To evaluate whether the location of moist desquamation matches high dose area for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after breast conservative surgery.
One hundred and nine breast cancer patients were enrolled to this study. Their highest skin dose area (the hot spot) was estimated from the treatment planning. We divided the irradiated field into breast; sternal/parasternal; axillary; and inframammary fold areas. The location for moist desquamation was recorded to see if it matches the hot spot. We also analyzed other possible risk factors which may be related to the moist desquamation.
Forty-eight patients with 65 locations developed moist desquamation during the RT course. Patients with larger breast sizes and easy to sweat are two independent risk factors for moist desquamation. The distribution of moist desquamation occurred most in the axillary area. All nine patients with the hot spots located at the axillary area developed moist desquamation at the axillary area, and six out of seven patients with the hot spots located at the inframammary fold developed moist desquamation there. The majority of patients with moist desquamation over the breast or sternal/parasternal areas had the hot spots located at these areas.
For a patient with moist desquamation, if a hot spot is located at the axillary or inframammary fold areas, it is very likely to have moist desquamation occur there. On the other hand, if moist desquamation occurs over the breast or sternal/parasternal areas, we can highly expect these two areas are also the hot spot locations.
Breast cancer; Radiotherapy; Radiation dermatitis; High dose area
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a group of progressive,clonal, neoplastic bone marrow disorders characterized by hematopoietic stem cell dysregulation and abnormalities in the immune system. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) appear to modulate the immune system at the very first step of the immune response through the inhibition of dendritic cells (DCs) differentiation and maturation. However, it is still unclear whether the effects of MSC on the development of DCs will be altered with disease state. In addition, it is not clear whether there are differences in the effects between low-risk and high-risk MDS-MSC on DCs development. In this study, our data confirm that MDS-MSC mediate a potent inhibition of DCs differentiation. Additionaly, MDS-MSC greatly alter DCs functions, including endocytosis, IL-12 secretion, their ability to inhibit T cell proliferation. Moreover, our results show that there are major differences in DCs development and function between low-risk and high-risk MDS-MSC. Compared to high-risk MDS-MSC, low-risk MDS-MSC is characterized by a poor ability to inhibit DCs differentiation and maturation; and correspondingly, less dysfunctional DC endocytosis, mildly decreased IL-12 secretion, and a reduction in DC-mediated inhibition of T cell proliferation. Finally, our results demonstrate that MDS-MSC derived TGF-β1 is largely responsible for the inhitory effects. These results elucidate the different immunoregulatory role of MSC in low-risk and high-risk MDS on DCs development, which may be important for understanding the pathogenesis of MDS and the development of novel immune therapies for the treatment of MDS.
ETOC: NMI is a novel ARF-interacting protein identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen. NMI inhibits ULF-induced ubiquitin degradation of ARF protein. It mediates transcription-independent ARF regulation and is required for the stabilization and up-regulation of ARF in response to cellular stresses.
The ARF tumor suppressor is a product of the INK4a/ARF locus, which is frequently mutated in human cancer. The expression of ARF is up-regulated in response to certain types of DNA damage, oncogene activation, and interferon stimuli. Through interaction with the p53 negative regulator MDM2, ARF controls a well-described p53/MDM2-dependent checkpoint. However, the mechanism of ARF induction is poorly understood. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identify a novel ARF-interacting protein, N-Myc and STATs interactor (NMI). Previously, NMI was known to be a c-Myc–interacting protein. Here we demonstrate that through competitive binding to the ARF ubiquitin E3 ligase (ubiquitin ligase for ARF [ULF]), NMI protects ARF from ULF-mediated ubiquitin degradation. In response to cellular stresses, NMI is induced, and a fraction of NMI is translocated to the nucleus to stabilize ARF. Thus our work reveals a novel NMI-mediated, transcription-independent ARF induction pathway in response to cellular stresses.
Animal horns (AHs) have been applied to traditional medicine for more than thousands of years, of which clinical effects have been confirmed by the history. But now parts of AHs have been listed in the items of wildlife conservation, which limits the use for traditional medicine. The contradiction between the development of traditional medicine and the protection of wild resources has already become the common concern of zoophilists, traditional medical professionals, economists, sociologists. We believe that to strengthen the identification for threatened animals, to prevent the circulation of them, and to seek fertile animals of corresponding bioactivities as substitutes are effective strategies to solve this problem.
