholesterolaemia increased the fasting plasma glucose concentration, independent of age, sex and a family history of diabetes.
Our data demonstrate the heavy burden of diabetes in this urban population. Short- and long-term control strategies are required, not only for optimal therapy among those affected, but also for nationwide primary prevention of diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3593011  PMID: 22998091

Results 1-9 (9)