Human protein complexes play crucial roles in various biological processes as the functional module. However, the expression features of human protein complexes at the transcriptome cascade are poorly understood. Here, we used the RNA-Seq data from 16 disparate tissues and four types of human cancers to explore the characteristics and dynamics of human protein complexes. We observed that many individual components of human protein complexes can be generated by multiple distinct transcripts. Similar with yeast, the human protein complex constituents are inclined to co-express in diverse tissues. The dominant isoform of the genes involved in protein complexes tend to encode the complex constituents in each tissue. Our results indicate that the protein complex dynamics not only correlate with the presence or absence of complexes, but may also be related to the major isoform switching for complex subunits. Between any two cancers of breast, colon, lung and prostate, we found that only a few of the differentially expressed transcripts associated with complexes were identical, but 5–10 times more protein complexes involved in differentially expressed transcripts were common. Collectively, our study reveals novel properties and dynamics of human protein complexes at the transcriptome cascade in diverse normal tissues and different cancers.
Tumor-infiltrating immune cells are associated with tumor prognosis, although the type of immune cells responsible for local immune escape is still unknown. This study examined the relationship between gastric cancer survival and the density of immune cells, including CD8+ T cells, CD20+ B cells, and CD33+/p-STAT1+ cells, which represent myeloid-derived suppressor cells, to evaluate the role of immune cells in the progression of gastric cancer. One hundred pathologically confirmed specimens were obtained from stage IIIa gastric cancers between 2003 and 2006 at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, China. The density of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in tumor tissue was examined using immunohistochemical analysis. Clinicopathologic parameters and the survival rate were analyzed in relation to the density of immune cells. A high density of CD8+ T cells and CD20+ B cells was associated with a good clinical outcome, but a high density of CD33+/p-STAT1+ cells was associated with a poor clinical outcome. Most importantly, the density of CD33+/p-STAT1+ cells was an independent prognostic factor and inversely related to the infiltration of CD8+ T cells. Although the infiltration of CD8+ T cells and CD20+ B cells is involved in the progression of gastric cancer, these data suggest that CD33+/p-STAT1+ cells play a central role in the regulation of the local immune response, suggesting that CD33+/p-STAT1+ cells might be therapeutic targets in gastric cancer.
Gastric cancer; CD33; STAT1; T cell; B cell; Regulation
Treatment of extraordinarily large deep burns remains a huge clinical challenge.
This article is a summary of our experience with the treatment of a patient with an extraordinarily large deep burn (99.5% TBSA and 23% fourth degree burn) by using the “microskin autografting and alloskin repeated grafting” method to close the deep burn wound because of scarcity of skin sources of the patient.
The patient has been observed for 2 years, and is able to face the reality of life peacefully with the support of his family.
deep burn wound; burn operation; Quality of Life
Microarray-based classifiers and associated signature genes generated from various platforms are abundantly reported in the literature; however, the utility of the classifiers and signature genes in cross-platform prediction applications remains largely uncertain. As part of the MicroArray Quality Control Phase II (MAQC-II) project, we show in this study 80–90% cross-platform prediction consistency using a large toxicogenomics data set by illustrating that: (1) the signature genes of a classifier generated from one platform can be directly applied to another platform to develop a predictive classifier; (2) a classifier developed using data generated from one platform can accurately predict samples that were profiled using a different platform. The results suggest the potential utility of using published signature genes in cross-platform applications and the possible adoption of the published classifiers for a variety of applications. The study reveals an opportunity for possible translation of biomarkers identified using microarrays to clinically validated non-array gene expression assays.
microarray; cross-platform; gene signature; classifier; MAQC; hepatotoxicity
Aside from the well-established self-renewal and multipotent differentiation properties, mesenchymal stem cells exhibit both immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory roles in several experimental autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In this study, we isolated a new population of stem cells from human gingiva, a tissue source easily accessible from the oral cavity, namely, gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs), which exhibited clonogenicity, self-renewal, and multipotent differentiation capacities. Most importantly, GMSCs were capable of immunomodulatory functions, specifically suppressed peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation, induced expression of a wide panel of immunosuppressive factors including IL-10, IDO, inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in response to the inflammatory cytokine, IFN-γ. Cell-based therapy using systemic infusion of GMSCs in experimental colitis significantly ameliorated both clinical and histopathological severity of the colonic inflammation, restored the injured gastrointestinal mucosal tissues, reversed diarrhea and weight loss, and suppressed the overall disease activity in mice. The therapeutic effect of GMSCs was mediated, in part, by the suppression of inflammatory infiltrates and inflammatory cytokines/mediators and the increased infiltration of regulatory T cells and the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 at the colonic sites. Taken together, GMSCs can function as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory component of the immune system in vivo and is a promising cell source for cell-based treatment in experimental inflammatory diseases.
