Deqi sensation is believed to be important in clinical efficacy according to TCM theory. The measuring method of Deqi sensation has significant implications for the result of research trials. This study makes an investigation on acupuncture-experienced patients and expert acupuncturists in China and aims to find out the patient's needling sensations and acupuncturist's sensations which can be acceptable as descriptors of Deqi sensation, so as to provide foundation for more systematic and sensitive quantitative evaluation method of Deqi sensation. Results of this survey indicated that the Deqi sensation noted by both patient and acupuncturist is equally important to the treatment efficacy. It is found that there are some differences between the patients' real-life experience and the acupuncturists' expectations on patients' Deqi sensation. The “dull pain,” “aching,” “sore,” “numb,” “distended,” “heavy,” “electric,” “throbbing,” “warmness,” “coolness,” “spreading,” and “radiating” can be considered as the main manifestations of Deqi sensations. The acupuncturists believed that Deqi sensations were mainly “pulling,” “tight,” and “throbbing.” We suggest developing a questionnaire measuring the Deqi sensations which includes both the sensations of the patient and acupuncturist, and this would be very important and necessary for a better understanding of the relationship between Deqi sensation and acupuncture effects in future studies.
Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma is a diagnostically challenging group of tumors. It’s a rare histologic subtype of non-small cell lung cancer.There are five subgroups of pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma, they are identified as pleomorphic carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma, and pulmonary blastoma. We explored the clinicopathologic features and prognostic factors of this tumor.
We analyzed retrospectively the clinicopathological data of 51 patients with pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma who were treated in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan Cancer Hospital and Henan People Hospital from January 2005 to December 2012. The correlation between prognosis and age, sex, smoking history, tumor size, TNM staging, and treatment modality was analyzed by the statistical software SPSS 17.0. The survival analysis was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method. The factors influencing survival were analyzed using univariate (Log-rank) and multivariate (Cox) models.
The overall survival rates at 1, 2, 3 and 5 years were 45.5%, 35.8%, 28.2% and 20.1%, respectively. Cox univariate analyses revealed that age, tumor size, T stage, M stage, surgery or not, and postoperative chemotherapy or not, were prognostic factors. Cox multivariate analysis found that tumor size and M stage were independent prognostic factors for PSC.
Due to its rarity and the lack of large-scale clinical trial evidence, few studies about PSC have been reported, its clinical and pathological characteristics remain unclear, and its preoperative diagnosis and investigation of novel treatment approaches are imperative. In our study, the main factors affecting the prognosis of tumor size and M staging are the crucial prognostic factors for PSC. Surgical resection and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy might result in better prognosis.
Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma; Clinical characteristics; Cathological characteristics; Treatment; Prognosis
With tens of thousands of plant species on earth, we are endowed with an enormous wealth of medicinal remedies from Mother Nature. Natural products and their derivatives represent more than 50% of all the drugs in modern therapeutics. Because of the low success rate and huge capital investment need, the research and development of conventional drugs are very costly and difficult. Over the past few decades, researchers have focused on drug discovery from herbal medicines or botanical sources, an important group of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapy. With a long history of herbal usage for the clinical management of a variety of diseases in indigenous cultures, the success rate of developing a new drug from herbal medicinal preparations should, in theory, be higher than that from chemical synthesis. While the endeavor for drug discovery from herbal medicines is “experience driven,” the search for a therapeutically useful synthetic drug, like “looking for a needle in a haystack,” is a daunting task. In this paper, we first illustrated various approaches of drug discovery from herbal medicines. Typical examples of successful drug discovery from botanical sources were given. In addition, problems in drug discovery from herbal medicines were described and possible solutions were proposed. The prospect of drug discovery from herbal medicines in the postgenomic era was made with the provision of future directions in this area of drug development.
Schisandra, a globally distributed plant, has been widely applied to health care products. Here, we investigated the effects of dietary intake of Fructus Schisandrae chinensis (FSC), both aqueous and ethanolic extracts (AqFSC, EtFSC), on serum/hepatic lipid contents in normal diet (ND)- and high-fat/cholesterol/bile salt diet (HFCBD)-fed mice.
Male ICR mice were fed with ND or HFCBD, supplemented with 1 and 4% of AqFSC and EtFSC, respectively, or 0.1% fenofibrate, for 13 days. Lipids were determined according to the manufacture’s instructions.
