Tumor-infiltrating immune cells are associated with tumor prognosis, although the type of immune cells responsible for local immune escape is still unknown. This study examined the relationship between gastric cancer survival and the density of immune cells, including CD8+ T cells, CD20+ B cells, and CD33+/p-STAT1+ cells, which represent myeloid-derived suppressor cells, to evaluate the role of immune cells in the progression of gastric cancer. One hundred pathologically confirmed specimens were obtained from stage IIIa gastric cancers between 2003 and 2006 at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, China. The density of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in tumor tissue was examined using immunohistochemical analysis. Clinicopathologic parameters and the survival rate were analyzed in relation to the density of immune cells. A high density of CD8+ T cells and CD20+ B cells was associated with a good clinical outcome, but a high density of CD33+/p-STAT1+ cells was associated with a poor clinical outcome. Most importantly, the density of CD33+/p-STAT1+ cells was an independent prognostic factor and inversely related to the infiltration of CD8+ T cells. Although the infiltration of CD8+ T cells and CD20+ B cells is involved in the progression of gastric cancer, these data suggest that CD33+/p-STAT1+ cells play a central role in the regulation of the local immune response, suggesting that CD33+/p-STAT1+ cells might be therapeutic targets in gastric cancer.
Gastric cancer; CD33; STAT1; T cell; B cell; Regulation
Microarray-based classifiers and associated signature genes generated from various platforms are abundantly reported in the literature; however, the utility of the classifiers and signature genes in cross-platform prediction applications remains largely uncertain. As part of the MicroArray Quality Control Phase II (MAQC-II) project, we show in this study 80–90% cross-platform prediction consistency using a large toxicogenomics data set by illustrating that: (1) the signature genes of a classifier generated from one platform can be directly applied to another platform to develop a predictive classifier; (2) a classifier developed using data generated from one platform can accurately predict samples that were profiled using a different platform. The results suggest the potential utility of using published signature genes in cross-platform applications and the possible adoption of the published classifiers for a variety of applications. The study reveals an opportunity for possible translation of biomarkers identified using microarrays to clinically validated non-array gene expression assays.
microarray; cross-platform; gene signature; classifier; MAQC; hepatotoxicity
Aside from the well-established self-renewal and multipotent differentiation properties, mesenchymal stem cells exhibit both immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory roles in several experimental autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In this study, we isolated a new population of stem cells from human gingiva, a tissue source easily accessible from the oral cavity, namely, gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs), which exhibited clonogenicity, self-renewal, and multipotent differentiation capacities. Most importantly, GMSCs were capable of immunomodulatory functions, specifically suppressed peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation, induced expression of a wide panel of immunosuppressive factors including IL-10, IDO, inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in response to the inflammatory cytokine, IFN-γ. Cell-based therapy using systemic infusion of GMSCs in experimental colitis significantly ameliorated both clinical and histopathological severity of the colonic inflammation, restored the injured gastrointestinal mucosal tissues, reversed diarrhea and weight loss, and suppressed the overall disease activity in mice. The therapeutic effect of GMSCs was mediated, in part, by the suppression of inflammatory infiltrates and inflammatory cytokines/mediators and the increased infiltration of regulatory T cells and the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 at the colonic sites. Taken together, GMSCs can function as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory component of the immune system in vivo and is a promising cell source for cell-based treatment in experimental inflammatory diseases.
Batch effects are the systematic non-biological differences between batches (groups) of samples in microarray experiments due to various causes such as differences in sample preparation and hybridization protocols. Previous work focused mainly on the development of methods for effective batch effects removal. However, their impact on cross-batch prediction performance, which is one of the most important goals in microarray-based applications, has not been addressed. This paper uses a broad selection of data sets from the Microarray Quality Control Phase II (MAQC-II) effort, generated on three microarray platforms with different causes of batch effects to assess the efficacy of their removal. Two data sets from cross-tissue and cross-platform experiments are also included. Of the 120 cases studied using Support vector machines (SVM) and K nearest neighbors (KNN) as classifiers and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) as performance metric, we find that Ratio-G, Ratio-A, EJLR, mean-centering and standardization methods perform better or equivalent to no batch effect removal in 89, 85, 83, 79 and 75% of the cases, respectively, suggesting that the application of these methods is generally advisable and ratio-based methods are preferred.