Batch effects are the systematic non-biological differences between batches (groups) of samples in microarray experiments due to various causes such as differences in sample preparation and hybridization protocols. Previous work focused mainly on the development of methods for effective batch effects removal. However, their impact on cross-batch prediction performance, which is one of the most important goals in microarray-based applications, has not been addressed. This paper uses a broad selection of data sets from the Microarray Quality Control Phase II (MAQC-II) effort, generated on three microarray platforms with different causes of batch effects to assess the efficacy of their removal. Two data sets from cross-tissue and cross-platform experiments are also included. Of the 120 cases studied using Support vector machines (SVM) and K nearest neighbors (KNN) as classifiers and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) as performance metric, we find that Ratio-G, Ratio-A, EJLR, mean-centering and standardization methods perform better or equivalent to no batch effect removal in 89, 85, 83, 79 and 75% of the cases, respectively, suggesting that the application of these methods is generally advisable and ratio-based methods are preferred.
batch effect; batch effect removal; cross-batch prediction; microarray; gene expression; MAQC-II
Gene expression signatures of toxicity and clinical response benefit both safety assessment and clinical practice; however, difficulties in connecting signature genes with the predicted end points have limited their application. The Microarray Quality Control Consortium II (MAQCII) project generated 262 signatures for ten clinical and three toxicological end points from six gene expression data sets, an unprecedented collection of diverse signatures that has permitted a wide-ranging analysis on the nature of such predictive models. A comprehensive analysis of the genes of these signatures and their nonredundant unions using ontology enrichment, biological network building and interactome connectivity analyses demonstrated the link between gene signatures and the biological basis of their predictive power. Different signatures for a given end point were more similar at the level of biological properties and transcriptional control than at the gene level. Signatures tended to be enriched in function and pathway in an end point and model-specific manner, and showed a topological bias for incoming interactions. Importantly, the level of biological similarity between different signatures for a given end point correlated positively with the accuracy of the signature predictions. These findings will aid the understanding, and application of predictive genomic signatures, and support their broader application in predictive medicine.
genomic signatures; enrichment analysis; network reconstruction; biological pathways; interactome; MAQCII
It is generally accepted that inflammation has a role in the progression of many central nervous system (CNS) diseases, although the mechanisms through which this occurs remain unclear. Among mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) targets, mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase (MSK1) has been thought to be involved in the pathology of inflammatory gene expression. In this study, the roles of MSK1 activation in neuroinflammation were investigated.
The bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced brain injury model was performed on Sprague-Dawley rats. The dynamic expression changes and the cellular location of p-MSK1 in the brain cortex were detected by Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. The synthesis of inflammatory cytokines in astrocytes was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Phosphorylated MSK1 (p-MSK1 Thr-581) was induced significantly after intracerebral injection of LPS into the lateral ventricles of the rat brain. Specific upregulation of p-MSK1 in astrocytes was also observed in inflamed cerebral cortex. At 1 day after LPS stimulation, iNOS, TNFα expression, and the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were increased significantly. Also, in vitro studies indicated that the upregulation of p-MSK1 (Thr-581) may be involved in the subsequent astrocyte inflammatory process, following LPS challenge. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), it was confirmed that treatment with LPS in primary astrocytes stimulated the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines, through MAPKs signaling pathways. In cultured primary astrocytes, both knock-down of total MSK1 by small interfering RNAs (siRNA) or specific mutation of Thr-581 resulted in higher production of certain cytokines, such as TNFα and IL-6.
Collectively, these results suggest that MSK1 phosphorylation is associated with the regulation of LPS-induced brain injury and possibly acts as a negative regulator of inflammation.
