In vitro scaling up of bioengineered tissues is known to be limited by diffusion issues, specifically a lack of vasculature. Here, we report a new strategy for preserving cell viability in three-dimensional tissues using cell sheet technology and a perfusion bioreactor having collagen-based microchannels. When triple-layer cardiac cell sheets are incubated within this bioreactor, endothelial cells in the cell sheets migrate to vascularize in the collagen gel, and finally connect with the microchannels. Medium readily flows into the cell sheets through the microchannels and the newly developed capillaries, while the cardiac construct shows simultaneous beating. When additional triple-layer cell sheets are repeatedly layered, new multi-layer construct spontaneously integrates and the resulting construct becomes a vascularized thick tissue. These results confirmed our method to fabricate in vitro vascularized tissue surrogates that overcomes engineered-tissue thickness limitations. The surrogates promise new therapies for damaged organs as well as new in vitro tissue models.
Our previous studies showed that an adenovirus (Ad) serotype 5 vector expressing Flt3 ligand (Ad-FL) as nasal adjuvant activates CD11c+ dendritic cells (DCs) for the enhancement of antigen (Ag)-specific IgA antibody (Ab) responses. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism for activation of CD11c+ DCs and their roles in induction of Ag-specific Th1- and Th2- cell responses. Ad-FL activated CD11c+ DCs expressed increased levels of the Notch ligand (L)-expression and specific mRNA. When CD11c+ DCs from various mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues of mice given nasal OVA plus Ad-FL were cultured with CD4+ T cells isolated from non-immunized OVA TCR-transgenic (OT II) mice, significantly increased levels of T cell proliferative responses were noted. Furthermore, Ad-FL activated DCs induced IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-4 producing CD4+ T cells. Of importance, these APC functions by Ad-FL activated DCs were down-regulated by blocking Notch-Notch-L pathway. These results show that Ad-FL induces CD11c+ DCs to the express Notch-ligands and these activated DCs regulate the induction of Ag-specific Th1- and Th2- type cytokine responses.
Dendritic cells; Notch ligands; Cytokines
The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident released large amounts of radioactive substances into the environment. In order to provide basic information for biokinetics of radionuclides and for dose assessment of internal exposure brought by the FNPP accident, we determined the activity concentration of radionuclides in the organs of 79 cattle within a 20-km radius around the FNPP. In all the specimens examined, deposition of Cesium-134 (134Cs, half-life: 2.065 y) and 137Cs (30.07 y) was observed. Furthermore, organ-specific deposition of radionuclides with relatively short half-lives was detected, such as silver-110m (110mAg, 249.8 d) in the liver and tellurium-129m (129mTe, 33.6 d) in the kidney. Regression analysis showed a linear correlation between the radiocesium activity concentration in whole peripheral blood (PB) and that in each organ. The resulting slopes were organ dependent with the maximum value of 21.3 being obtained for skeletal muscles (R2 = 0.83, standard error (SE) = 0.76). Thus, the activity concentration of 134 Cs and 137Cs in an organ can be estimated from that in PB. The level of radioactive cesium in the organs of fetus and infants were 1.19-fold (R2 = 0.62, SE = 0.12), and 1.51-fold (R2 = 0.70, SE = 0.09) higher than that of the corresponding maternal organ, respectively. Furthermore, radiocesium activity concentration in organs was found to be dependent on the feeding conditions and the geographic location of the cattle. This study is the first to reveal the detailed systemic distribution of radionuclides in cattle attributed to the FNPP accident.
Since a combination of flt3 ligand plasmid (pFL) and CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN)3 as a dendritic cell (DC)-targeting double mucosal adjuvant elicited ovalbumin-specific secretory IgA (S-IgA) antibody (Ab) responses, we examined whether this double adjuvant could induce influenza-specific protective immunity in aged mice. A double adjuvant plus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8)-hemagglutinin (HA) induced increased numbers of CD11b+ CD11c+DCs and both CD4+ Th1- and Th2-type responses in the nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoreticular tissue, nasal passages and cervical lymph nodes. Further, increased levels of PR8-HA-specific S-IgA Ab responses were detected in the upper respiratory tact (URT) of aged and young adult mice given nasal PR8-HA with this double adjuvant. Thus, when mice were challenged with PR8 virus via the nasal route, both aged and young adult mice given nasal vaccine exhibited complete protection. Further, IgA-deficient mice nasally immunized with a double adjuvant influenza vaccine failed to provide protection against PR8 challenge. These results indicate that a nasal double adjuvant successfully induces PR8-HA-specific IgA Ab responses in both young adult and aged mice, which are essential for the prevention of influenza infection in the murine URT.