EtFSC, but not AqFSC, significantly elevated hepatic triglyceride (TG) in mice fed with ND. Feeding mice with HFCBD increased serum total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity. Supplementation with AqFSC, EtFSC or fenofibrate significantly reduced hepatic TC and TG levels. However, AqFSC and EtFSC supplementation increased serum HDL and LDL levels in mice fed with HFCBD. Fenofibrate increased serum HDL and reduced serum LDL contents in hypercholesterolemic mice. EtFSC reduced, but fenofibrate elevated, serum ALT activity in both normal and hypercholesterolemic mice. While fenofibrate reduced serum TC, TG, and HDL levels in mice fed with ND, it increased serum HDL and reduced serum LDL and TC levels in mice fed with HFCBD. Hepatomegaly was found in normal and hypercholesterolemic mice fed with diet supplemented with fenofibrate.
Feeding mice with AqFSC and EtFSC ameliorated the HFCBD-induced hepatic steatosis. In addition, EtFSC may offer protection against hepatic injury in hypercholesterolemic mice.
Fructus schisandrae chinensis; Fenofibrate; Fatty liver; Hypercholesterolemia; Hepatotoxicity; Hepatomegaly
AIM: To investigate the expression of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in rat liver tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n = 10) and HCC model group (n = 20). Rats in the HCC model groups were intragastrically administrated with 0.2% (w/v) N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) every 5 d for 16 wk, whereas 0.9% (w/v) normal saline was administered to rats in the control group. After 16 wk from the initiation of experiment, all rats were killed and livers were collected and fixed in 4% (w/v) paraformaldehyde. All tissues were embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological staining (hematoxylin and eosin and Toluidine blue) was performed to demonstrate the onset of HCC and the content of sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG). Immunohistochemical staining was performed to investigate the expression of chondroitin sulphate (CS)/dermatan sulphate (DS)-GAG, heparan sulphate (HS)-GAG, keratan sulphate (KS)-GAG in liver tissues. Furthermore, expression and distribution of CSPG family members, including aggrecan, versican, biglycan and decorin in liver tissues, were also immunohistochemically determined.
RESULTS: After 16 wk administration of DEN, malignant nodules were observed on the surface of livers from the HCC model group, and their hepatic lobule structures appeared largely disrupted under microscope. Toluidine blue staining demonstrated that there was an significant increase in sGAG content in HCC tissues when compared with that in the normal liver tissues from the control group [0.37 ± 0.05 integrated optical density per stained area (IOD/area) and 0.21 ± 0.01 IOD/area, P < 0.05]. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that this increased sGAG in HCC tissues was induced by an elevated expression of CS/DS (0.28 ± 0.02 IOD/area and 0.18 ± 0.02 IOD/area, P < 0.05) and HS (0.30 ± 0.03 IOD/area and 0.17 ± 0.02 IOD/area, P < 0.01) but not KS GAGs in HCC tissues. Further studies thereby were performed to investigate the expression and distribution of several CSPG components in HCC tissues, including aggrecan, versican, biglycan and decorin. Interestingly, there was a distinct distribution pattern for these CSPG components between HCC tissues and the normal tissues. Positive staining of aggrecan, biglycan and decorin was localized in hepatic membrane and/or pericellular matrix in normal liver tissues; however, their expression was mainly observed in the cytoplasm, cell membranes in hepatoma cells and/or pericellular matrix within HCC tissues. Semi-quantitative analysis indicated that there was a higher level of expression of aggrecan (0.43 ± 0.01 and 0.35 ± 0.03, P < 0.05), biglycan (0.32 ± 0.01 and 0.25 ± 0.01, P < 0.001) and decorin (0.29 ± 0.01 and 0.26 ± 0.01, P < 0.05) in HCC tissues compared with that in the normal liver tissues. Very weak versican positive staining was observed in hepatocytes near central vein in normal liver tissues; however there was an intensive versican distribution in fibrosis septa between the hepatoma nodules. Semi-quantitative analysis indicated that the positive rate of versican in hepatoma tissues from the HCC model group was much higher than that in the control group (33.61% and 21.28%, P < 0.05). There was no positive staining in lumican and keratocan, two major KSPGs, in either normal or HCC liver tissues.