Pattern genes are a group of genes that have a modularized expression behavior under serial physiological conditions. The identification of pattern genes will provide a path toward a global and dynamic understanding of gene functions and their roles in particular biological processes or events, such as development and pathogenesis. In this study, we present PaGenBase, a novel repository for the collection of tissue- and time-specific pattern genes, including specific genes, selective genes, housekeeping genes and repressed genes. The PaGenBase database is now freely accessible at http://bioinf.xmu.edu.cn/PaGenBase/. In the current version (PaGenBase 1.0), the database contains 906,599 pattern genes derived from the literature or from data mining of more than 1,145,277 gene expression profiles in 1,062 distinct samples collected from 11 model organisms. Four statistical parameters were used to quantitatively evaluate the pattern genes. Moreover, three methods (quick search, advanced search and browse) were designed for rapid and customized data retrieval. The potential applications of PaGenBase are also briefly described. In summary, PaGenBase will serve as a resource for the global and dynamic understanding of gene function and will facilitate high-level investigations in a variety of fields, including the study of development, pathogenesis and novel drug discovery.
Mast cells participate importantly in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) by releasing inflammatory cytokines to promote vascular cell protease expression and arterial wall remodelling. Mast cells accumulate in AAA lesions during disease progression, but the exact chemokines by which mast cells migrate to the site of vascular inflammation remain unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that mast cells use chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) for their accumulation in experimental mouse AAA lesions.
Methods and results
We generated mast cell and apolipoprotein E double-deficient (Apoe–/–KitW-sh/W-sh) mice and found that they were protected from angiotensin II (Ang II) chronic infusion-induced AAAs compared with Apoe–/– littermates. Using bone-marrow derived mast cells (BMMC) from Apoe–/– mice and CCR2 double-deficient (Apoe–/–Ccr2–/–) mice, we demonstrated that Apoe–/–KitW-sh/W-sh mice receiving BMMC from Apoe–/–Ccr2–/– mice, but not those from Apoe–/– mice, remained protected from AAA formation. Adoptive transfer of BMMC from Apoe–/– mice into Apoe–/–KitW-sh/W-sh mice also increased lesion content of macrophages, T cells, and MHC class II-positive cells; there was also increased apoptosis, angiogenesis, cell proliferation, elastin fragmentation, and medial smooth muscle cell loss. In contrast, adoptive transfer of BMMC from Apoe–/–Ccr2–/– mice into Apoe–/–KitW-sh/W-sh mice did not affect these variables.
The increased AAA formation and associated lesion characteristics in Apoe–/–KitW–sh/W–sh mice after receiving BMMC from Apoe–/– mice, but not from Apoe–/–Ccr2–/– mice, suggests that mast cells use CCR2 as the chemokine receptor for their recruitment in Ang II-induced mouse AAA lesions.
Mast cell; Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Ang II; MCP-1; CCR2
Clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) strains are being increased worldwide. Five pan-resistant K. pneumoniae strains have been isolated from respiratory and ICU wards in a Chinese hospital, and reveal strong resistance to all β-lactams, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Totally 27 β-lactamase genes and 2 membrane pore protein (porin) genes in 5 K. pneumoniae strains were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results indicated that all of 5 K. pneumoniae strains carried blaTEM-1 and blaDHA-1 genes, as well as base deletion and mutation of OmpK35 or OmpK36 genes. Compared with carbapenem-sensitive isolates by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), the resistant isolates markedly lacked the protein band of 34–40 kDa, which might be the outer membrane proteins of OmpK36 according to the electrophoresis mobility. In addition, the conjugation test was confirmed that blaDHA-1 mediated by plasmids could be transferred between resistant and sensitive strains. When reserpine (30 μg/mL) and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) (50 μg/mL) were added in imipenem and meropenem, the MICs had no change against K. pneumoniae strains. These results suggest that both DHA-1 β-lactamase and loss or deficiency of porin OmpK36 may be the main reason for the cefoxitin and carbapenem resistance in K. pneumoniae strains in our hospital.
Klebsiella pneumoniae; AmpC β-Lactamase; Porin; molecular biology
The relationship between suicidality and major depression is complex. Socio- demography, clinical features, comorbidity, clinical symptoms, and stressful life events are important factors influencing suicide in major depression, but these are not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the associations between the above-mentioned factors and suicide ideation, suicide plan, and suicide attempt in 6008 Han Chinese women with recurrent major depression (MD). Patients with any suicidality had significantly more MD symptoms, a significantly greater number of stressful life events, a positive family history of MD, a greater number of episodes, a significant experience of melancholia, and earlier age of onset. Comorbidity with dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia, and animal phobia was seen in suicidal patients. The present findings indicate that specific factors act to increase the likelihood of suicide in MD. Our results may help improve the clinical assessment of suicide risk in depressed patients, especially for women.
Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) is a recently recognized renal neoplasm, which was initially described in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but some cases have been reported in otherwise normal kidneys. We report a series of 11 CCPRCC (age range, 33-72 years; male-to-female ratio, 8:3). Follow-up was available for 8 patients. No patients developed local recurrence, distant or lymph-node metastasis, or cancer death. Histologically, all tumors exhibit morphologic features typical of CCPRCC including a mixture of cystic and papillary components, covered by small to medium-sized cuboidal cells with abundant clear cytoplasm. All 11 cases exhibited moderate to strong positivity for CK7, CA9, Vim, and HIF-1α, coupled with negative reactions for CD10, P504S, and RCC. We did not find any VHL gene mutations in all 11 cases. Losses of chromosomes 3 (monoploid chromosome 3) was detected in 3 cases. Ultrastructurally, the tumor cells composed of numerous glycogens with scanty cell organelles, reminiscent of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC). In conclusion, the coexpression of CA9 and HIF-1α in the absence of VHL gene abnormalities in CCPRCC suggests activation of the HIF pathway by mechanisms independent of VHL gene mutation. Losses of chromosomes 3 (monosomies chromosome 3) was detected in 3 cases suggesting that at least some of these lesions have demonstrated abnormalities of chromosomes 3. Ultrastructurally, CCPRCC composed of numerous glycogens with scanty cell organelles, reminiscent of CCRCC suggesting the close pathogenesis relationship of CCPRCC with CCRCC.
Renal cell carcinoma; clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma; VHL; immunohistochemistry; fluorescence in situ hybridization; ultrastructure
Silk-based scaffolds have been introduced to bone tissue regeneration for years, however, their local therapeutic efficency in bone metabolic disease condition has been seldom reported. According to our previous report, mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG)/silk scaffolds exhibits superior in vitro bioactivity and in vivo osteogenic properties compared to non-mesoporous bioactive glass (BG)/silk scaffolds, but no information could be found about their efficiency in osteoporotic (OVX) environment. This study investigated a biomaterial-based approach for improving MSCs behavior in vitro, and accelerating OVX defect healing by using 3D BG/silk and MBG/silk scaffolds, and pure silk scaffolds as control. The results of SEM, CCK-8 assay and quantitative ALP activity showed that MBG/silk scaffolds can improve attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of both O-MSCs and sham control. In vivo therapeutic efficiency was evaluated by μCT analysis, hematoxylin and eosin staining, safranin O staining and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, indicating accelerated bone formation with compatible scaffold degradation and reduced osteoclastic response of defect healing in OVX rats after 2 and 4 weeks treatment, with a rank order of MBG/silk > BG/silk > silk group. Immunohistochemical markers of COL I, OPN, BSP and OCN also revealed that MBG/silk scaffolds can better induce accelerated collagen and non-collagen matrix production. The findings of this study suggest that MBG/silk scaffolds provide a better environment for cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation, and act as potential substitute for treating local osteoporotic defects.
This study was intended to identify the disease causing genes in a large Chinese family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa and macular degeneration.
A genome scan analysis was conducted in this family for disease gene preliminary mapping. Snapshot analysis of selected SNPs for two-point LOD score analysis for candidate gene filter. Candidate gene PRPF31 whole exons' sequencing was executed to identify mutations.
A novel nonsense mutation caused by an insertion was found in PRPF31 gene. All the 19 RP patients in 1085 family are carrying this heterozygous nonsense mutation. The nonsense mutation is in PRPF31 gene exon9 at chr19:54629961-54629961, inserting nucleotide “A” that generates the coding protein frame shift from p.307 and early termination at p.322 in the snoRNA binding domain (NOP domain).
This report is the first to associate PRPF31 gene's nonsense mutation and adRP and JMD. Our findings revealed that PRPF31 can lead to different clinical phenotypes in the same family, resulting either in adRP or syndrome of adRP and JMD. We believe our identification of the novel “A” insertion mutation in exon9 at chr19:54629961-54629961 in PRPF31 can provide further genetic evidence for clinical test for adRP and JMD.
