The safety and pharmacokinetics assessment of antibodies targeting CD22 (e.g., epratuzumab) have been established in western Caucasian populations, but there are no reports of the effects in Chinese populations. This dose-escalation study examines the safety, pharmacokinetics and biologic effects of multiple doses of anti-CD22 human-murine chimeric monoclonal antibody SM03 in 21 Chinese patients with CD22-positive non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Most of drug-related adverse events (AEs) were mild and reversible. Two patients experienced serious AEs (hemorrhage); one patient had grade 4 neutropenia; one patient had asymptomatic grade III prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). Major AEs included fever (71%), prolongation of APTT (42.8%), leukocytopenia (44.4%), alanine transaminase elevation (28.6%), elevated serum creatinine (23.8%) and injection site skin redness (14.3%). Circulating B cells transiently decreased without significant effects on T cells or immunoglobulin levels. Pharmacokinetic data revealed that mean maximum observed SM03 concentration and mean AUC from time zero to infinity increased in a dose-dependent manner up to 360 mg/m2 SM03. Mean clearance was similar at doses ≤360 mg/m2 and decreased significantly at dose 480 mg/m2, supporting saturation of B-cell binding at 360 mg/m2. Across all dose levels and histologies, one patient achieved partial response at 480 mg/m2 dose; 14 patients had stable disease as best response and four patients progressed. Overall, SM03 was tolerated at doses ranging from 60–480 mg/m2 and had potential efficacy in Chinese patients with follicular lymphoma.
anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody; tolerance; pharmacokinetics
Liver is the main organ for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) clearance. Sensitization to LPS is associated with the upregulation of LPS-binding protein (LBP) in animal models. Therefore, we hypothesized that LBP could induce LPS sensitization through enhancing hepatic uptake of LPS. In this study, we examined the role of LBP in pathogenesis of LPS induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). LBP expression was upregulated after granulocyte colony stimulating (G-CSF) pretreatment. The effect of LBP was further confirmed by blockade of LBP using LBP blocking peptide – LBPK95A. After G-CSF pretreatment, upregulation of LBP was observed in bone marrow cells and liver. The G-CSF induced LBP upregulation caused LPS hypersensitization in rats as indicated by higher mortality and severer liver damage. Of note, LBP blockade increased the survival rate and attenuated the liver injury. The LBP induced LPS hypersensitization was associated with increased hepatic uptake of LPS and augmented hepatic expression of LPS receptors, such as toll-like receptor (TLR)-4. Furthermore, LBP mediated early neutrophil infiltration, which led to increased monocyte recruitment in liver after LPS administration. In conclusion, G-CSF induced LBP expression could serve as a new model for investigation of LPS sensitization. We demonstrated the crucial role of LBP upregulation in pathogenesis of LPS induced SIRS.
Extracellular ATP (eATP) has been implicated in mediating plant growth and antioxidant defense; however, it is largely unknown whether eATP might mediate salinity tolerance. We used confocal microscopy, a non-invasive vibrating ion-selective microelectrode, and quantitative real time PCR analysis to evaluate the physiological significance of eATP in the salt resistance of cell cultures derived from a salt-tolerant woody species, Populus euphratica. Application of NaCl (200 mM) shock induced a transient elevation in [eATP]. We investigated the effects of eATP by blocking P2 receptors with suramin and PPADS and applying an ATP trap system of hexokinase-glucose. We found that eATP regulated a wide range of cellular processes required for salt adaptation, including vacuolar Na+ compartmentation, Na+/H+ exchange across the plasma membrane (PM), K+ homeostasis, reactive oxygen species regulation, and salt-responsive expression of genes related to K+/Na+ homeostasis and PM repair. Furthermore, we found that the eATP signaling was mediated by H2O2 and cytosolic Ca2+ released in response to high salt in P. euphratica cells. We concluded that salt-induced eATP was sensed by purinoceptors in the PM, and this led to the induction of downstream signals, like H2O2 and cytosolic Ca2+, which are required for the up-regulation of genes linked to K+/Na+ homeostasis and PM repair. Consequently, the viability of P. euphratica cells was maintained during a prolonged period of salt stress.
To assess the compliance of Chinese urologists with China's benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) clinical practice guideline and to explore the diagnosis and therapy modalities for geriatric patients with BPH.