CONCLUSION: CSPGs play important roles in the onset and progression of HCC, and may provide potential therapeutic targets and clinical biomarkers for this prevalent tumor in humans.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Proteoglycan; Chondroitin sulphate; Heparan sulphate; Keratan sulphate
Whether acupuncture is effective for patients with functional constipation is still unclear. Therefore, we report the protocol of a randomized controlled trial of using acupuncture to treat functional constipation.
A randomized, controlled, four-arm design, large-scale trial is currently undergoing in China. Seven hundred participants are randomly assigned to three acupuncture treatment groups and Mosapride Citrate control group in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Participants in acupuncture groups receive 16 sessions of acupuncture treatment, and are followed up for a period of 9 weeks after randomization. The acupuncture groups are: (1) Back-Shu and Front-Mu acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (Shu-Mu points group); (2) He-Sea and Lower He-Sea acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (He points group); (3) Combining used Back-Shu, Front-Mu, He-Sea, and Lower He-Sea acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (Shu-Mu-He points group). The control group is Mosapride Citrate group. The primary outcome is frequency of defecation per week at the fourth week after randomization. The secondary outcomes include Bristol stool scale, the extent of difficulty during defecating, MOS 36-item Short Form health survey (SF-36), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). The first two of second outcomes are measured 1 week before randomization and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after randomization. Other second outcomes are measured 1 week before randomization and 2 and 4 weeks after randomization, but SF-36 is measured at randomization and 4 weeks after randomization.
The result of this trial (which will be available in 2012) will confirm whether acupuncture is effective to treat functional constipation and whether traditional acupuncture theories play an important role in it.
Clinical Trials.gov NCT01411501
Acupuncture; Functional constipation; Study protocol
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system characterized by episodic and progressive neurologic dysfunction resulting from inflammatory and autoimmune reactions. The underlying pathogenesis of MS remains largely unclear. However, it is currently accepted as a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease. Among other clinical manifestations, sexual dysfunction (SD) is a painful but still underreported and underdiagnosed symptom of the disorder. SD in MS patients may result from a complex set of conditions and may be associated with multiple anatomic, physiologic, biologic, medical and psychological factors. SD arises primarily from lesions affecting the neural pathways involved in physiologic function. In addition, psychological factors, the side effects of medications and physical symptoms such as fatigue, muscular weakness, menstrual changes, pain and concerns about bladder and bowel incontinence may also be involved. Since MS primarily affects young people, SD secondary to MS may have a great impact on quality of life. Thus, maintaining a healthy sexual life with MS is an important priority. The treatment of SD requires multidisciplinary teamwork and cooperation among specialists, individual patients, partners and the society.
demyelination; endocrine disorder; multiple sclerosis; sexual dysfunction
To evaluate different types of acupuncture treatment for migraine in China from the perspective of health economics, particularly the comparison between treatment of specific acupoints in Shaoyang meridians and penetrating sham acupoints treatment.
Data were obtained from a multicenter, randomized controlled trial of acupuncture treatment in patients with migraine. Four-hundred eighty migraineurs were randomly assigned to 3 arms of treatment with genuine acupoints and 1 arm of penetrating sham acupoints. The primary outcome measurement was the cost-effectiveness ratio (C/E), expressed as cost per 1 day reduction of headache days from baseline to week 16. Cost-comparison analyses, differences in the migraine-specific quality of life questionnaire (MSQ), and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio were taken as secondary outcome measurements. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was conducted.
The total cost per patient was ¥1273.2 (95% CI 1171.3-1375.1) in the Shaoyang specific group, ¥1427.7 (95% CI 1311.8-1543.6) in the Shaoyang non-specific group, ¥1490.8 (95% CI 1327.1-1654.6) in the Yangming specific group, and ¥1470.1 (95% CI 1358.8-1581.3) in the sham acupuncture group. The reduced days with migraine were 3.972 ± 2.7, 3.555 ± 2.8, 3.793 ± 3.6, and 2.155 ± 3.7 in these 4 groups (P < 0.05 for each genuine acupoints group vs the sham group), respectively, at week 16. The C/Es of the 4 groups were 320.5, 401.6, 393.1, and 682.2, respectively. Results of the sensitivity analysis were consistent with that of the cost-effectiveness analysis. The Shaoyang specific group significantly improved in all 3 MSQ domains compared with the sham acupuncture group.