A powerful technique of DNA barcoding based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) was used to identify threatened animals of Bovidae and Cervidae, as well as their illegal adulterants (including 10 species and 47 specimens). Meanwhile, the microcalorimetric technique was used to characterize the differences of bio-responses when those animal specimens acted on model organism (Escherichia coli). We found that the COI gene could be used as a universal primer to identify threatened animals and illegal adulterants mentioned above. By analyzing 223 mitochondrial COI sequences, a 100% identification success rate was achieved. We further found that the horns of Mongolian Gazelle and Red Deer could be exploited as a substitute for some functions of endangered Saiga Antelope and Sika Deer in traditional medicine, respectively.
Although it needs a more comprehensive evaluation of bioequivalence in order to completely solve the problem of substitutes for threatened animals, we believe that the identification (DNA barcoding) of threatened animals combined with seeking substitutions (bio-response) can yet be regarded as a valid strategy for establishing a balance between the protection of threatened animals and the development of traditional medicine.
AIM: To investigate the role of interleukin (IL)-17 in small bowel allograft rejection.
METHODS: We detected the expression of helper T cell 17 (Th17) cells in biopsy specimens from 3 cases of living small bowel transplantation in our department through immunofluorescence stain. We then established a rat heterotopic small bowel transplantation model. The rats were sacrificed on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, and 7th d after small bowel transplantation. The degrees of transplantation rejection in rat intestine graft were examined through hematoxylin eosin (HE) stain, and the expression of Th17 cells in rat intestine graft were detected through immunofluorescence stain. In addition, the recipient rats undergoing intestinal transplantation were administrated with mouse-anti-rat IL-17 monoclonal antibody (mAb), and the survival of rats was analyzed. The recipient rats which received mouse-anti-rat IL-17 mAb treatment were sacrificed on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, and 7th d after small bowel transplantation. The degrees of transplantation rejection and the expression of Th17 cells in rat intestine graft were detected through HE and immunofluorescence stain. The expression of IL-17, IL-1β, tumor necroses factor receptor-α (TNF-α), IL-6, and IL-8 in the intestine graft or serum were also detected.
RESULTS: The expressions of Th17 cells ran parallel with the degree of acute rejection in human intestine grafts. The intestine graft rejection of rats was aggravated with prolonged duration after intestinal transplantation, and the expressions of Th17 cells were also correlated with the degree of acute rejection in rat intestine grafts. Administration of mouse-anti-rat IL-17 mAb prolonged the survival of rats after small bowel transplantation (P < 0.001). Furthermore, we found that the administration of mouse-anti-rat IL-17 mAb significantly decreased the intensity of CD4+IL-17+ Th17 cells in intestine grafts on the 2nd, 3rd, 5th, and the 7th d (97.22 ± 4.05 vs 12.45 ± 2.02 on the 7th d, P < 0.0001), and suppressed the severity of acute rejection. The expression of IL-17 in the intestine graft declined after mouse-anti-rat IL-17 mAb administration on the 2nd, 3rd, 5th, and the 7th d (0.88 ± 0.03 vs 0.35 ± 0.02 on the 7th d, P < 0.0001). We also detected the IL-17 serum level and found that the IL-17 level reduced from the 1st d to the 7th d (6.52 ± 0.18 ng/mL vs 2.04 ± 0.15 ng/mL on the 7th d, P < 0.0001). No significant difference in the level of IL-17 mRNA in the intestine graft was identified between the two groups. The levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 mRNA in the intestine graft after the administration of mouse-anti-rat IL-17 mAb were also tested. We found that on the 3rd, 5th, and 7th d after intestinal transplantation, administration of mouse-anti-rat IL-17 mAb significantly inhibited the levels of IL-1β (12.11 ± 1.16 vs 1.27 ± 0.15 on the 7th d, P < 0.001), TNF-α (27.37 ± 2.60 vs 1.06 ± 0.26 on the 7th d, P < 0.001), IL-6 (21.43 ± 1.79 vs 1.90 ± 0.32 on the 7th d, P < 0.001), and IL-8 (20.44 ± 1.44 vs 1.34 ± 0.20 on the 7th d, P < 0.001) mRNA in the intestine graft.
CONCLUSION: IL-17 may act as a promising and potent target for inhibiting acute rejection after small bowel transplantation.