A cross-sectional survey study was carried out in 33 medical centers in 11 different cities in China. A total of 190 urologists participated in a survey to record their preferences for diagnostic tests and treatment options for BPH outpatients. Diagnostic test results as well as health care demands were collected by surveying 2,027 outpatients aged 60 years and older.
The survey response rate was 97.4%. The respondents generally used the diagnostic tests recommended in China's BPH clinical practice guideline at varying rates. The used rates for medical history, ultrasonography, and urinalysis were above 90.0%; that for uroflowmetry was 31.2%. In addition, the rate of use of recommended tests was higher among doctors in the north than among those in the south. Combination therapy with α-adrenoceptor antagonists and 5α-reductase inhibitors was the preferred treatment option for BPH, and was increasingly used with worsening lower urinary tract symptoms. Finasteride was the most prescribed medication (48.0%), followed by tamsulosin (22.7%).
This study assessed the preferences of urologists in the diagnosis and treatment of BPH, which will serve as an important reference for updating and improving China's current BPH clinical practice guideline.
Prostatic hyperplasia; Diagnosis; Practice guideline; Therapy
High-density genetic linkage maps were constructed for the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). A total of 1624 microsatellite markers were polymorphic in the reference family. Linkage analysis using JoinMap 4.0 resulted in the mapping of 1487 markers to 24 linkage groups, a result which was consistent with the 24 chromosomes seen in chromosome spreads. The female map was composed of 1257 markers, covering a total of 1663.8 cM with an average interval 1.35 cM between markers. The male map consisted of 1224 markers, spanning 1726.5 cM, with an average interval of 1.44 cM. The genome length in the Japanese flounder was estimated to be 1730.3 cM for the females and 1798.0 cM for the males, a coverage of 96.2% for the female and 96.0% for the male map. The mean recombination at common intervals throughout the genome revealed a slight difference between sexes, i.e. 1.07 times higher in the male than female. High-density genetic linkage maps are very useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs for economically valuable traits in this species and for further evolutionary studies in flatfish and vertebrate species. Furthermore, four quantiative trait loci (QTL) associated with growth traits were mapped on the genetic map. One QTL was identified for body weight on LG 14 f, which explained 14.85% of the total variation of the body weight. Three QTL were identified for body width on LG14f and LG14m, accounting for 16.75%, 13.62% and 13.65% of the total variation in body width, respectively. The additive effects were evident as negative values. There were four QTL for growth traits clustered on LG14, which should prove to be very useful for improving growth traits using molecular MAS.
Extracellular ATP (eATP) is now recognized as an important signaling agent in plant growth and defense response to environmental stimuli. eATP has dual functions in plant cell signaling, which is largely dependent on its concentration in the extracellular matrix (ECM). A lethal level of eATP (extremely low or high) causes cell death, whereas a moderate level of eATP benefits plant growth and development. Ecto-apyrases (Nucleoside Triphosphate-Diphosphohydrolase) help control the eATP concentrations in the ECM, and thus contributing to the mediation of plant growth and defense response upon environmental stress. In this review, we summarize eATP signaling in plants and highlight the correlation between eATP homeostasis control and programmed cell death.
eATP; ATP signaling; eATP homeostasis; apyrase; PCD
ERBB3 binding protein 1 (EBP1) gene transfer into human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cells has been shown to significantly inhibit cell proliferation and reduce tumor metastasis in mouse models. In the current study, to evaluate if EBP1 is a novel biomarker capable of identifying patients at higher risk of disease progression and recurrence, we examined the EBP1 expression profile in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) patients and analyzed its clinicopathological relevance. To understand the underlying anti-metastatic mechanism, we investigated if EBP1 regulates invasion-related molecules.
We performed immunohistochemical analysis on 132 primary adenoid cystic carcinoma and adjacent non-cancerous tissues using commercial EBP1, MMP9, E-cadherin and ICAM-1 antibodies. Results were correlated to clinicopathological parameters, long-term survival and invasion-related molecules by statistical analysis. Cell motility and invasiveness of vector or wild-type EBP1-transfected ACC-M cell lines were evaluated using wound healing and Boyden chamber assays. MMP9, E-cadherin and ICAM-1 proteins in these cell lines were detected using western blot assay.