Influenza; Mucosal vaccine; DC; Aged mice
Rubrivivax gelatinosus is a facultative photoheterotrophic betaproteobacterium living in freshwater ponds, sewage ditches, activated sludge, and food processing wastewater. There have not been many studies on photosynthetic betaproteobacteria. Here we announce the complete genome sequence of the best-studied phototrophic betaproteobacterium, R. gelatinosus IL-144 (NBRC 100245).
Actinoplanes missouriensis Couch 1963 is a well-characterized member of the genus Actinoplanes, which is of morphological interest because its members typically produce sporangia containing motile spores. The sporangiospores are motile by means of flagella and exhibit chemotactic properties. It is of further interest that members of Actinoplanes are prolific sources of novel antibiotics, enzymes, and other bioactive compounds. Here, we describe the features of A. missouriensis 431T, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 8,773,466 bp genome contains 8,125 protein-coding and 79 RNA genes.
motile actinomycetes; sporangia; zoospores; motile spores; flagellation; aerobic; Gram-positive; Micromonosporaceae; Actinoplanes; A. missouriensis
We have investigated the effects of 2 weeks of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) supplementation (5 μg/kg per day) and 6 weeks of exercise training (60% of the maximal oxygen consumption [VO2 max]) on neurogenesis, DNA damage/repair, and sirtuin content in the hippocampus of young (3 months old) and old (26 months old) rats. Exercise improved the spatial memory of the old group, but IGF-1 supplementation eliminated this effect. An age-associated decrease in neurogenesis was attenuated by exercise and IGF-1 treatment. Aging increased the levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) and the protein Ku70, indicating the role of DNA damage in age-related neuropathology. Acetylation of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) was detected in vivo, and this decreased with aging. However, in young animals, exercise and IGF-1 treatment increased acetylated (ac) OGG1 levels. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and SIRT3, as DNA damage–associated lysine deacetylases, were measured, and SIRT1 decreased with aging, resulting in a large increase in acetylated lysine residues in the hippocampus. On the other hand, SIRT3 increased with aging. Exercise-induced neurogenesis might not be a causative factor of increased spatial memory, because IGF-1 plus exercise can induce neurogenesis in the hippocampus of older rats. Data revealed that the age-associated increase in 8-oxoG levels is due to decreased acetylation of OGG1. Age-associated decreases in SIRT1 and the associated increase in lysine acetylation, in the hippocampus, could have significant impact on function and thus, could suggest a therapeutic target.
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a rare endothelial neoplasm mainly involving the skin, but it is often associated with AIDS. Diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) tract KS, a common site of visceral involvement in AIDS, is important, but endoscopic biopsy carries a risk of false-negative results (FNRs) due to its submucosal appearance. This study sought to determine the rate and causes of FNR for endoscopic biopsy of GI-KS lesions. Endoscopic biopsy samples of 116 GI-KS lesions were reviewed retrospectively. All GI-KS lesions were confirmed to be resolved following KS therapy. FNRs were yielded for 41 of the lesions (35.3%). Among upper and lower GI sites, the esophagus was the only site significantly associated with FNRs (P < 0.01). Small size (<10 mm) and patches found on endoscopy were significantly associated with FNRs (P < 0.05). Findings of submucosal tumor (SMT) with ulceration were significantly associated with true-positive results (P < 0.05). In conclusion, FNRs were found in 35.3% of GI-KS lesions and were especially related to the site of the esophagus and endoscopic early stage (small size or patch appearance). An SMT with ulceration may be relatively easy to diagnose on endoscopic biopsy. Caution should be exercised when performing endoscopic biopsy of these lesions in AIDS patients and evaluating the histological features.