Interleukin-17; Helper T cell 17; Small bowel transplantation; Acute rejection; Monoclonal antibody
Edwardsiella tarda, a Gram-negative bacterium, is a severe fish pathogen that can also infect humans. In this study, we identified, via in vivo-induced antigen technology, an E. tarda antigen, Eta1, and analyzed its function in a Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) model. Eta1 is composed of 226 residues and shares homology with putative bacterial adhesins. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR analysis indicated that when cultured in vitro, eta1 expression was growth phase dependent and reached maximum at mid-logarithmic phase. During infection of flounder lymphocytes, eta1 expression was drastically increased at the early stage of infection. Compared to the wild type, the eta1-defective mutant, TXeta1, was unaffected in growth but exhibited attenuated overall virulence, reduced tissue dissemination and colonization capacity, and impaired ability to invade flounder lymphocytes and to block the immune response of host cells. The lost virulence of TXeta1 was restored when a functional eta1 gene was reintroduced into the strain. Western blot and immunodetection analyses showed that Eta1 is localized to the outer membrane and exposed on the surface of E. tarda and that recombinant Eta1 (rEta1) was able to interact with flounder lymphocytes. Consistent with these observations, antibody blocking of Eta1 inhibited E. tarda infection at the cellular level. Furthermore, when used as a subunit vaccine, rEta1 induced strong protective immunity in flounder against lethal E. tarda challenge. Taken together, these results indicate that Eta1 is an in vivo-induced antigen that mediates pathogen-host interaction and, as a result, is required for optimal bacterial infection.
Syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacteria have been identified as key organisms for efficient biogas production from protein-rich materials. They normally grow as lithotrophs or heterotrophs, producing acetate through the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway, but when growing in syntrophy with methanogens, they reportedly reverse this pathway and oxidize acetate to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. However, the biochemical and regulatory mechanisms behind the shift and the way in which the bacteria regain energy remain unknown. In a genome-walking approach, starting with degenerated primers, we identified those gene clusters in Syntrophaceticus schinkii, Clostridium ultunense, and Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans that comprise the formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase gene (fhs), encoding a key enzyme of the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway. We also discovered that the latter two harbor two fhs alleles. The fhs genes are phylogenetically separated and in the case of S. schinkii functionally linked to sulfate reducers. The T. acetatoxydans
fhs1 cluster combines features of acetogens, sulfate reducers, and carbon monoxide oxidizers and is organized as a putative operon. The T. acetatoxydans
fhs2 cluster encodes Wood–Ljungdahl pathway enzymes, which are also known to be involved in C1 carbon metabolism. Isolation of the enzymes illustrated that both formyltetrahydrofolate synthetases of T. acetatoxydans were functionally active. However, only fhs1 was expressed, confirming bidirectional usage of the pathway.
Acetogens; 10-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase; hydrogen production; methanogenesis; syntrophic acetate oxidation; Wood–Ljungdahl pathway
SMC1A (structural maintenance of chromosomes 1A), which encodes a structural subunit of the cohesin protein complex, is necessary for the process of sister chromatid cohesion during the cell cycle. Mutation and deregulation of SMC1A are highly relevant to diverse human diseases, including Cornelia de Lange syndrome and malignant carcinomas. In order to further investigate the role of SMC1A in the oncogenesis of lung cancer, SMC1A-specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-expressing lentivirus (Lv-shSMC1A) was constructed and used to infect A549 and H1299 cells. SMC1A mRNA and protein expression levels were downregulated in A549 and H1299 cells as demonstrated by real-time PCR and western blot assays. We found that SMC1A inhibition resulted in significantly impaired proliferation and colony formation as well as reduced invasiveness of tumor cells. Notably, Lv-shSMC1A-infected cancer cells exhibited a greater proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase, but a lower proportion of S phase cells, compared to the parent or Lv-shCon infected cancer cells. Moreover, a greater proportion of sub-G1 apoptotic cells was observed in Lv-shSMC1A-infected cells. These results suggest that SMC1A is a novel proliferation regulator that promotes the growth of lung cancer cells, and that down-regulation of SMC1A expression induces growth suppression of A549 and H1299 cells via G1/S cell cycle phase arrest and apoptosis pathways. Therefore, SMC1A may serve as a new molecular target for lung cancer therapy.