The expression of EBP1 was significantly higher in non-cancerous adjacent tissues compared with corresponding cancer tissues. The intensity and percentage of cells that reacted with EBP1 antibodies were significantly higher in cases with tubular pattern than those with solid pattern (P<0.0001). We also found adenoid cystic carcinoma with local lymphatic metastasis had significantly lower EBP1 expression than ACC with no local lymphatic node metastasis (P<0.0001). Similar findings were observed in ACC with lung metastasis compared with cases with no lung metastasis (P<0.0001), in particular, in cases with perineural invasion compared with cases with no perineural invasion (P<0.0001). Furthermore, a decrease in EBP1 expression was positively associated with a reduction in overall survival of ACC patients. Of note, EBP1 inhibits migration and invasiveness of ACC cells by upregulating E-cadherin but downregulating MMP9. In clinical adenoid cystic carcinoma patients, higher EBP1 expression was positively correlated with E-cadherin levels (P<0.001) but negatively correlated with MMP9 expression (P=0.0002).
EBP1 expression is reduced in adenoid cystic carcinoma, indicating unfavorable prognosis of ACC patients. Its regulation of MMP9 and E-cadherin protein levels suggests a critical therapeutic potential.
A novel 68 kDa laccase was purified from the mycorrhizal fungus Agaricus placomyces by utilizing a procedure that comprised three successive steps of ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration as the final step. The monomeric enzyme exhibited the N-terminal amino acid sequence of DVIGPQAQVTLANQD, which showed only a low extent of homology to sequences of other fungal laccases. The optimal temperature for A. placomyces laccase was 30°C, and optimal pH values for laccase activity towards the substrates 2,7′-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazolone-6-sulfonic acid] diammonium salt (ABTS) and hydroquinone were 5.2 and 6.8, respectively. The laccase displayed, at 30°C and pH 5.2, Km values of 0.392 mM towards hydroquinone and 0.775 mM towards ABTS. It potently suppressed proliferation of MCF 7 human breast cancer cells and Hep G2 hepatoma cells and inhibited human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) activity with an IC50 of 1.8 μM, 1.7 μM, and 1.25 μM, respectively, signifying that it is an antipathogenic protein.
The hallmark of mechanosensory hair cells is the stereocilia, where mechanical stimuli are converted into electrical signals. These delicate stereocilia are susceptible to acoustic trauma and ototoxic drugs. While hair cells in lower vertebrates and the mammalian vestibular system can spontaneously regenerate lost stereocilia, mammalian cochlear hair cells no longer retain this capability. We explored the possibility of regenerating stereocilia in the noise-deafened guinea pig cochlea by cochlear inoculation of a viral vector carrying Atoh1, a gene critical for hair cell differentiation. Exposure to simulated gunfire resulted in a 60–70 dB hearing loss and extensive damage and loss of stereocilia bundles of both inner and outer hair cells along the entire cochlear length. However, most injured hair cells remained in the organ of Corti for up to 10 days after the trauma. A viral vector carrying an EGFP-labeled Atoh1 gene was inoculated into the cochlea through the round window on the seventh day after noise exposure. Auditory brainstem response measured one month after inoculation showed that hearing thresholds were substantially improved. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the damaged/lost stereocilia bundles were repaired or regenerated after Atoh1 treatment, suggesting that Atoh1 was able to induce repair/regeneration of the damaged or lost stereocilia. Therefore, our studies revealed a new role of Atoh1 as a gene critical for promoting repair/regeneration of stereocilia and maintaining injured hair cells in the adult mammal cochlea. Atoh1-based gene therapy, therefore, has the potential to treat noise-induced hearing loss if the treatment is carried out before hair cells die.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of cranial nerve (CN) palsy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients.
A retrospective analysis was performed on CN involvement using medical records of 178 consecutive patients with histologically diagnosed, non-disseminated NPC.
In 178 NPC patients with CN palsy, the 5-year survival rates were as follows: overall survival (OS), 61.0%; disease-specific survival (DSS), 69.6%; local relapse-free survival (LRFS), 75.2%; distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), 73.4%; and disease-free survival (DFS), 55.3%. Significant differences were observed in the 5-year OS rates between patients with single and multiple CN palsy (69.8% vs. 54.3%; P = 0.033) and the OS rates between patients with different pretreatment durations (68.7% vs. 43.3%, P = 0.007). However, no significant differences were observed in OS, DSS, LRFS and DFS rates between patients with upper and lower CN palsy (P = 0.581, P = 0.792, P = 0.729 and P = 0.212, respectively). The results showed that recovery duration was an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR = 2.485; P < 0.001), DSS (HR = 2.065; P = 0.016), LRFS (HR = 3.051; P = 0.001) and DFS (HR = 2.440; P < 0.001).