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can differentiate into any cell type, which makes them an attractive resource in fields such as regenerative medicine, drug screening, or in vitro toxicology. The most important prerequisite for these industrial applications is stable supply and uniform quality of iPS cells. Variation in quality largely results from differences in handling skills between operators in laboratories. To minimize these differences, establishment of an automated iPS cell culture system is necessary.
We developed a standardized mouse iPS cell maintenance culture, using an automated cell culture system housed in a CO2 incubator commonly used in many laboratories. The iPS cells propagated in a chamber uniquely designed for automated culture and showed specific colony morphology, as for manual culture. A cell detachment device in the system passaged iPS cells automatically by dispersing colonies to single cells. In addition, iPS cells were passaged without any change in colony morphology or expression of undifferentiated stem cell markers during the 4 weeks of automated culture.
Our results show that use of this compact, automated cell culture system facilitates stable iPS cell culture without obvious effects on iPS cell pluripotency or colony-forming ability. The feasibility of iPS cell culture automation may greatly facilitate the use of this versatile cell source for a variety of biomedical applications.
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell; Automated cell culture system (ACCS); CO2 incubator-scale; Pluripotency
Recent investigations have shown that a variety of d-amino acids are present in living organisms and that they possibly play important roles in physiological functions in the body. d-Amino acid oxidase (DAO) and d-aspartate oxidase (DDO) are degradative enzymes stereospecific for d-amino acids. They have been identified in various organisms, including mammals and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, although the significance of these enzymes and the relevant functions of d-amino acids remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal localization of C. elegans DAO and DDOs (DDO-1, DDO-2, and DDO-3) and measured the levels of several d- and l-amino acids in wild-type C. elegans and four mutants in which each gene for DAO and the DDOs was partially deleted and thereby inactivated. Furthermore, several phenotypes of these mutant strains were characterized. The results reported in this study indicate that C. elegans DAO and DDOs are involved in egg-laying events and the early development of C. elegans. In particular, DDOs appear to play important roles in the development and maturation of germ cells. This work provides novel and useful insights into the physiological functions of these enzymes and d-amino acids in multicellular organisms.
High fat diets are known to be a risk factor for prostate cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of high fat diet on mouse prostate gene expression.
C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control or high fat diet for 12 weeks. Microarray analyses were performed on mouse ventral prostate (VP) and dorsolateral prostate (DLP), followed by canonical pathway analysis and regulatory network identification. mRNA changes were confirmed by real time PCR.
Approximately 2,125, and 1,194 genes responded significantly to the high fat diet in VP, DLP, respectively. Pathways and networks related to oxidative stress, glutathione metabolism, NRF-mediated oxidative stress response and NF-kappaB were all differentially regulated by high fat diet. GPx3 mRNA levels were decreased by approximately 2-fold by high fat diet in all 3 prostate lobes. In human non-transformed prostate cells (PrSC, PrEC and BPH-1), cholesterol loading decreased GPx3 expression, and increased H2O2 levels of culture medium. Troglitazone increased GPx3 expression in 3 normal prostate cells, and decreased H2O2 levels. In addition, troglitazone attenuated cholesterol-induced H2O2 increase. Tissue from prostate cancer biopsies had decreased GPx3 mRNA and its level was inversely related to the Gleason score.
High fat diet alters pathways related to many genes concerned with oxidative stress. GPx3, a gene identified by this analysis, was found to be down regulated by high fat diet and appears be decreased in human prostate cancers, suggesting that GPx3 may have a possible role in modulating carcinogenesis.
high fat diet; prostate; GPx3; cholesterol; mouse
To identify novel compounds that possess antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV), we screened a library of small molecules with various amounts of structural diversity using an HCV replicon-expressing cell line and performed additional validations using the HCV-JFH1 infectious-virus cell culture. Of 4,004 chemical compounds, we identified 4 novel compounds that suppressed HCV replication with 50% effective concentrations of ranging from 0.36 to 4.81 μM. N′-(Morpholine-4-carbonyloxy)-2-(naphthalen-1-yl) acetimidamide (MCNA) was the most potent and also produced a small synergistic effect when used in combination with alpha interferon. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) analyses revealed 4 derivative compounds with antiviral activity. Further SAR analyses revealed that the N-(morpholine-4-carbonyloxy) amidine moiety was a key structural element for antiviral activity. Treatment of cells with MCNA activated nuclear factor κB and downstream gene expression. In conclusion, N-(morpholine-4-carbonyloxy) amidine and other related morpholine compounds specifically suppressed HCV replication and may have potential as novel chemotherapeutic agents.