SMC1A; proliferation; shRNA; lung cancer
Thioredoxin (Trx) is a small redox protein existing ubiquitously in all living organisms and plays an important role in multiple cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation and immune response. To date very few studies have been carried out to examine the function of piscine Trx. In this study, we identified and analyzed the function of a Trx homologue, CsTrx1, from half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). The deduced amino acid sequence of CsTrx1 is composed of 107 residues and shares 54.1−60.8% overall identities with the Trx of other teleosts. CsTrx1 contains the highly conserved CXXC motif, which in mammals is known to be the active site, in the form of CQPC. Expression of CsTrx1 as determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR was highest in liver and upregulated in time-dependent manners by bacterial infection and by exposure to iron, copper, and hydrogen peroxide. Purified recombinant CsTrx1 (rCsTrx1) exhibited insulin disulfide reductase activity and antioxidant activity, both which, however, were lost when the two cysteine residues in the CQPC motif were mutated to serine. Further analysis showed that rCsTrx1 was able to stimulate the proliferation of head kidney leukocytes, upregulate the expression of immune relevant genes, and enhance the resistance of leukocytes against bacterial infection. Taken together, these results indicate that CsTrx1 is a biologically active reductase and an antioxidant that requires the CXXC motif for activity and that CsTrx1 possesses cytokine-like immunoregulatory property. These results suggest a role for CsTrx1 in protecting cells against oxidative stress caused by oxidant exposure and pathogen infection.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12192-012-0322-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Thioredoxin; Cynoglossus semilaevis; Redox; Antioxidant; Oxidative stress; Immunoregulatory
Histone modification enzymes regulate gene expression by altering the accessibility of promoters to transcription factors. We sought to determine whether the genes encoding histone modification enzymes are dysregulated in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A real-time PCR array was designed, tested and used to profile the expression of 85 genes encoding histone modification enzymes in bone marrow mononuclear cells from 30 pediatric ALL patients and 20 normal controls. The expression profile of histone-modifying genes was significantly different between normal karyotype B cell pediatric ALL and normal controls. Eleven genes were upregulated in pediatric ALL, including the histone deacetylases HDAC2 and PAK1, and seven genes were downregulated, including PRMT2 and the putative tumor suppressor EP300. Future studies will seek to determine whether these genes serve as biomarkers of pediatric ALL. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that Gene Expression and Organ Morphology was the highest rated network, with 13 focus molecules (significance score = 35). Ingenuity Pathway Analysis also indicated that curcumin and miR-34 are upstream regulators of histone-modifying enzymes; future studies will seek to validate these results and examine the role of curcumin and miR-34 in leukemia. This study provides new clues into the molecular mechanisms of pediatric ALL.
histone-modifying enzymes; pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia; real-time PCR array
Controversy still exists regarding whether alendronate (ALN) use increases the risk of esophageal cancer or breast cancer.
This paper explores the possible association between the use of oral ALN in osteoporosis patients and subsequent cancer risk using the National Health Insurance (NHI) system database of Taiwan with a Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis. The exposure cohort contained 5,624 osteoporosis patients used ALN and randomly frequency-matched by age and gender of 3 osteoporosis patients without any kind of anti-osteoporosis drugs in the same period.
For a dose ≥1.0 g/year, the risk of developing overall cancer was significantly higher (hazard ratio: 1.69, 95% confidence ratio: 1.39–2.04) than in osteoporosis patients without any anti-osteoporosis drugs. The risks for developing liver, lung, and prostate cancers and lymphoma were also significantly higher than in the control group.
This population-based retrospective cohort study did not find a relationship between ALN use and either esophageal or breast cancer, but unexpectedly discovered that use of ALN with dose ≥1.0 g/year significantly increased risks of overall cancer incidence, as well as liver, lung, and prostate cancers and lymphoma. Further large population-based unbiased studies to enforce our findings are required before any confirmatory conclusion can be made.
Survivin, a member of the family of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, functions as a key regulator of mitosis and programmed cell death. YM155, a novel molecular targeted agent, suppresses survivin, which is overexpressed in many tumor types. The aim of this study was to determine the antitumor activity of YM155 in SK-NEP-1 cells.
SK-NEP-1 cell growth in vitro and in vivo was assessed by MTT and nude mice experiments. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometric analysis was used to detect apoptosis in cell culture. Then gene expression profile of tumor cells treated with YM155 was analyzed with real-time PCR arrays. We then analyzed the expression data with MEV (Multi Experiment View) cluster software. Datasets representing genes with altered expression profile derived from cluster analyses were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool.