The technique of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), which was developed for en bloc resection of large lesions in the stomach, has been widely accepted for the treatment of the entire gastrointestinal tract. Many minimally invasive endoscopic therapies based on ESD have been developed recently. Endoscopic submucosal excavation, submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection and laparoscopic-endoscopic cooperative surgery have been used to remove submucosal tumors, especially tumors which originate from the muscularis propria of the digestive tract. Peroral endoscopic myotomy has recently been described as a scarless and less invasive surgical myotomy option for the treatment of achalasia. Patients benefit from minimally invasive endoscopic therapy. This article, in the highlight topic series, provides detailed information on the indications and treatments for esophageal diseases.
Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Endoscopic treatment; Esophageal disease; Indication; Treatment
The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical features and prognostic factors of surgical outcome of foot drop caused by lumbar degenerative disease and put forward the clinical stage.
We retrospectively reviewed 135 patients with foot drop due to lumbar degenerative disease. The clinical features and mechanism were analyzed. Age, sex, duration of palsy, preoperative muscle strength of tibialis anterior (TA), sensation defect of affected lower limb, affected foot, diagnosis and compressed nerve roots were recorded and compared with surgical outcome.
Foot drop was observed in 8.1% of all inpatients of lumbar degenerative disease. L5 nerve root compression was observed in 126 of all 135 patients (93.3%). Single, double and triple roots compression was observed respectively in 43, 83, and 9 patients (31.9%, 61.5%, and 6.6%). But there was no significant relationship between preoperative muscle strength of TA and the number of compressed roots. The muscle strength of TA was improved in 113 (83.7%) patients after surgery, but it reached to >=4 in only 21 (15.6%) patients. Improvement of the muscle strength of TA was almost stable at the 6-month follow-up. At the last follow-up, the muscle strength of TA was 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 respectively in 28, 24, 62, 13, 8 patients. Multivariate logistic regression showed duration of palsy (p=0.0360, OR=2.543), preoperative muscle strength of TA (p=0.0064, OR=5.528) and age (p=0.0309, OR=3.208) were factors that influenced recovery following an operation.
L5 nerve root was most frequently affected. The muscle strength of TA improved in most patients after surgery, but few patients can get a good recovery from foot drop. Patients of shorter duration of palsy, better preoperative muscle strength of TA and younger age showed a better surgical outcome.
Depression is one of the most common and debilitating psychiatric illnesses around the world, but the current antidepressants used to treat depression have many limitations. Progressively more studies have shown that neuropeptide systems are potential novel therapeutic targets for depression. However, whether the neuropeptide trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) participates in the development of depression has not been examined. In the current experiments, we assessed the antidepressant effects of TFF3 using the forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), and chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm. Furthermore, we determined the mechanism that underlies the antidepressant-like effects of TFF3 in the rat FST. TFF3 dose-dependently reduced immobility time in both FST and TST. CMS elevated plasma TFF3 and decreased basolateral amygdala (BLA) TFF3 levels in rats, and acute TFF3 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment reversed the depressive-like behaviors induced by CMS. Furthermore, TFF3 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased Fos expression in the BLA, medial prefrontal cortex, and hypothalamus in rats subjected to the FST. Intra-BLA infusions of TFF3 (1 ng/side) exerted rapid antidepressant-like effects in the rat FST. Additionally, acute systemic TFF3 administration increased the level of phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt) in the BLA. Finally, intra-BLA infusions of LY294002 (5 mM/side), a specific phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, significantly blocked the antidepressant-like effect of TFF3. Our results demonstrated that TFF3 exerts antidepressant-like effects that might be mediated by the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the BLA. These findings suggest a novel neuropeptide system target in the development of new antidepressants.