batch effect; batch effect removal; cross-batch prediction; microarray; gene expression; MAQC-II
Gene expression signatures of toxicity and clinical response benefit both safety assessment and clinical practice; however, difficulties in connecting signature genes with the predicted end points have limited their application. The Microarray Quality Control Consortium II (MAQCII) project generated 262 signatures for ten clinical and three toxicological end points from six gene expression data sets, an unprecedented collection of diverse signatures that has permitted a wide-ranging analysis on the nature of such predictive models. A comprehensive analysis of the genes of these signatures and their nonredundant unions using ontology enrichment, biological network building and interactome connectivity analyses demonstrated the link between gene signatures and the biological basis of their predictive power. Different signatures for a given end point were more similar at the level of biological properties and transcriptional control than at the gene level. Signatures tended to be enriched in function and pathway in an end point and model-specific manner, and showed a topological bias for incoming interactions. Importantly, the level of biological similarity between different signatures for a given end point correlated positively with the accuracy of the signature predictions. These findings will aid the understanding, and application of predictive genomic signatures, and support their broader application in predictive medicine.
genomic signatures; enrichment analysis; network reconstruction; biological pathways; interactome; MAQCII
To evaluate the frequency, distribution and clinical significance of the antibodies to the fetal and/or adult acetylcholine receptor (AChR) in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG).
AChR antibodies were detected by cell-based assay in the serum of ocular MG (OMG) (n = 90) and generalized MG (GMG) patients (n = 110). The fetal-type (2α: β: γ: δ) and adult-type (2α: β: ε: δ) AChR were used as antigens, and their relevance to disease presentation was assessed.
The overall frequencies of anti-adult and anti-fetal AChR antibodies were similar in all 200 patients examined, with 14 having serum specific to the AChR-γ subunit, and 22 to the AChR-ε subunit. The overall sensitivity when using the fetal and adult AChR antibodies was higher than that when using the fetal AChR antibody only (P = 0.015). Compared with OMG patients, the mean age at disease onset and the positive ratio of antibodies to both isoforms of the AChR were significantly higher in patients who subsequently progressed to GMG. Older patients and patients with both anti-fetal and anti-adult AChR antibodies had a greater risk for developing generalized disease [odds ratio (OR), 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01–1.06 and OR, 5.09; 95% CI, 2.23–11.62].
Using both fetal- and adult-type AChRs as the antigens may be more sensitive than using either subtype. Patients with serum specific to both isoforms are at a greater risk of progressing to GMG. Patients with disease onset at an advanced age appear to have a higher frequency of GMG conversion.
myasthenia gravis; acetylcholine receptor antibodies; acetylcholine receptor subunit; cell-based assay; adult; fetal
The differentiation and maintenance of Th17 cells require a unique cytokine milieu and activation of lineage-specific transcription factors. This process appears to be antagonized by the transcription factor T-bet, which controls the differentiation of Th1 cells. Considering that T-bet-deficient (T-bet−/−) mice are largely devoid of natural killer (NK) cells due to a defect in the terminal maturation of these cells, and because NK cells can influence the differentiation of T helper cells, we investigated whether the absence of NK cells in T-bet-deficient mice contributes to the augmentation of autoreactive Th17 cell responses. We show that the loss of T-bet renders the transcription factors Rorc and STAT3 highly responsive to activation by stimuli provided by NK cells. Furthermore, reconstitution of T-bet−/− mice with wild-type NK cells inhibited the development of autoreactive Th17 cells through NK cell-derived production of IFN-γ. These results identify NK cells as critical regulators in the development of autoreactive Th17 cells and Th17-mediated pathology.
Cigarette smoke exposure markedly compromises the ability of the immune system to protect against invading pathogens and tumorigenesis. Nicotine is a psychoactive component of tobacco products that acts as does the natural neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, on nicotinic receptors (nAChRs). Here we demonstrate that natural killer (NK) cells strongly express nAChR β2. Nicotine exposure impairs the ability of NK cells to kill target cells and release cytokines, a process that is largely abrogated by nAChR β2 deficiency. Further, nicotinic suppression of NF-κB-induced transcriptional activity in NK cells is dependent on nAChR β2. This nAChR subtype also plays a large role in the NK cell-mediated control of melanoma lung metastasis, in a murine lung metastasis model exposed to nicotine. Our findings suggest nAChR β2 as a prominent pathway for nicotine induced impairment of NK cell functions which contributes to the occurrence of smoking-related pathologies.
Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is an important immune regulatory protein that possesses potent anti-osteoclastogenic properties, and does so via the transcription factor STAT6. Previous studies have shown that IL-4 selectively blocks RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway molecules, suggesting that the cytokine arrests osteoclastogenesis by blockade of these signaling cascades. However, the fact that the inhibitory effect on these pathways requires prolonged IL-4 pretreatment, and that the cytokine fails to exert an anti-osteoclastogenic effect after short-term pre-exposure of RANKL to osteoclast precursors, suggests that an additional, more immediate mechanism may also be involved. In this study, we found that simultaneous exposure of IL-4 did not alter RANKL-dependent activation of NF-κB or MAPKs, whereas the cytokine did block RANKL-induced nuclear factor activated T cells c1 (NFATc1), a master osteoclastogenic transcription factor. This inhibitory effect of IL-4 required STAT6, consistent with its functional role in osteoclastogenesis. In addition, the cytokine also partially impaired RANKL-stimulated bone resorption. Furthermore, IL-4 suppressed expression of RANKL-induced osteoclast specific genes in a STAT6-dependent manner, but failed to do so when osteoclast precursors were pre-exposed to RANKL. Thus, we provide the first evidence that IL-4 inhibits osteoclast formation by inhibiting RANKL induction of NFATc1 via STAT6 as an early event, in addition to its suppression of other signaling pathways. The inhibitory effect is ultimately regulated at the gene expression transcriptional level.
RANKL; IL-4; STAT6; NFATc1; BONE MARROW MACROPHAGE; OSTEOCLAST
The mismatch of the elastic modulus between implants and bone tissue can lead to stress shielding, bone resorption and poor osseointegration. Compared with normal bone tissue, this problem is much more serious in osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was designed to find out whether the novel Ti-24Nb-4Zr-7.9Sn (TNZS) implant with low elastic modulus and high strength was suitable for biomedical material, especially in osteoporosis.
In vitro study, the viability and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of osteoblasts on the TNZS and Ti-6V-4V (TAV) were observed. In vivo study, 30 adult female New Zealand rabbits were selected and divided randomly into two groups: sham-operation (SHAM, n = 6) and ovariectomised in combination with methylprednisolone treatment (OVX+MP, n = 24). Two implants were then placed in the tibia of each OVX + MP group rabbit, one in each side (left: TAV; right: TNZS). The OVX + MP group rabbits were sacrificed at 4 and 12 weeks after the implantation. The osteoporotic bone responses to the TNZS and TAV implants were evaluated by pull-out test, Micro-CT analyses and histological observation.
Compared with the TAV group, the TNZS group showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in cell viability and ALP activity, new bone formation and pull-out force.
The novel TNZS implants show good biological performance both in vitro and in vivo, which suggests that the alloys are suitable for biomedical applications, especially in osteoporosis.
The extent to which RNA stability differs between individuals and its contribution to the interindividual expression variation remain unknown. We conducted a genome-wide analysis of RNA stability in seven human HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) and analyzed the effect of DNA sequence variation on RNA half-life differences. Twenty-six percent of the expressed genes exhibited RNA half-life differences between LCLs at a false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05, which accounted for ~ 37% of the gene expression differences between individuals. Nonsense polymorphisms were associated with reduced RNA half-lives. In genes presenting interindividual RNA half-life differences, higher coding GC3 contents (G and C percentages at the third-codon positions) were correlated with increased RNA half-life. Consistently, G and C alleles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in protein coding sequences were associated with enhanced RNA stability. These results suggest widespread interindividual differences in RNA stability related to DNA sequence and composition variation.