YM155 treatment resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1cells in a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V assay, cell cycle, and activation of caspase-3 demonstrates that YM155 induced apoptosis in SK-NEP-1 cells. YM155 significantly inhibited growth of SK-NEP-1 xenografts (YM155 5 mg/kg: 1.45 ± 0.77 cm3; YM155 10 mg/kg: 0.95 ± 0.55 cm3) compared to DMSO group (DMSO: 3.70 ± 2.4 cm3) or PBS group cells (PBS: 3.78 ± 2.20 cm3, ANOVA P < 0.01). YM155 treatment decreased weight of tumors (YM155 5 mg/kg: 1.05 ± 0.24 g; YM155 10 mg/kg: 0.72 ± 0.17 g) compared to DMSO group (DMSO: 2.06 ± 0.38 g) or PBS group cells (PBS: 2.36 ± 0.43 g, ANOVA P < 0.01). Real-time PCR array analysis showed between Test group and control group there are 32 genes significantly up-regulated and 54 genes were significantly down-regulated after YM155 treatment. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) showed cell death was the highest rated network with 65 focus molecules and the significance score of 44. The IPA analysis also groups the differentially expressed genes into biological mechanisms that are related to cell death, cellular function maintenance, cell morphology, carbohydrate metabolism and cellular growth and proliferation. Death receptor signaling (3.87E-19), TNFR1 signaling, induction of apoptosis by HIV1, apoptosis signaling and molecular mechanisms of cancer came out to be the top four most significant pathways. IPA analysis also showed top molecules up-regulated were BBC3, BIRC3, BIRC8, BNIP1, CASP7, CASP9, CD5, CDKN1A, CEBPG and COL4A3, top molecules down-regulated were ZNF443, UTP11L, TP73, TNFSF10, TNFRSF1B, TNFRSF25, TIAF1, STK17A, SST and SPP1, upstream regulator were NR3C1, TP53, dexamethasone , TNF and Akt.
The present study demonstrates that YM155 treatment resulted in apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1cells. YM155 had significant role and little side effect in the treatment of SK-NEP-1 xenograft tumors. Real-time PCR array analysis firstly showed expression profile of genes dyes-regulated after YM155 treatment. IPA analysis also represents new molecule mechanism of YM155 treatment, such as NR3C1 and dexamethasone may be new target of YM155. And our results may provide new clues of molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by YM155.
YM155; SK-NEP-1; Survivin; Apoptosis; Real-time PCR array
Kupffer cells (KCs) were a significant source of cytokine release during the early stage of severe burns. High mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) was recently identified as a new type of proinflammatory cytokine. The ability of HMGB1 to generate inflammatory responses after burn trauma has not been well characterized. KCs were isolated from sham animals and rats with a 30% full-thickness burn, and then were stimulated with increasing concentrations of HMGB1. The levels of Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β in culture supernatant were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Northern blot analysis was performed to detect the expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β mRNAs. The activities of p38 MAPK and JNK (by Western blot analysis) as well as NF-κB (by EMSA) in KCs were also examined. As a result, HMGB1 in vitro upregulated expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β of KCs in a dose-dependent manner, and HMGB1 promoted KCs from burn rats to produce significantly more TNF-α and IL-1β proteins than those from sham animals. After harvested from burn rats, KCs were pre-incubated with anti-TLR2 or anti-TLR4 antibody prior to HMGB1 administration. HMGB1 exposure not only significantly increased expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β mRNAs in KCs from burn rats, but also enhanced activities of p38 MAPK, JNK and NF-κB. However, these upregulation events were all reduced by pre-incubation with anti-TLR2 or anti-TLR4 antibody. These results indicate that HMGB1 induces proinflammatory cytokines production of KCs after sever burn injury, and this process might be largely dependent on TLRs-dependent MAPKs/NF-κB signal pathway.
To evaluate the relationship between the use of zolpidem and subsequent cancer risk in Taiwanese patients.
We used data from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan to investigate whether use of zolpidem was related to cancer risk. For the study cohort, we identified 14,950 patients who had received a first prescription for zolpidem from January 1, 1998, through December 31, 2000. For each zolpidem user, we selected randomly 4 comparison patients without a history of using zolpidem who were frequency-matched by sex, age, and year of the index date. Incidence rates of all cancers and selected site-specific cancers were measured by the end of 2009, and related hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the cancer were measured as well.