depression; neuropeptide; trefoil factor 3; basolateral amygdala; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; chronic mild stress; animal models; behavioral science; biological psychiatry; chronic stress; depression; unipolar/bipolar; neuropeptide
Using a glutathione S-transferase pull-down liquid chromatography–coupled tandem mass spectrometry approach and immunoprecipitation/immunoblot analysis, we found that heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) was involved in the complex formed by atypical protein kinase Cι (PKCι) and LC3 in the esophageal cancer cell line KYSE30. Further study indicated that Hsc70 was targeted by autophagic degradation, and knockdown of PKCι down-regulated Hsc70 by promoting autophagy. PKCι knockdown sensitized cells to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, whereas forced PKCι expression counteracted the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis via Hsc70.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12192-012-0389-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PKCι; Hsc70; Oxidative stress; Autophagic degradation
Viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm cannot access the host nuclear capping machinery. These viruses have evolved viral methyltransferase(s) to methylate N-7 and 2′-O cap of their RNA; alternatively, they “snatch” host mRNA cap to form the 5′ end of viral RNA. The function of 2′-O methylation of viral RNA cap is to mimic cellular mRNA and to evade host innate immune restriction. A cytoplasmic virus defective in 2′-O methylation is replicative, but its viral RNA lacks 2′-O methylation and is recognized and eliminated by the host immune response. Such a mutant virus could be rationally designed as a live attenuated vaccine. Here, we use Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), an important mosquito-borne flavivirus, to prove this novel vaccine concept. We show that JEV methyltransferase is responsible for both N-7 and 2′-O cap methylations as well as evasion of host innate immune response. Recombinant virus completely defective in 2′-O methylation was stable in cell culture after being passaged for >30 days. The mutant virus was attenuated in mice, elicited robust humoral and cellular immune responses, and retained the engineered mutation in vivo. A single dose of immunization induced full protection against lethal challenge with JEV strains in mice. Mechanistically, the attenuation phenotype was attributed to the enhanced sensitivity of the mutant virus to the antiviral effects of interferon and IFIT proteins. Collectively, the results demonstrate the feasibility of using 2′-O methylation-defective virus as a vaccine approach; this vaccine approach should be applicable to other flaviviruses and nonflaviviruses that encode their own viral 2′-O methyltransferases.
This study compared the performance of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) in the preoperative staging of gastric cancer.
A total of 610 patients participated in this study, all of whom had undergone surgical resection, had confirmed gastric cancer and were evaluated with EUS and MSCT. Tumor staging was evaluated using the Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) staging and Japanese classification. The results from the imaging modalities were compared with the postoperative histopathological outcomes. The overall accuracies of EUS and MSCT for the T staging category were 76.7% and 78.2% (P=0.537), respectively. Stratified analysis revealed that the accuracy of EUS for T1 and T2 staging was significantly higher than that of MSCT (P<0.001 for both) and that the accuracy of MSCT in T3 and T4 staging was significantly higher than that of EUS (P<0.001 and 0.037, respectively). The overall accuracy of MSCT was 67.2% when using the 13th edition Japanese classification, and this percentage was significantly higher than the accuracy of EUS (49.3%) and MSCT (44.6%) when using the 6th edition UICC classification (P<0.001 for both values).
Our results demonstrated that the overall accuracies of EUS and MSCT for preoperative staging were not significantly different. We suggest that a combination of EUS and MSCT is required for preoperative evaluation of TNM staging.
The objective of this study was to investigate the reversal effects of 5,5’-dimethoxylariciresinol-4’-O-β-D-glucoside (DMAG) extracted from traditional Chinese medicines Mahonia on multidrug resistance (MDR) of human leukemia cells to chemotherapeutic agents.
Materials and Methods:
MTT(3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was performed to determine the effect of DMAG on doxorubicin sensitivity to K562/DOX cells. Propidium iodide /Hoechst 33342 double staining assay was used to investigate the effect of DMAG on doxorubicin-induced cellular apoptosis. Intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123 assay were performed to evaluate the effect of DMAG on drugs efflux activity of P-glycoprotein.
DMAG significantly enhanced the doxorubicin cytotoxicity to K562/DOX cells. In the presence of 1.0 μM of DMAG, the IC50 of doxorubicin decreased from 34.93 ± 1.37 μM to 12.51 ± 1.28 μM. DMAG of 1.0 μM significantly enhanced doxorubicin-induced cell apoptosis in K562/DOX cells and the enhancement was time-dependent. A significant increase in accumulation of doxorubicin in the presence of DMAG was observed. After treatment of the K562/DOX cells for 1 h with 15.0 μM doxorubicin alone, the fluorescence intensity was 33093.12. With the addition of 1.0 μM of DMAG, the fluorescence intensity of doxorubicin was 2.3-fold higher. A significant increase of accumulation of rhodamine 123 in the presence of DMAG was also observed. With the addition of 1.0 μM of DMAG, the fluorescence intensity was increased by 49.11% compared with rhodamine 123 alone.
DMAG was shown to effectively enhance chemosensitivity of resistant cells, which makes it might be a suitable candidate for potential MDR-reversing agents.