Mechanical injury causes myelin disruption and subsequent axonal conduction failure in the mammalian spinal cord. However, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. In mammalian myelinated axons, proper paranodal myelin structure is crucial for the generation and propagation of action potentials. The exposure of potassium channels at the juxtaparanodal region due to myelin disruption is thought to induce outward potassium currents and inhibit the genesis of the action potential, leading to conduction failure. Using multimodal imaging techniques, we provided anatomical evidence demonstrating paranodal myelin disruption and consequent exposure and redistribution of potassium channels following mechanical insult in the guinea pig spinal cord. Decompaction of paranodal myelin was also observed. It was shown that paranodal demyelination can result from both an initial physical impact and secondary biochemical reactions that are calcium dependent. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP), a known potassium channel blocker, can partially restore axonal conduction, which further implicates the role of potassium channels in conduction failure. We provide important evidence of paranodal myelin damage, the role of potassium channels in conduction loss, and the therapeutic value of potassium blockade as an effective intervention to restore function following spinal cord trauma.
calpain; myelin; paranode; potassium channel; secondary injury
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil crops. A primary limitation to the cultivation of this crop is the lack of available phosphorus (P) in soils. To elucidate the genetic control of P deficiency tolerance in Brassica napus, quantitative trait locus (QTL) for seed yield and yield related-traits in response to P deficiency were identified using a double haploid mapping population (TN DH) derived from a cross between a P-efficient cultivar, Ningyou 7 and a P-inefficient cultivar, Tapidor.
Three field trials were conducted to determine seed yield (SY), plant height (PH), number of primary branches (BN), height to the first primary branch (FBH), relative first primary branch height (RBH), pod number per plant (PN), seed number per pod (SN) and seed weight of 1,000 seeds (SW) in 188 lines of TN DH population exposed to low P (LP) and optimal P (OP) conditions. P deficiency decreased PH, BN, SN, PN and SY, and increased FBH and RBH with no effect on SW. Three reproducible LP-specific QTL regions were identified on chromosomes A2, A3 and A5 that controlled SN, PN and SW respectively. In addition, six reproducible constitutive regions were also mapped with two each for SY-LP on A2, and FBH-LP on C6 and one each for PH-LP and SW-LP on A3. About 30 markers derived from 19 orthologous genes involved in Arabidopsis P homeostasis were mapped on 24 QTL regions by comparative mapping between Arabidopsis and Brassica napus. Among these genes, GPT1, MGD2 and SIZ1 were associated with two major loci regulating SY-LP and other yield-related traits on A2 between 77.1 and 95.0 cM.
The stable QTLs detected under LP conditions and their candidate genes may provide useful information for marker-assisted selection in breeding high-yield B. napus varieties with improved P efficiency.
Bladder cancer is the most common malignant urological disease in China. Hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) is a DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor, which has been utilized in chemotherapy for bladder cancer for nearly 40 years. Previous research has demonstrated that the isoflavone, genistein, can sensitize multiple cancer cell lines to HCPT treatment, such as prostate and cervical cancer. In this study, we investigated whether genistein could sensitize bladder cancer cell lines and bladder epithelial cell BDEC cells to HCPT treatment, and investigated the possible underlying molecular mechanisms. Genistein could significantly and dose-dependently sensitize multiple bladder cancer cell lines and BDEC cells to HCPT-induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Genistein and HCPT synergistically inhibited bladder cell growth and proliferation, and induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in TCCSUP bladder cancer cell and BDEC cell. Pretreatment with genistein sensitized BDEC and bladder cancer cell lines to HCPT-induced DNA damage by the synergistic activation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase. Genistein significantly attenuated the ability of HCPT to induce activation of the anti-apoptotic NF-κB pathway both in vitro and in vivo in a bladder cancer xenograft model, and thus counteracted the anti-apoptotic effect of the NF-κB pathway. This study indicates that genistein could act as a promising non-toxic agent to improve efficacy of HCPT bladder cancer chemotherapy.