Treatment of specific acupoints in Shaoyang meridians is more cost-effective than that of non-acupoints, representing a dramatic improvement in the quality of life of people with migraine and a significant reduction in cost. Compared with the other 3 groups, Shaoyang-specific acupuncture is a relatively cost-effective treatment for migraine prophylaxis in China.
Clinical Trials.gov NCT00599586
Acupuncture; Migraine; Health economic evaluation; Shaoyang meridian
Human CD38 is a novel multi-functional protein that acts not only as an antigen for B-lymphocyte activation, but also an enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of a Ca2+ messenger molecule, cyclic ADP-ribose, from NAD+. It is well established that this novel Ca2+ signaling enzyme is responsible for regulating a wide range of physiological functions. Based on the crystal structure of the CD38/NAD+ complex, we synthesized a series of simplified N-substituted nicotinamide derivatives (Compound 1–14). A number of these compounds exhibited moderate inhibition of the NAD+ utilizing activity of CD38, with Compound 4 showing the higher potency. The crystal structure of CD38/ Compound 4 complex and computer simulation of Compound 7 docking to CD38 show a significant role of the nicotinamide moiety and the distal aromatic group of the compounds for substrate recognition by the active site of CD38. Biologically, we showed that both Compounds 4 and 7 effectively relaxed the agonist-induced contraction of muscle preparations form rats and guinea pigs. This study is a rational design of inhibitors for CD38 that exhibit important physiological effects, and can serve as a model for future drug development.
The complete molecule of the compound, C6H4N8O3, is generated by a crystallographic twofold rotation axis that runs through the central ring. The flanking ring is twisted by 20.2 (1)° with respect to the central ring. One of the amino H atoms forms an intramolecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bond; adjacent molecules are linked by N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds forming a chain running along [10-2].
The incidence of measles in China from 1991 to 2008 was reviewed, and the nucleotide sequences from 1507 measles viruses (MeV) isolated during 1993 to 2008 were phylogenetically analyzed. The results showed that measles epidemics peaked approximately every 3 to 5 years with the range of measles cases detected between 56,850 and 140,048 per year. The Chinese MeV strains represented three genotypes; 1501 H1, 1 H2 and 5 A. Genotype H1 was the predominant genotype throughout China continuously circulating for at least 16 years. Genotype H1 sequences could be divided into two distinct clusters, H1a and H1b. A 4.2% average nucleotide divergence was found between the H1a and H1b clusters, and the nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid homologies of H1a viruses were 92.3%–100% and 84.7%–100%, H1b were 97.1%–100% and 95.3%–100%, respectively. Viruses from both clusters were distributed throughout China with no apparent geographic restriction and multiple co-circulating lineages were present in many provinces. Cluster H1a and H1b viruses were co-circulating during 1993 to 2005, while no H1b viruses were detected after 2005 and the transmission of that cluster has presumably been interrupted. Analysis of the nucleotide and predicted amino acid changes in the N proteins of H1a and H1b viruses showed no evidence of selective pressure. This study investigated the genotype and cluster distribution of MeV in China over a 16-year period to establish a genetic baseline before MeV elimination in Western Pacific Region (WPR). Continuous and extensive MeV surveillance and the ability to quickly identify imported cases of measles will become more critical as measles elimination goals are achieved in China in the near future. This is the first report that a single endemic genotype of measles virus has been found to be continuously circulating in one country for at least 16 years.
Recently, a membrane-based estrogen receptor (ER), ER-α36, was identified and cloned that transduces membrane-initiated estrogen signaling such as activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathway. Here we show that the postmenopausal level of estradiol (E2) induces mitogenic, antiapoptotic, and antiosteogenic effects and proapoptotic effects in postmenopausal osteoblasts and osteoclasts with high levels of ER-α36 expression, respectively. We also found that ER-α36 mediated the effects of postmenopausal-level E2 on proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation of osteoblasts through transient activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway, whereas ER-α36-mediated postmenopausal-level E2 induces apoptosis of osteoclasts through prolonged activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway with the involvement of reactive oxygen species. We also show that the levels of ER-α36 expression in bone are positively associated with bone mineral density but negatively associated with bone biochemical markers in postmenopausal women. Thus the higher levels of ER-α36 expression are required for preserving bone mass in postmenopausal and menopausal women who become osteoporotic if ER-α36-mediated activities are dysregulated. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
ESTROGEN RECEPTOR α36; OSTEOBLAST; OSTEOCLAST; APOPTOSIS; BONE MINERAL DENSITY
Motivation: The SBML Render Extension enables coloring and shape information of biochemical models to be stored in the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML). Rendering of this stored graphical information in a portable and well supported system such as TeX would be useful for researchers preparing documentation and presentations. In addition, since the Render Extension is not yet supported by many applications, it is helpful for such rendering functionality be extended to the more popular CellDesigner annotation as well.