The risk of developing any cancer was greater in patients using zolpidem than in nonusers (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.55-1.82). The stratified analysis showed that the overall HR for high-dosage zolpidem (≥300 mg/y) was 2.38. The site-specific cancer risk was the highest for oral cancer (HR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.57-3.56), followed by kidney cancer, esophageal cancer, breast cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, and bladder cancer (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.06-2.41). Men were at higher risk than women.
This population-based study revealed some unexpected findings, suggesting that the use of zolpidem may be associated with an increased risk of subsequent cancer. Further large-scale and in-depth investigations in this area are warranted.
CI, confidence interval; CIN, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; CIS, carcinoma in situ; HR, hazard ratio; ICD-9-CM, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification; NHI, National Health Insurance; NHIRD, National Health Insurance Research Database; NHRI, National Health Research Institute
Extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles constitute the major neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It is now apparent that parenchymal Aβ plaque deposition precedes behavioral signs of disease by several years. The development of agents that can target these plaques may be useful as diagnostic or therapeutic tools. In this study, we synthesized an Aβ-targeted lipid conjugate, incorporated it in stealth liposomal nanoparticles and tested their ability to bind amyloid plaque deposits in an AD mouse model. The results show that the particles maintain binding profiles to synthetic Aβ aggregates comparable to the free ligand, and selectively bind Aβ plaque deposits in brain tissue sections of an AD mouse model (APP/PSEN1 transgenic mice) with high efficiency. When administered intravenously, these long circulating nanoparticles appear to cross the blood-brain barrier and bind to Aβ plaque deposits, labeling parenchymal amyloid deposits and vascular amyloid characteristic of cerebral amyloid angiopathy.
Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) is a critical enzyme in the phase II detoxification pathway. One of the common functional polymorphisms of GSTP1 is A→G at nucleotide 313, which results in an amino acid substitution (Ile105Val) at the substrate binding site and reduced catalytic activity. We evaluated the interaction between GSTP1 Val allele and Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking and alcohol consumption, increasing the risk of gastric cancer among the Chinese population. Information on potential gastric cancer risk factors and blood specimens were collected from 618 incident gastric cancer cases and 1,830 non-cancer controls between March 2002 and December 2011 in Liaoning Province, China. GSTP1 Ile105Val was genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Serum levels of anti-H. pylori IgG were measured by ELISA. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression, adjusted by sex and age. The risk of gastric cancer was significantly elevated in patients with the GSTP1 Val/Val genotype (adjusted OR = 3.324; 95% CI = 1.790–6.172). An elevated risk of gastric cancer was observed in patients with H. pylori infection, smoking, or alcohol consumption, and together with the GSTP1 Ile/Val +Val/Val genotype (OR = 3.696; 95% CI = 2.475–5.521; OR = 1.638; 95% CI = 1.044–2.571; OR = 1.641; 95% CI = 0.983–2.739, respectively) (p<0.05). The GSTP1 Val allele shows an interaction with smoking, alcohol consumption, and especially H. pylori infection for increasing the risk of gastric cancer. These findings could demonstrate new pathophysiological pathways for the development of gastric cancer.
ISG15 is an ubiquitin-like protein that is induced rapidly by interferon stimulation. Like ubiquitin, ISG15 forms covalent conjugates with its target proteins in a process called ISGylation, which in mammals is known to play a role in antiviral immunity. In contrast to mammalian ISG15, the function of teleost ISG15 is unclear. In this study, we identified and analyzed the function of an ISG15 homologue, CsISG15, from tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). CsISG15 is composed of 162 residues and possesses two tandem ubiquitin-like domains and the highly conserved LRGG motif found in all known ISG15. Expression of CsISG15 occurred in a wide range of tissues and was upregulated in kidney and spleen by viral and bacterial infection. In vitro study with primary head kidney (HK) lymphocytes showed that megalocytivirus infection caused induction of CsISG15 expression and extracellular release of CsISG15 protein. Purified recombinant CsISG15 (rCsISG15) activated HK macrophages and enhanced the expression of immune genes in HK lymphocytes, both these effects, however, were significantly reduced when the conserved LRGG sequence was mutated to LAAG. Further study showed that the presence of rCsISG15 during megalocytivirus infection of HK lymphocytes reduced intracellular viral load, whereas antibody blocking of CsISG15 enhanced viral infection. Likewise, interference with CsISG15 expression by RNAi promoted viral infection. Taken together, these results indicate that CsISG15, a teleost ISG15, promotes antiviral immune response and that, unlike mammalian ISG15, CsISG15 exerts its immunoregulatory effect in the form of an unconjugated extracellular cytokine. In addition, these results also suggest a role for the LRGG motif other than that in protein conjugation.