Recovery duration is an independent prognostic factor for NPC patients with CN palsy and is related to recurrence, which leads to poor survival. Recovery duration requires close surveillance and different treatment regimens.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma; Cranial nerve involvement; Pretreatment duration; Recovery duration; Prognosis
Recent research has shown a correlation between immune microenvironment and lymphoma biology. This study aims to investigate the prognostic significance of the immunologically relevant lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in the rituximab era.
We analyzed retrospective data from 438 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients treated with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) therapy. We randomly selected 200 patients (training set) to generate a cutoff value for LMR by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. LMR was then analyzed in a testing set (n = 238) and in all patients (n = 438) for validation. The LMR cutoff value for survival analysis determined by ROC curve in the training set was 2.6. Patients with low LMR tended to have more adverse clinical characteristics. Low LMR at diagnosis was associated with worse survival in DLBCL, and could also identify high-risk patients in the low-risk IPI category. Multivariate analysis identified LMR as an independent prognostic factor of survival in the testing set and in all patients.
Baseline LMR, a surrogate biomarker of the immune microenvironment, is an effective prognostic factor in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP therapy. Future prospective studies are required to confirm our findings.
Glioma is the most aggressive tumor of the brain and the most efficient treatments are based on radiotherapy. However, tumors are often resistant to radiotherapy due to an enhanced DNA repair activity. Short and stabilized DNA molecules (Dbait) have recently been proposed as an efficient strategy to inhibit DNA repair in tumor.
The distribution of three formulations of Dbait, (i) Dbait alone, (ii) Dbait associated with polyethylenimine, and (iii) Dbait linked with cholesterol (coDbait), was evaluated one day after intratumoral delivery in an RG2 rat glioma model. Dbait molecule distribution was assessed in the whole organ with 2D-FRI and in brain sections. CoDbait was chosen for further studies given its good retention in the brain, cellular localization, and efficacy in inducing the activation of DNA repair effectors. The radiosensitizing effect of coDbait was studied in four groups of rats bearing RG2-glioma: no treatment, radiotherapy only, coDbait alone, and CoDbait with radiotherapy. Treatment started 7 days after tumor inoculation and consisted of two series of treatment in two weeks: coDbait injection followed by a selective 6-Gy irradiation of the head. We evaluated the radiosensitizing effect using animal survival, tumor volume, cell proliferation, and vasculature characteristics with multiparametric MRI. CoDbait with radiotherapy improved the survival of rats bearing RG2-glioma by reducing tumor growth and cell proliferation without altering tumor vasculature.
coDbait is therefore a promising molecular therapy to sensitize glioma to radiotherapy.
Increased DNA repair activity in cancer cells is one of their primary mechanisms of resistance to current radio- and chemotherapies. The molecule coDbait is the first candidate in a new class of drugs that target the double-strand DNA break repair pathways with the aim of overcoming these resistances. coDbait is a 32-base pair (bp) double-stranded DNA molecule with a cholesterol moiety covalently attached to its 5′-end to facilitate its cellular uptake. We report here the preclinical pharmacokinetic and toxicology studies of subcutaneous coDbait administration in rodents and monkeys. Maximum plasma concentration occurred between 2 to 4 hours in rats and at 4 hours in monkeys. Increase in mean AUC0–24h was linear with dose reaching 0.5 mg·h/ml for the highest dose injected (32 mg) for both rats and monkeys. No sex-related differences in maximum concentration (Cmax) nor AUC0–24h were observed. We extrapolated these pharmacokinetic results to humans as the subcutaneous route has been selected for evaluation in clinical trials. Tri-weekly administration of coDbait (from 8 to 32 mg per dose) for 4 weeks was overall well tolerated in rats and monkeys as no morbidity/mortality nor changes in clinical chemistry and histopathology parameters considered to be adverse effects have been observed.