Results: SBML2TikZ supports automatic generation of graphics for biochemical models in the popular TeX typesetting system. The library generates a script of TeX macro commands for the vector graphics languages PGF/TikZ that can be compiled into scalable vector graphics described in a model.
Availability: Source code, documentation and compiled binaries for the SBML2TikZ library can be found at http://www.sbml2tikz.org. In addition, a web application is available at http://www.sys-bio.org/layout
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
AIM: To investigate the effects of schisandrin B (Sch B) on free fatty acid (FFA)-induced steatosis in L-02 cells.
METHODS: Cellular steatosis was induced by incubating L-02 cells with a FFA mixture (oleate and palmitate at the ratio of 2:1) for 24 h. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis were evaluated by 3-(4, 5-dmethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, respectively. Cellular total lipid was determined using a photocolorimetric method after Nile red staining, and triglyceride content was measured using an enzymatic kit. To study the effects of Sch B on steatosis, L-02 cells were treated with Sch B (1-100 μmol/L) in the absence or presence of 1 mmol/L FFA for 24 h, and cellular total lipid and triglyceride levels were measured. To explore the mechanisms of action of Sch B in the steatotic L-02 cells, mRNA levels of several regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism including adipose differentiation related protein (ADRP), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α and PPAR-γ were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and protein levels of ADRP and SREBP-1 were measured by immunoblotting.
RESULTS: Treatment with 1 mmol/L FFA for 24 h induced intracellular lipid accumulation in L-02 cells comparable to that in human steatotic livers without causing apparent apoptosis and cytotoxicity. Sch B mitigated cellular total lipid and triglyceride accumulations in the steatotic L-02 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analyses revealed that treatment of L-02 cells with 100 μmol/L Sch B reverted the FFA-stimulated up-regulation of ADRP and SREBP-1.
CONCLUSION: Sch B inhibits FFA-induced steatosis in L-02 cells by, at least in part, reversing the up-regulation of ADRP and SREBP-1.
Free fatty acid; Hepatic lipid metabolism; Hepatocellular steatosis; L-02 cells; Schisandrin B
P2X receptor activation protects in heart failure models. MRS2339 3, a 2-chloro-AMP derivative containing a (N)-methanocarba (bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane) system, activates this cardioprotective channel. Michaelis–Arbuzov and Wittig reactions provided phosphonate analogues of 3, expected to be stable in vivo due to the C-P bond. After chronic administration via a mini-osmotic pump (Alzet), some analogues significantly increased intact heart contractile function in calsequestrin-overexpressing mice (genetic model of heart failure) compared to vehicle-infused mice (all inactive at the vasodilatory P2Y1 receptor). Two phosphonates, (1’S,2’R,3’S,4’R,5’S)-4’-(6-amino-2-chloropurin-9-yl)-2’,3’-(dihydroxy)-1’-(phosphonomethylene)-bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane 4 and its homologue 9, both 5’-saturated, containing a 2-Cl substitution, improved echocardiography-derived fractional shortening (20.25% and 19.26%, respectively, versus 13.78% in controls), while unsaturated 5’-extended phosphonates, all 2-H analogues, and a CH3-phosphonate were inactive. Thus, chronic administration of nucleotidase-resistant phosphonates conferred a beneficial effect, likely via cardiac P2X receptor activation. Thus, we have greatly expanded the range of carbocyclic nucleotide analogues that represent potential candidates for the treatment of heart failure.
Synthetic chemical drugs, while being efficacious in the clinical management of many diseases, are often associated with undesirable side effects in patients. It is now clear that the need of therapeutic intervention in many clinical conditions cannot be satisfactorily met by synthetic chemical drugs. Since the research and development of new chemical drugs remain time-consuming, capital-intensive and risky, much effort has been put in the search for alternative routes for drug discovery in China. This narrative review illustrates various approaches to the research and drug discovery in Chinese herbal medicine. Although this article focuses on Chinese traditional drugs, it is also conducive to the development of other traditional remedies and innovative drug discovery.