The osteoporosis associated with human hyperthyroidism has traditionally been attributed to elevated thyroid hormone levels. There is evidence, however, that thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is low in most hyperthyroid states, directly affects the skeleton. Importantly, Tshr-knockout mice are osteopenic. In order to determine whether low TSH levels contribute to bone loss in hyperthyroidism, we compared the skeletal phenotypes of wild-type and Tshr-knockout mice that were rendered hyperthyroid. We found that hyperthyroid mice lacking TSHR had greater bone loss and resorption than hyperthyroid wild-type mice, thereby demonstrating that the absence of TSH signaling contributes to bone loss. Further, we identified a TSH-like factor that may confer osteoprotection. These studies suggest that therapeutic suppression of TSH to very low levels may contribute to bone loss in people.
Recently, the coexistence of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) with other neoplasms has been studied with increasing frequency. Coexistence of pancreatic cancer with GISTs remains a rarity; however, here, we report a very rare case of adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) of the uncinate process of the pancreas with synchronous GISTs of the stomach in a 62-year-old female. The patient presented with epigastric discomfort and vomiting. Radiographic imaging revealed two masses; one located at the body of the stomach and the other located at the uncinate process of the pancreas. Intraoperatively, a fine needle aspiration biopsy was conducted in the uncinate process of the pancreas, which revealed the malignancy of the masses. A pancreaticoduodenectomy and partial gastrectomy were then conducted, and subsequent pathological examinations identified an ASC of the pancreas and a GIST of the stomach. In our case, contrary to the majority of previous cases of synchronous GISTs and other malignancies, GIST was not an incidental finding. The initial suspicion on the GIST as the underlying cause of clinical symptoms led to the discovery of the ASC of the uncinate process of the pancreas.
adenosquamous carcinoma; gastrointestinal stromal tumor; synchronous cancer; uncinate process of the pancreas
Rationale and Objective
Drug cues can induce craving for drugs of abuse. Dysfunctional regulation of emotion and motivation regarding rewarding objects appears to be an integral part of addiction. It has been found that cognitive strategies decreased the intensity of craving in addicts. Reappraisal strategy is a type of cognitive strategy that requires participants to reinterpret the meaning of an emotional situation. In addition, studies have found that activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is associated with the selection and application of cognitive reappraisal. In present study, we sought to determine whether such cognitive regulation engages the dACC and improves inhibition of craving in smokers.
Sixteen smokers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of a cigarette reward-conditioning procedure with cognitive reappraisal. We focused our analyses on the dACC as a key structure of cognitive control of craving. Cue induced craving under different conditions was obtained. Correlational analysis between the functional response in the dACC and the subjective craving was performed.
We found that using a cognitive reappraisal was successful in decreasing the conditioned craving. Right dACC (BA 24/32) engaged in the cognitive reappraisal. In addition, the individual’s subjective craving was negatively correlated with the right dACC activation.
These findings suggest that the dACC are important substrates of Inhibition of cue induced craving in smokers. Cognitive regulation by cognitive reappraisal may help addicted individuals avoid the anticipated situations where they are exposed to conditioned cues.
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are often used as vehicles to deliver drugs or biomolecules, due to their mild effect on cell survival and proliferation. However, little is known about their effect on cellular metabolism. Here we examine the in vivo effect of AuNPs on metabolism using Drosophila as a model. Drosophila and vertebrates possess similar basic metabolic functions, and a highly conserved PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway plays a central role in the regulation of energy metabolism in both organisms. We show that dietary AuNPs enter the fat body, a key metabolic tissue in Drosophila larvae. Significantly, larvae fed with AuNP show increased lipid levels without triggering stress responses. In addition, activities of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and fatty acids synthesis are increased in these larvae. This study thus reveals a novel function of AuNPs in influencing animal metabolism and suggests its potential therapeutic applications for metabolic disorders.