nucleic acid; cholesterol-conjugate; preclinical study
Two hepatitis B virus (HBV) C/D recombinants were isolated from western China. No direct evidence indicates that these new viruses arose as a result of recombination between genotype C and D or a result of convergence. In this study, we search for evidence of intra-individual recombination in the family cluster cases with co-circulation of genotype C, D and C/D recombinants. We studied 68 individuals from 15 families with HBV infections in 2006, identified individuals with mixed HBV genotype co-infections by restriction fragment length polymorphism and proceeded with cloning and DNA sequencing. Recombination signals were detected by RDP3 software and confirmed by split phylogenetic trees. Families with mixed HBV genotype co-infections were resampled in 2007. Three of 15 families had individuals with different HBV genotype co-infections in 2006. One individual (Y2) had a triple infection of HBV genotype C, D and C/D recombinant in 2006, but only genotype D in 2007. Further clonal analysis of this patient indicated that the C/D recombinant was not identical to previously isolated CD1 or CD2, but many novel recombinants with C2, D1 and CD1 were simultaneously found. All parental strains could recombine with each other to form new recombinant in this patient. This indicates that the detectable mixed infection and recombination have a limited time window. Also, as the recombinant nature of HBV precludes the possibility of a simple phylogenetic taxonomy, a new standard may be required for classifying HBV sequences.
Adenylyl cyclase (AC)-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) cascade is considered to be associated with the pathogenesis and treatment of depression. The present study was conducted to explore the role of the cAMP cascade in antidepressant action of electroacupuncture (EA) treatment for chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced depression model rats. The results showed that EA improved significantly behavior symptoms in depression and dysfunction of AC-cAMP-PKA signal transduction pathway induced by CMS, which was as effective as fluoxetine. Moreover, the antidepressant effects of EA rather than Fluoxetine were completely abolished by H89, a specific PKA inhibitor. Consequently, EA has a significant antidepressant treatment in CMS-induced depression model rats, and AC-cAMP-PKA signal transduction pathway is crucial for it.
Epithelial–mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) are critical for tooth development. Molecular mechanisms mediating these interactions in root formation is not well understood. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) and subsequent microarray analyses enable large scale in situ molecular and cellular studies of root formation but to date have been hindered by technical challenges of gaining intact histological sections of non-decalcified mineralized teeth or jaws with well-preserved RNA. Here,we describe a new method to overcome this obstacle that permits LCM of dental epithelia,adjacent mesenchyme,odontoblasts and cementoblasts from mouse incisors and molars during root development. Using this method,we obtained RNA samples of high quality and successfully performed microarray analyses. Robust differences in gene expression,as well as genes not previously associated with root formation,were identified. Comparison of gene expression data from microarray with real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) supported our findings. These genes include known markers of dental epithelia,mesenchyme,cementoblasts and odontoblasts,as well as novel genes such as those in the fibulin family. In conclusion,our new approach in tissue preparation enables LCM collection of intact cells with well-preserved RNA allowing subsequent gene expression analyses using microarray and RT-PCR to define key regulators of tooth root development.
gene; laser capture microdissection; microarray; PCR; root
In title compound, C27H36O, all cyclohexane rings within the adamantyl groups adopt chair conformations. There are no obvious intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the structure, so that van der Waals attractions stabilize the crystal.
The Siberian salamander (Ranodon sibiricus), distributed in geographically isolated areas of Central Asia, is an ideal alpine species for studies of conservation and phylogeography. However, there are few data regarding the genetic diversity in R. sibiricus populations.
We used two genetic markers (mtDNA and microsatellites) to survey all six populations of R. sibiricus in China. Both of the markers revealed extreme genetic uniformity among these populations. There were only three haplotypes in the mtDNA, and the overall nucleotide diversity in the mtDNA was 0.00064, ranging from 0.00000 to 0.00091 for the six populations. Although we recovered 70 sequences containing microsatellite repeats, there were only two loci that displayed polymorphism. We used the approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) method to study the demographic history of the populations. This analysis suggested that the extant populations diverged from the ancestral population approximately 120 years ago and that the historical population size was much larger than the present population size; i.e., R. sibiricus has experienced dramatic population declines.
Our findings suggest that the genetic diversity in the R. sibiricus populations is the lowest among all investigated amphibians. We conclude that the isolation of R. sibiricus populations occurred recently and was a result of recent human activity and/or climatic changes. The Pleistocene glaciation oscillations may have facilitated intraspecies genetic homogeneity rather than enhanced divergence. A low genomic evolutionary rate and elevated inbreeding frequency may have also contributed to the low genetic variation observed in this species. Our findings indicate the urgency of implementing a protection plan for this endangered species.