Although interferon-γ (IFN-γ) potently inhibits osteoclastogenesis, the suppressive effect is significantly reduced when osteoclast precursors are pre-exposed to the receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) ligand (RANKL). However, the molecular mechanism underlying the biphasic effects of IFN-γ on osteoclastogenesis remains elusive. Here, we recapitulate the biphasic functions of IFN-γ in osteoclastogenesis in both tissue culture dishes and on bone slices. We further demonstrate that IFN-γ markedly suppresses the RANKL-induced expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1 (NFATc1) in normal, but not RANKL-pretreated bone marrow macrophages (BMMs). Similarly, IFN-γ impairs the activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways in normal, but not RANKL-pretreated, BMMs. These findings indicate that IFN-γ inhibits osteoclastogenesis partially by suppressing the expression of NFATc1 and the activation of the NF-κB and JNK pathways. Moreover, IFN-γ inhibits the RANKL-induced expression of osteoclast genes, but RANKL pretreatment reprograms osteoclast genes into a state in which they can no longer be suppressed by IFN-γ, indicating that IFN-γ inhibits osteoclastogenesis by blocking the expression of osteoclast genes. Finally, the IVVY535–538 motif in the cytoplasmic domain of RANK is responsible for rendering BMMs refractory to the inhibitory effect of IFN-γ. Taken together, these findings provide important mechanistic insights into the biphasic effects of IFN-γ on osteoclastogenesis.
Superoxide anion is elevated during neointima development and is essential for neointimal vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. However, little is known about the role of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, SOD2) in the neointima formation following vascular injury. SOD2 in the mitochondria plays an important role in cellular defense against oxidative damage. Because of its subcellular localization, SOD2 is considered the first line of defense against oxidative stress and plays a central role in metabolizing superoxide. Because mitochondria are the most important sources of superoxide anion, we speculated that SOD2 may have therapeutic benefits in preventing vascular remodeling. In this study, we used a rat carotid artery balloon-injury model and an adenoviral gene delivery approach to test the hypothesis that SOD2 suppresses vascular lesion formation. SOD2 was activated along with the progression of neointima formation in balloon-injured rat carotid arteries. Depletion of SOD2 by RNA interference markedly promoted the lesion formation, whereas SOD2 overexpression suppressed the injury-induced neointima formation via attenuation of migration and proliferation of VSMCs. SOD2 exerts its inhibitory effect on VSMC migration induced by angiotensin II by scavenging superoxide anion and suppressing the phosphorylation of Akt. Our data indicate that SOD2 is a negative modulator of vascular lesion formation after injury. Therefore, SOD2 augmentation may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the prevention of lesion formation in proliferative vascular diseases such as restenosis.
Manganese superoxide dismutase; Oxidative stress; Neointima; Migration; Proliferation; Vascular smooth muscle cells; Signal transduction; Free radicals
Accurate localization of moving sensors is essential for many fields, such as robot navigation and urban mapping. In this paper, we present a framework for GPS-supported visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping with Bundle Adjustment (BA-SLAM) using a rigorous sensor model in a panoramic camera. The rigorous model does not cause system errors, thus representing an improvement over the widely used ideal sensor model. The proposed SLAM does not require additional restrictions, such as loop closing, or additional sensors, such as expensive inertial measurement units. In this paper, the problems of the ideal sensor model for a panoramic camera are analysed, and a rigorous sensor model is established. GPS data are then introduced for global optimization and georeferencing. Using the rigorous sensor model with the geometric observation equations of BA, a GPS-supported BA-SLAM approach that combines ray observations and GPS observations is then established. Finally, our method is applied to a set of vehicle-borne panoramic images captured from a campus environment, and several ground control points (GCP) are used to check the localization accuracy. The results demonstrated that our method can reach an accuracy of several centimetres.
panoramic camera; visual SLAM; bundle adjustment; GPS
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious healthcare problem worldwide because of its increasing morbidity and high mortality rates. However, our understanding of the mechanism of liver tumorigenesis remains incomplete. We report the expression of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in the livers of rats with diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced HCC and investigated the correlation between MLCK and liver tumorigenesis by observing the expression of MLCK in a rat model of HCC. HCC was induced in rats by an intraperitoneal injection of DENA, and resveratrol-treated rats were orally administered resveratrol with 50 mg/kg body weight/day. The livers of rats were excised after 20 weeks and immersed in 10% formaldehyde prior to immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses for determining the level of MLCK expression. These analyses indicated that the MLCK expression was higher in the livers of HCC rats than in normal and resveratrol-treated rats. High level of MLCK expression was responsible for proliferation and anti-apoptotic effects. However, resveratrol down-regulated the expression of MLCK, which induced cell apoptosis and inhibited liver tumorigenesis in rats with DENA-induced HCC. Our results suggest that the over expression of MLCK may be related to the development of liver tumorigenesis.