Nephropathy, a major complication of diabetes, is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Recent studies have demonstrated that podocyte injury is involved in the onset of and progression to renal insufficiency. Here, we describe a novel, highly sensitive ELISA for detecting urinary podocalyxin, a glycoconjugate on the podocyte apical surface that indicates podocyte injury, particularly in the early phase of diabetic nephropathy.
Urine samples from patients with glomerular diseases (n = 142) and type 2 diabetes (n = 71) were used to quantify urinary podocalyxin by ELISA. Urine samples were obtained from 69 healthy controls for whom laboratory data were within normal values. Podocalyxin was detected in urine by immunofluorescence, immunoelectron microscopy and western blotting.
Morphologically, urinary podocalyxin was present as a vesicular structure; western blotting showed it as a positive band at 165–170 kDa. Levels of urinary podocalyxin were elevated in patients with various glomerular diseases and patients with diabetes. In patients with diabetes, urinary podocalyxin was higher than the cut-off value in 53.8% patients at the normoalbuminuric stage, 64.7% at the microalbuminuric stage and 66.7% at the macroalbuminuric stage. Positive correlations were observed between urinary podocalyxin levels and HbA1c, urinary β2 microglobulin, α1 microglobulin and urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, although urinary podocalyxin levels were not correlated with other laboratory markers such as blood pressure, lipid level, serum creatinine, estimated GFR or proteinuria.
Urinary podocalyxin may be a useful biomarker for detecting early podocyte injury in patients with diabetes.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-012-2661-7) contains peer-reviewed but unedited supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
Diabetic nephropathy; Glomerular capillary wall; Podocalyxin; Podocyte; Urine biomarker
In general, women report more physical and mental symptoms than men. International comparisons of countries with different welfare state regimes may provide further understanding of the social determinants of sex inequalities in health. This study aims to evaluate (1) whether there are sex inequalities in health functioning as measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and (2) whether work characteristics contribute to the sex inequalities in health among employees from Britain, Finland, and Japan, representing liberal, social democratic, and conservative welfare state regimes, respectively. The participants were 7340 (5122 men and 2218 women) British employees, 2297 (1638 men and 659 women) Japanese employees, and 8164 (1649 men and 6515 women) Finnish employees. All the participants were civil servants aged 40-60 years. We found that more women than men tended to have disadvantaged work characteristics (i.e. low employment grade, low job control, high job demands, and long work hours) but such sex differences were relatively smaller among employees from Finland, where more gender equal policies exist than Britain and Japan. The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of women for poor physical functioning was the largest for British women (OR=2.08), followed by for Japanese women (OR=1.72), and then for Finnish women (OR=1.51). The age-adjusted OR of women for poor mental functioning was the largest for Japanese women (OR=1.91), followed by for British women (OR=1.45), and then for Finnish women (OR=1.07). Thus, sex differences in physical and mental health was the smallest in the Finnish population. The larger the sex differences in work characteristics, the larger the sex differences in health and the reduction in the sex differences in health after adjustment for work characteristics. These results suggest that egalitarian and gender equal policies may contribute to smaller sex differences in health, through smaller differences in disadvantaged work characteristics between men and women.
UK; Finland; Japan; Gender; Psychosocial stress; civil sevants; job demand; Health inequalities
To maintain cellular homeostasis, cells are equipped with precise systems that trigger the appropriate stress responses. Mitochondria not only provide cellular energy but also integrate stress response signaling pathways, including those regulating cell death. Several lines of evidence suggest that the mitochondrial proteins that function in this process, such as Bcl-2 family proteins in apoptosis and phosphoglycerate mutase family member 5 (PGAM5) in necroptosis, are regulated by several kinases. It has also been suggested that the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of mitochondrial fission machinery, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), facilitates appropriate cellular stress responses. However, mitochondria themselves are also damaged by various stresses. To avoid the deleterious effects exerted by damaged mitochondria, cells remove these mitochondria in a selective autophagic degradation process called mitophagy. Interestingly, several kinases, such as PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) in mammals and stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in yeast, have recently been shown to be involved in mitophagy. In this paper, we focus on the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of mitochondrial proteins and discuss the roles of this regulation in the mitochondrial and cellular stress responses.