To explore the best time to carry out total body irradiation (TBI) in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) pretreatment.
Retrospective analysis was applied in 88 cases of HSCT using TBI as pretreatment from March 2001 to June 2009 in our hospital. Using 8 MV X-ray, all the patients were irradiated by linear accelerator in 2 consecutive days, with a total dose of 7–11 Gy and an instantaneous dose rate ranging between 4.0 and 5.0 cGy/min. Of the 88 cases, 40 cases were given traditional high-dose chemotherapy before TBI (Group CT/TBI), and 48 cases were given TBI before chemotherapy (Group TBI/CT) instead.
Eighty-seven cases of transplantation were successful, with no serious complications, including radiation pneumonia. Compared with Group CT/TBI, Group TBI/CT showed similar incidence of complications (p=0.08), similar recent chemotherapy toxicity (p=0.833), and significantly lower recent radiation toxicity (p=0.000).
TBI in the pretreatment of HSCT is safe and effective. Using TBI before the high-dose chemotherapy can maintain the same pretreatment effect, effectively reduce apparent immediate reaction/discomfort during TBI, reduce preparation workload of radiotherapy, and lower radiation side-effects. Further research is needed to expand its clinical application.
hematologic malignancies; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; TBI
Background and Purpose
Several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are being exploited to measure brain iron levels increasingly as iron deposition has been implicated in some neurodegenerative diseases. However, there remains no unified evaluation of these methods as postmortem measurement isn't commonly available as the reference standard. The purpose of this study was to make a comparison among these methods and try to find a new index of brain iron.
We measured both phase values and R2* in twenty-four adults, and performed correlation analysis among the two methods and the previously published iron concentrations. We also proposed a new method using magnitude signal intensity and compared it with R2* and brain iron.
We found phase value correlated with R2* in substantia nigra (r = −0.723, p<0.001) and putamen (r = −0.514, p = 0.010), while no correlations in red nucleus (r = −0.236, p = 0.268) and globus pallidus (r = −0.111, p = 0.605). And the new magnitude method had significant correlations in red nucleus (r = −0.593, p = 0.002), substantia nigra (r = −0.521, p = 0.009), globus pallidus (r = −0.750, p<0.001) and putamen (r = −0.547, p = 0.006) with R2*. A strong inverse correlation was also found between the new magnitude method and previously published iron concentrations in seven brain regions (r = −0.982, P<0.001).
Our study indicates that phase value may not be used for assessing the iron content in some brain regions especially globus pallidus. The new magnitude method is highly consistent with R2* especially in globus pallidus, and we assume that this approach may be acceptable as an index of iron content in iron-rich brain regions.
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor c-Met are important in the development and homeostasis of a variety of human malignancies. However, the role of the HGF/c-Met signaling pathway in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has not been clearly elucidated. This study examined the effect of HGF/c-Met on proliferation and migration in several NPC cell lines. RT-PCR was used to detect the HGF gene in CNE-1, CNE-2, HK-1, HONE-1 and SUNE-1 NPC cells. However, HGF gene expression was not detected in any of these cells. Using immunoblotting analysis, the Met25 protein was identified in HONE-1, HK-1 and CNE-1 cells. Results from fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis revealed that anti-Met25 mAb specifically bound Met-expressing HONE-1, HK-1 and CNE-1 cells. It was further demonstrated that exogenous HGF was able to stimulate the proliferation of HONE-1 and HK-1 cells and the healing of scrape wounds in HONE-1 NPC cells. Our results reveal the potential therapeutic applications of combination therapy with antibodies targeting HGF in NPC patients.
nasopharyngeal carcinoma, HGF; c-Met, proliferation, migration
To create a sentiment classification system for the Fifth i2b2/VA Challenge Track 2, which can identify thirteen subjective categories and two objective categories.
We developed a hybrid system using Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers with augmented training data from the Internet. Our system consists of three types of classification-based systems: the first system uses spanning n-gram features for subjective categories, the second one uses bag-of-n-gram features for objective categories, and the third one uses pattern matching for infrequent or subtle emotion categories. The spanning n-gram features are selected by a feature selection algorithm that leverages emotional corpus from weblogs. Special normalization of objective sentences is generalized with shallow parsing and external web knowledge. We utilize three sources of web data: the weblog of LiveJournal which helps to improve the feature selection, the eBay List which assists in special normalization of information and instructions categories, and the suicide project web which provides unlabeled data with similar properties as suicide notes.