myosin light chain kinase; liver tumorigenesis; resveratrol; apoptosis
Primary hepatic lymphoma is extremely rare, and only a few cases have been described on positron emission tomography (PET) or PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging in the English literature. We report a case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with low-grade fever and weight loss of three months. On CT scanning, a mass was identified which appeared to be a hypoattenuating lesion, on ultrasonographic imaging, the mass was hypoechoic, therefore, liver abscess or hepatic metastasis from a gastrointestinal primary was initially suspected. Tumor markers such as alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 were within normal limits. PET/CT demonstrated a large abnormal ring-like hypermetabolic focus in the right liver lobe. The lesion was resected and the histopathological findings were consistent with lymphoma. The patient was discharged two weeks after surgery and did not receive any further treatment. After 25 mo follow-up, she is in good health. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT is useful in confirming the diagnosis of primary hepatic lymphoma by demonstrating no other foci with high uptake in other parts of the body.
Fluorodeoxyglucose; Positron emission tomography/computerized tomography; Primary hepatic lymphoma; Diffuse large B cell lymphoma; Solitary lesion
Neurotrophic factors, such as glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), are promising therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases. However, the application of GDNF to treat these diseases effectively is limited because the blood–brain barrier (BBB) prevents the local delivery of macromolecular therapeutic agents from entering the central nervous system (CNS). Focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles (MBs) using appropriate parameters has been previously demonstrated to be able to open the BBB locally and noninvasively. This study investigated the targeted delivery of GDNF MBs through the BBB by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided focused ultrasound. Evans Blue extravasation and histological examination were used to determine the optimum focused ultrasound parameters. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to verify the effects of GDNF bound on MBs using a biotin–avidin bridging chemistry method to promote GDNF delivery into the brain. The results showed that GDNF can be delivered locally and noninvasively into the CNS through the BBB using MRI-guided focused ultrasound combined with MBs under optimum parameters. MBs that bind GDNF combined with MRI-guided focused ultrasound may be an effective way of delivering neurotrophic factors directly into the CNS. The method described herein provides a potential means of treating patients with CNS diseases.
Dynamic histone H3K4 methylation is an important epigenetic component of transcriptional regulation. However, most of our current understanding of this histone mark is confined to regulation of transcriptional initiation. We now show that human LSD2/KDM1b/AOF1, the human homolog of LSD1, is an H3K4me1/2 demethylase that specifically regulates histone H3K4 methylation within intragenic regions of its target genes. Genome-wide mapping reveals that LSD2 associates predominantly with the gene bodies of actively transcribed genes, but is markedly absent from promoters. Depletion of endogenous LSD2 results in an increase of H3K4me2 as well as a decrease of H3K9me2 at LSD2 binding sites, and a consequent dysregulation of target gene transcription. Furthermore, characterization of LSD2 complex revealed that LSD2 forms active complexes with euchromatic histone methyltransferases EHMT1/2 and NSD3 as well as cellular factors involved in active transcription elongation. These data provide a possible molecular mechanism linking LSD2 to transcriptional regulation post initiation.
Recently, the studies on the antiviral activities of marine natural products, especially marine polysaccharides, are attracting more and more attention all over the world. Marine-derived polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives have been shown to possess a variety of antiviral activities. This paper will review the recent progress in research on the antiviral activities and the mechanisms of these polysaccharides obtained from marine organisms. In particular, it will provide an update on the antiviral actions of the sulfated polysaccharides derived from marine algae including carrageenans, alginates, and fucans, relating to their structure features and the structure–activity relationships. In addition, the recent findings on the different mechanisms of antiviral actions of marine polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application will also be summarized in detail.
marine polysaccharides; antiviral activities; mechanisms of action; heparinoidspolysaccharide; structure–activity relationship
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can induce the apoptosis of infected cells. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of EV71 infection on apoptosis mechanisms in virus-infected human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells.
The apoptosis of RD cells was examined using annexin V-FITC/PI by flow cytometry and cytokines were detected by ELISA. Cellular RNA was extracted and transcribed to cDNA. PCR array was employed to analyze the expressions of 84 apoptotic genes from EV71-infected RD cells at 8 and 20 h postinfection, respectively. In addition, the expressions of FasL, caspase, AKT2, JNK1/2, c-Jun and NF-κB proteins were detected by western blotting.