The intra- and postoperative complications resulting from surgery for giant thyroid gland tumors (diameter greater than 10 cm) present serious challenges to patient recovery. Although there are a number of methods, all have limitations. In this study, we present our experience with several complications of surgical treatment of giant thyroid gland tumors to increase the awareness and aid the prevention of these complications. A total of 137 consecutive patients who underwent surgical treatment in Henan Tumor Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Statistics pertaining to the patients’ clinical factors were gathered. We found that the most common surgical complications were recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury and symptomatic hypoparathyroidism. Other complications included incision site infections, bleeding, infection and chyle fistula, the incidence of which increased significantly with increasing extent of surgery from group I (near-total thyroidectomy) to group V (total thyroidectomy plus lateral neck dissection). Low complication rates may be achieved with more accurate knowledge of the surgical anatomy, skilled surgical treatment and experience. More extensive surgery results in a greater number of complications.
complications; giant thyroid gland; recurrent laryngeal nerve; hypoparathyroidism
In China, rubella vaccination was introduced into the national immunization program in 2008, and a rubella epidemic occurred in the same year. In order to know whether changes in the genotypic distribution of rubella viruses have occurred in the postvaccination era, we investigate in detail the epidemiological profile of rubella in China and estimate the evolutionary rate, molecular clock phylogeny, and demographic history of the predominant rubella virus genotypes circulating in China using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo phylodynamic analyses. 1E was found to be the predominant rubella virus genotype since its initial isolation in China in 2001, and no genotypic shift has occurred since then. The results suggest that the global 1E genotype may have diverged in 1995 and that it has evolved at a mutation rate of 1.65 × 10−3 per site per year. The Chinese 1E rubella virus isolates were grouped into either cluster 1 or cluster 2, which likely originated in 1997 and 2006, respectively. Cluster 1 viruses were found in all provinces examined in this study and had a mutation rate of 1.90 × 10−3 per site per year. The effective number of infections remained constant until 2007, and along with the introduction of rubella vaccine into the national immunization program, although the circulation of cluster 1 viruses has not been interrupted, some viral lineages have disappeared, and the epidemic started a decline that led to a decrease in the effective population size. Cluster 2 viruses were found only in Hainan Province, likely because of importation.
Epithelial cell (EC)-derived Interleukin-7 (IL-7) plays a crucial role in control of neighboring intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) development and homeostasis, and IEL derived keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) promotes intestinal epithelial growth, which was regulated by EC-derived IL-7. On this basis, we hypothesize that there is a crosstalk between IELs and ECs, and KGF could regulate the EC-derived IL-7 expression, which should be associated with the protective effects by KGF on intestinal injury.
Histological evaluation was performed in small intestine tissues of patients with intestinal obstruction and IL-7 expression was detected by immunofluorescence. Intestinal epithelial cells (LoVo) and adult C57BL/6J mice undergoing ischemia/reperfusion injury were treated with recombinant KGF. KGF, KGF receptor(KGFR) and IL-7 expressions were measured with western blot and immunofluorescence analysis.
IL-7 expression increased in the mild ischemia while decreased in severe ischemia small intestinal tissues of patients with intestinal obstruction. KGF expression significantly decreased while IL-7 expression increased early after acute intestinal I/R administration in a mouse model. KGF treatment significantly increased the IL-7 expression both in vitro and in vivo, while when the KGFR was blocked, the findings above were absent. In addition, our results showed changes of IL-7 expression at different stages after acute intestinal I/R administration, KGF treatment significantly attenuated the decreasing of IL-7 expression caused by acute intestinal I/R.
KGF could up-regulate the IL-7 expression both in vitro and in vivo through KGFR pathway, which should have associated with the protective effects of KGF in intestinal injury.
Keratinocyte growth factor; interleukin-7; ischemia/reperfusion; mouse; epithelial cells
Mucoceles resulting from cystadenomas of the ovary are uncommon. Although rare, rupture of the mucoceles can occur without causing any abdominal issue. This report concerns an unusual and interesting case of the right ovary associated with liver, spleen and kidney cysts.
A case of ruptured mucocele resulting from cystadenoma of the ovary occurred in a 63-year-old woman. The patient underwent x-ray, ultrasound and a CT scan. Localised pseudomyxoma peritonei associated with adenocarcinoma of the right ovary was diagnosed. The patient underwent resection of the ovary, uterus, uterine tube and appendix with excision of the mesenteric lymph nodes and removal of about 5000 ml of yellowish mucoid jelly. She was free of symptoms at 1-year follow-up.
Pseudomyxoma peritonei may occur in patients with ovarian cystadenocarcinoma. In such patients, the ovary should be investigated and transvaginal ultrasound can be carefully performed in cases of ruptured mucoceles and localised pseudomyxoma peritonei. Surgical intervention is the current choice of management.