The performance is evaluated by the overall micro-averaged precision, recall and F-measure.
Our system achieved an overall micro-averaged F-measure of 0.59. Happiness_peacefulness had the highest F-measure of 0.81. We were ranked as the second best out of 26 competing teams.
Our results indicated that classifying fine-grained sentiments at sentence level is a non-trivial task. It is effective to divide categories into different groups according to their semantic properties. In addition, our system performance benefits from external knowledge extracted from publically available web data of other purposes; performance can be further enhanced when more training data is available.
sentiment analysis; suicide note; spanning n-gram; web data; supervised approach
Fatty acid desaturases play important role in plant responses to abiotic stresses. However, their exact function in plant resistance to salt stress is unknown. In this work, we provide the evidence that FAD2, an endoplasmic reticulum localized ω-6 desaturase, is required for salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Using vacuolar and plasma membrane vesicles prepared from the leaves of wild-type (Col-0) and the loss-of-function Arabidopsis mutant, fad2, which lacks the functional FAD2, we examined the fatty acid composition and Na+-dependent H+ movements of the isolated vesicles. We observed that, when compared to Col-0, the level of vacuolar and plasma membrane polyunsaturation was lower, and the Na+/H+ exchange activity was reduced in vacuolar and plasma membrane vesicles isolated from fad2 mutant. Consistent with the reduced Na+/H+ exchange activity, fad2 accumulated more Na+ in the cytoplasm of root cells, and was more sensitive to salt stress during seed germination and early seedling growth, as indicated by CoroNa-Green staining, net Na+ efflux and salt tolerance analyses. Our results suggest that FAD2 mediated high-level vacuolar and plasma membrane fatty acid desaturation is essential for the proper function of membrane attached Na+/H+ exchangers, and thereby to maintain a low cytosolic Na+ concentration for salt tolerance during seed germination and early seedling growth in Arabidopsis.
The migration of fibroblasts is believed to play a key role in both normal wound repair and abnormal tissue remodeling. Prostaglandin E (PGE)2, a mediator that can inhibit many fibroblast functions including chemotaxis, was reported to be mediated by the E-prostanoid (EP) receptor EP2. PGE2, however, can act on four receptors. This study was designed to determine if EP receptors, in addition to EP2, can modulate fibroblast chemotaxis. Using human fetal lung fibroblasts, the expression of all four EP receptors was demonstrated by Western blotting. EP2-selective and EP4-selective agonists inhibited both chemotaxis toward fibronectin in the blindwell assay and migration in a wound-closure assay. In contrast, EP1-selective and EP3-selective agonists stimulated cell migration in both assay systems. These results were confirmed using EP-selective antagonists. The role of both EP2 and EP4 receptors in mediating the PGE2 inhibition of chemotaxis was also confirmed by small interfering RNA suppression. Furthermore, the role of EP receptors was confirmed by blocking the expected signaling pathways. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PGE2 can act on multiple EP receptors in human lung fibroblasts, to exert disparate effects. Alterations in EP receptor expression may have the potential to alter PGE2 action. Targeting specific EP receptors may offer therapeutic opportunities in conditions characterized by abnormal tissue repair and remodeling.
human lung fibroblast; cell migration; EP receptors
CD146 has been regarded as a novel potential therapeutic target for multiple cancers. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression of CD146 in gastric cancer and evaluate its clinical-pathological and prognostic significance. The expression of CD146 and three epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins (E-cadherin, β-catenin and vimentin) was examined in 144 gastric cancers by immunohistochemistry. Fifty-nine cases (41.0%) were defined as positive for CD146 expression. We found that CD146 expression correlated positively with lymph node involvement and a poor prognosis, and retained an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients. Furthermore, positive expression of CD146 was strongly associated with loss of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and acquisition of the expression of the mesenchymal markers nuclear β-catenin and vimentin. These findings suggest that CD146 might promote EMT and progression in gastric cancer, and thus may be a potential therapeutic target for patients with gastric cancers.
CD146; gastric cancer; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; prognosis; immunohistochemistry