In the title compound, C18H23ClN3O3, the imidazole ring system has an envelope conformation, whereas the nitronyl nitroxide unit displays a half-chair or twisted conformation. In the crystal, C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds build up a three-dimensional network.
Effects of the ethanol extract of Fructus Schisandrae (EtFSC) on serum and liver lipid contents were investigated in mice fed with high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet for 8 or 15 days. The induction of hypercholesterolemia by HFC diet caused significant increases in serum and hepatic total cholesterol (TC) levels (up to 62% and 165%, resp.) and hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels (up to 528%) in mice. EtFSC treatment (1 or 5 g/kg/day for 7 days; from Day 1 to 7 or from Day 8 to 14, i.g.) significantly decreased the hepatic TG level (down to 35%) and slightly increased the hepatic index (by 8%) in hypercholesterolemic mice. Whereas fenofibrate treatment (0.1 g/kg/day for 7 days, i.g.) significantly lowered the hepatic TG level (by 61%), it elevated the hepatic index (by 77%) in hypercholesterolemic mice. Acute toxicity test showed that EtFSC was relatively non-toxic, with an LD50 value of 35.63 ± 6.46 g/kg in mice. The results indicate that EtFSC treatment can invariably decrease hepatic TG in hypercholesterolemic mice, as assessed by both preventive and therapeutic protocols, suggesting its potential use for fatty liver treatment.
Objective: To investigate the effects of mycotoxin moniliformin (MON) on the metabolism of aggrecan and type II collagen in human chondrocytes in vitro and the relationship between MON and Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). Methods: Human chondrocytes were isolated and cultured on bone matrix gelatin to form an artificial cartilage model in vitro with or without MON toxin. Cell viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The expression of aggrecan and type II collagen in the cartilage was determined using immunocytochemical staining. Results: MON toxin inhibited chondrocyte viability in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners. MON reduced aggrecan and type II collagen syntheses in the tissue-engineered cartilage. MON also increased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-13, BC4 epitopes, and CD44 in cartilages. However, the expression of 3B3(−) epitopes in cartilages was inhibited by MON. Selenium partially alleviated the damage of aggrecan induced by MON toxin. Conclusion: MON toxin promoted the catabolism of aggrecan and type II collagen in human chondrocytes.
Chondrocytes; Moniliformin; Selenium; Aggrecan; Collagen; Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs); CD44; Kashin-Beck disease
For the targeted therapy of solid tumor mediated by monoclonal antibody (mAb), there have different models of rebuilding small antibodies originated from native ones. Almost all natural antibody molecules have the similar structure and conformation, but those rebuilt small antibodies cannot completely keep the original traits of parental antibodies, especially the reduced specificity, which gravely influences the efficacy of small antibodies.
In this study, authors developed a novel mimetic in the form of VHFR1C-10-VHCDR1-VHFR2-VLCDR3-VLFR4N-10for a parental mAb induced with human breast cancer, and the mimetic moiety was conjugated to the C-terminal of toxicin colicin Ia. The novel fusion peptide, named protomimecin (PMN), was administered to MCF-7 breast cancer cells to demonstrate its killing competency in vitro and in vivo.
Compared with original antibody-colicin Ia (Fab-Ia) and single-chain antibody-colicin Ia (Sc-Ia) fusion proteins, PMN retained the targeting specificity of parental antibody and could specifically kill MCF-7 cells in vitro. By injecting intraperitoneally into BALB/c athymic mice bearing MCF-7 tumors, with reduced affinity, PMN significantly suppressed the growth of tumors compared with control mice treated by toxicin protein, Fab-Ia protein, Sc-Ia protein or by PBS (p < 0.05).
This novel mimetic antibody retained original specificity of parental antibody, and could effectively guide killer moiety to suppress the growth of breast cancer by targeted cell death.