Flow cytometry demonstrated that the apoptosis or death of EV71-infected RD cells was increased by 37.1% with a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 5 at 20 h postinfection. The production of IL-4, IL-10 and TNF-α was enhanced by the subsequent EV71 infection. PCR array revealed significant changes in the expressions of apoptotic genes. Among 84 genes, 42 genes were down-regulated after EV71 infection at 8 h, whereas 32 genes were up-regulated at 20 h postinfection. Moreover, the ligands of TNF superfamily such as FasL, CD40L and TNF-α were significantly up-regulated and enhanced the expressions of apoptosis-related cysteine peptidases, including caspase-10, -8, -7 and -3. In addition, EV71 infection induces the phosphorylation of AKT2, JNK1/2, c-Jun and NF-κB at 20 h postinfection.
PCR array for the determination of apoptosis gene expressions is an informative assay in elucidating biological pathways. During the early stage of EV71 infection, the apoptotic process of RD cells is significantly delayed. EV71 infection can also induce the expressions of FasL, TNF-α and CD40L, which contribute to the apoptosis of RD cells.
Enterovirus 71; PCR array; FasL; CD40L; Apoptosis
Background and Aim: Neutropenia is a serious adverse event for patients who are treated with cetuximab, an inhibitor of endothelial growth factor receptor. However, there is no consistent result of the relationship between cetuximab and neutropenia in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of published RCTs to assess the overall risk of neutropenia associated with cetuximab.
Methods: PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, and American Society of Clinical Oncology conferences were searched for relevant RCTs. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were carried out to evaluate the association between neutropenia and cetuximab. Both the fixed-effect model and random-effects model were used.
Results: A total of 7186 patients with a variety of advanced cancers from 14 trials were included in our analysis. The overall incidence of neutropenia in patients receiving cetuximab was 33% (95% CI 26, 43). Patients treated with cetuximab had a significantly increased risk of neutropenia compared with patients treated with control medication, with a relative risk (RR) of 1.12 (95% CI 1.05, 1.19; fixed-effect model). Risk varied with tumor type. Higher risks were observed in patients with colorectal carcinoma (RR 1.17; 95% CI 1.04, 1.32; fixed-effect model) and non-small cell lung cancer (RR 1.07; 95% CI 0.99, 1.16; fixed-effect model).
Conclusion: Cetuximab is associated with a significant risk of neutropenia in patients with advanced cancer receiving concurrent chemotherapy.
Rectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Early detection and early therapy are important for the control of death caused by rectal cancer. The present study aims to investigate the genomic alterations in rectal adenoma and carcinoma.
We detected the genomic changes of 8 rectal adenomas and 8 carcinomas using array CGH. Then 14 genes were selected for analyzing the expression between rectal tumor and paracancerous normal tissues as well as from adenoma to carcinoma by real-time PCR. The expression of GPNMB and DIS3 were further investigated in rectal adenoma and carcinoma tissues by immunohistochemistry.
We indentified ten gains and 22 losses in rectal adenoma, and found 25 gains and 14 losses in carcinoma. Gains of 7p21.3-p15.3, 7q22.3-q32.1, 13q13.1-q14.11, 13q21.1-q32.1, 13q32.2-q34, 20p11.21 and 20q11.23-q12 and losses of 17p13.1-p11.2, 18p11.32-p11.21 and 18q11.1-q11.2 were shared by both rectal adenoma and carcinoma. Gains of 1q, 6p21.33-p21.31 and losses of 10p14-p11.21, 14q12-q21.1, 14q22.1-q24.3, 14q31.3-q32.1, 14q32.2-q32.32, 15q15.1-q21.1, 15q22.31 and 15q25.1-q25.2 were only detected in carcinoma but not in adenoma. Copy number and mRNA expression of EFNA1 increased from rectal adenoma to carcinoma. C13orf27 and PMEPA1 with increased copy number in both adenoma and carcinoma were over expressed in rectal cancer tissues. Protein and mRNA expression of GPNMB was significantly higher in cancer tissues than rectal adenoma tissues.
Our data may help to identify the driving genes involved in the adenoma-carcinoma progression.