5,5’-dimethoxylariciresinol-4’-O-β-D-glucoside; doxorubicin; leukemia; multidrug resistance
Genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis identified three new susceptibility loci for PACG. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether these three loci in PLEKHA7, COL11A1, and PCMTD1-ST18 are associated with PAC and ocular biometric characteristics, such as axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and diopter of spherical power (DS). The study was a part of the Jiangsu Eye Study. The samples were collected from 232 PAC subjects and 306 controls from a population-based prevalence survey conducted in Funing County of Jiangsu, China. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of rs11024102 in PLEKHA7, rs3753841 in COL11A1, and rs1015213 in PCMTD1-ST18 were genotyped by TaqMan-MGB probe using the RT-PCR system. None of the three polymorphisms showed differences in the distribution of genotypes and allele frequencies between the PAC group and the control group. No significant association was determined between the 3 SNPs and AL, ACD, or DS of PAC subjects. We concluded that even though PLEKHA7 rs11024102, COL11A1 rs3753841, and PCMTD1-ST18 rs1015213 are associated with PACG, those sequence variations are not associated with PAC in a Han Chinese population. Our results also did not support a significant role for these three SNPs in ocular biometry such as AL, ACD, and DS.
The western borderland between Yunnan Province, China, and Myanmar is characterized by a climate that facilitates year-round production of mosquitoes. Numerous mosquito-transmitted viruses, including Japanese encephalitis virus circulate in this area. This project was to describe seasonal patterns in mosquito species abundance and arbovirus activity in the mosquito populations.
Mosquitoes were collected in Mangshi and Ruili cities of Dehong Prefecture near the border of China and Burma in Yunnan Province, the Peoples Republic of China in 2010. We monitored mosquito species abundance for a 12-month period using ultraviolet light, carbon dioxide baited CDC light and gravid traps; and tested the captured mosquitoes for the presence of virus to evaluate mosquito-virus associations in rural/agricultural settings in the area.
A total of 43 species of mosquitoes from seven genera were collected, including 15 Culex species, 15 Anopheles spp., four Aedes spp., three Armigeres spp., one Mimomyia spp., two Uranotaenia spp. and three Mansonia spp.. Species richness and diversity varied between Mangshi and Ruili. Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles sinensis and Anopheles peditaeniatus were the most abundant species in both sampling sites. Ultraviolet light traps collected more specimens than CDC light traps baited with dry ice, though both collected the same variety of mosquito species. The CDC gravid trap was the most effective trap for capture of Culex quinquefasciatus, a species underrepresented in light trap collections. A total of 26 virus strains were isolated, which included 13 strains of Japanese encephalitis virus, four strains of Getah virus, one strain of Oya virus, one strain from the orbivirus genus, and seven strains of Culex pipien pallens densovirus.
The present study illustrates the value of monitoring mosquito populations and mosquito-transmitted viruses year-round in areas where the climate supports year-round adult mosquito activity.
Osteoporotic vertebral compressed fractures (VCFs) are the most common osteoporotic fractures. Although percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) reportedly relieves pain and improves function, a recent pooled analysis from two multicenter randomized controlled trials concluded the improvement in pain and disability treated with PVP was similar to those with sham surgery.
Using meta-analysis we therefore asked whether compared with either nonoperative therapy or a sham injection for patients with VCF, PVP would (1) better relieve pain, (2) provide greater improvement in pain-related disability, and (3) increase the recurrence of vertebral fractures.
We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Medline, and the Cochrane library using the keywords “vertebroplasty AND osteoporosis OR fracture”. We included nine of the 469 articles identified. Using a random effects model, we calculated the weighted mean differences to evaluate the pain reduction at different times as the primary outcome. Pain-related disability was assessed by a quality of life (QOL) measure. Improvement of QOL and recurrence of vertebral fractures were the secondary outcomes. We used subgroup analysis to reinvestigate pain relief and function improvement of PVP based on two different controls: nonoperative therapy and sham injection. The total number of patients was 886.
Pain scoring was similar between the PVP group and the sham injection group at 1 to 29 days and 90 days. However, compared with nonoperative therapy, PVP reduced pain at all times studied. QOL in the PVP group was improved or tended to be improved compared with QOL for both control groups. The risk of new fractures was similar between the PVP groups and both control groups.
Different control groups may have accounted for the different conclusions in the literature regarding the ability of PVP to relieve pain and restore function recovery. Compared with nonoperative treatment PVP relieved pain better and improved QOL. PVP did not increase the risk of new fractures.
Level of Evidence
Level II, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.