Objective: To identify the relationship between T-2 toxin and Kashin-Beck disease (KBD), the effects of T-2 toxin on aggrecan metabolism in human chondrocytes and cartilage were investigated in vitro. Methods: Chondrocytes were isolated from human articular cartilage and cultured in vitro. Hyaluronic acid (HA), soluble CD44 (sCD44), IL-1β and TNF-α levels in supernatants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CD44 content in chondrocyte membrane was determined by flow cytometry (FCM). CD44, hyaluronic acid synthetase-2 (HAS-2) and aggrecanases mRNA levels in chondrocytes were determined using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Immunocytochemical method was used to investigate expressions of BC-13, 3-B-3(−) and 2-B-6 epitopes in the cartilage reconstructed in vitro. Results: T-2 toxin inhibited CD44, HAS-2, and aggrecan mRNA expressions, but promoted aggrecanase-2 mRNA expression. Meanwhile, CD44 expression was found to be the lowest in the chondrocytes cultured with T-2 toxin and the highest in control plus selenium group. In addition, ELISA results indicated that there were higher sCD44, IL-1β and TNF-α levels in T-2 toxin group. Similarly, higher HA levels were also observed in T-2 toxin group using radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA). Furthermore, using monoclonal antibodies BC-13, 3-B-3 and 2-B-6, strong positive immunostaining was found in the reconstructed cartilage cultured with T-2 toxin, whereas no positive staining or very weak staining was observed in the cartilage cultured without T-2 toxin. Selenium could partly inhibit the effects of T-2 toxin above. Conclusion: T-2 toxin could inhibit aggrecan synthesis, promote aggrecanases and pro-inflammatory cytokines production, and consequently induce aggrecan degradation in chondrocytes. These will perturb metabolism balance between aggrecan synthesis and degradation in cartilage, inducing aggrecan loss in the end, which may be the initiation of the cartilage degradation.
T-2 toxin; Kashin-Beck disease (KBD); Aggrecan; IL-1β; TNF-α; Aggrecanase; Hyaluronic acid (HA); CD44
The rapid and accurate detection and identification of the new subtype of the pathogens is crucial for diagnosis, treatment and control of the contagious disease outbreak. Here, in this study, an approach to detect and identify Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Vibrio cholerae O139 was established using oligonucleotide microarray. We coupled multiplex PCR with oligonucleotide microarray to construct an assay suitable for simultaneous identification of two subtypes of the pathogens.
The stx1, stx2 gene and uidA gene having the specific mutant spot were chosen as the targets for Escherichia coli O157:H7, and meanwhile the ctxA, tcpA, and LPSgt gene for Vibrio cholerae O139. The oligonucleotide microarray was composed of eight probes including negative control and positive control from 16S rDNA gene. The six primers were designed to amplify target fragments in two triplex PCR, and then hybridized with oligonucleotide microarray. An internal control would be to run a PCR reaction in parallel. Multiplex PCR did not produce any non-specific amplicons when 149 related species or genera of standard bacteria were tested (100% specificity). In addition, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Escherichia coli O157:non-H7, Vibrio cholerae O139 and Vibrio cholerae O1 had been discriminated respectively. Using recombinant plasmid and target pathogens, we were able to detect positive hybridization signals with 102 copies/μL and 103 cfu/mL per reaction.
The DNA microarray assay reported here could detect and identify Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Vibrio cholerae O139, and furthermore the subtype was distinguished. This assay was a specific and sensitive tool for simultaneous detection and identification of the new subtype of two pathogens causing diarrhea in human.
There are debatable claims in the optimal approach for clipping of the anterior communicating artery (AcomA) aneurysm. The authors invented the superior orbital rim approach (SORA) as an alternative and minimally invasive approach for the treatment of AcomA aneurysm. The authors reviewed retrospectively all the medical records of 27 patients of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured AcomA aneurysm. who were admitted to Kosin University Gospel Hospital for last 2 yr. Fourteen women (51.9%) and 13 men (48.1%) were from 29 to 79 yr in age. The mean aneurysm size was 6.2 mm ranging from 4 to 12 mm. A favorable Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) of 4 or 5 was achieved in 92.6%, a GOS score of 3 in 3.7%, and 1 death (GOS 1) occurred in 3.7% of the patients. During the follow-up between 4 and 28 months (mean, 17.5 months) after the surgery, the prognosis of the patients and the cosmetic results were favorable compared with conventional approach. We became to believe that it was an alternative, effective and minimally invasive approach to the surgical treatment of AcomA aneurysm.