Atrophic gastritis, whether caused by Helicobacter pylori infection or as a result of an autoimmune process, is associated with corpus atrophy. However, whereas atrophic gastritis caused by H. pylori involves the antrum, the antrum is spared in autoimmune gastritis. Here, we report the use of magnifying endoscopy to identify and distinguish atrophic gastritis caused by H. pylori from autoimmune gastritis. The mucosal pattern in autoimmune gastritis is that of closely arranged small round and oval pits, thus differing from the pattern seen in atrophic mucosa due to H. pylori infection. We speculate that this reflects differences in inflammation between the two types of gastritis. In autoimmune gastritis the inflammation is directed primarily against gastric glands, whereas in H. pylori infection the inflammation is directed against the bacteria on or near the surface and the damage initially affects the surface epithelium. During repair, the normal regular round pits are destroyed, whereas they remain largely intact in mucosa with autoimmune-associated atrophy. Confirmation of the features of autoimmune gastritis revealed by magnifying endoscopy would not only make the endoscopic diagnosis of autoimmune gastritis more accurate, but also help to elucidate changes in the surface epithelial structure of gastritis due to various causes.
The autonomous generation of phenotypic diversity in embryonic cell populations can be explained by Waddington’s landscape. The landscape proposes that intra- and inter-cellular interactions mediate the generation of cellular diversity. Recently, we implemented, in a population of Escherichia coli, a synthetic diversification, which is governed by inter-cellular signaling mediated by acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL). The cells with the diversity generator diversified into two distinct cell states, “high” and “low,” if all of the cells started from the low state. The ratio of the states after the diversification was affected by the velocity of autonomous signal accumulation, which depends on the cell density and the AHL production rate of individual cells. The dependency of the ratio on the initial cell density is reminiscent of the community effect, which is observed in animal development and is important for ES-cell differentiation. Therefore, it is worthwhile reviewing the roles of natural animal gene networks with similar topologies to the diversity generator design. The diversity generator design will also be the basis for a tool to direct cell fates on the population level in tissue engineering. Here, we discuss the tunability of the ratio of cell states by our synthetic circuit design.
phenotypic diversification; Waddington epigenetic landscape; bifurcation; bioengineering; community effect; inter-cellular signaling; synthetic biology; tissue engineering
We retrospectively reviewed a new preimplantation regenerative augmentation technique for a severely atrophic posterior maxilla using sinus lifting with simultaneous alveolar distraction, together with long-term oral rehabilitation with implants. We also analyzed the regenerated bone histomorphologically. This study included 25 maxillary sinus sites in 17 patients. The technique consisted of alveolar osteotomy combined with simultaneous sinus lifting. After sufficient sinus lifting, a track-type vertical alveolar distractor was placed. Following a latent period, patient self-distraction was started. After the required augmentation was achieved, the distractor was left in place to allow consolidation. The distractor was then removed, and osseointegrated implants (average of 3.2 implants per sinus site, 80 implants) were placed. Bone for histomorphometric analysis was sampled from six patients and compared with samples collected after sinus lifting alone as controls (n = 4). A sufficient alveolus was regenerated, and all patients achieved stable oral rehabilitation. The implant survival rate was 96.3% (77/80) after an average postloading followup of 47.5 months. Good bone regeneration was observed in a morphological study, with no significant difference in the rate of bone formation compared with control samples. This new regenerative technique could be a useful option for a severely atrophic maxilla requiring implant rehabilitation.
Prosthetic hand users have to rely extensively on visual feedback, which seems to lead to a high conscious burden for the users, in order to manipulate their prosthetic devices. Indirect methods (electro-cutaneous, vibrotactile, auditory cues) have been used to convey information from the artificial limb to the amputee, but the usability and advantages of these feedback methods were explored mainly by looking at the performance results, not taking into account measurements of the user’s mental effort, attention, and emotions. The main objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using psycho-physiological measurements to assess cognitive effort when manipulating a robot hand with and without the usage of a sensory substitution system based on auditory feedback, and how these psycho-physiological recordings relate to temporal and grasping performance in a static setting.
10 male subjects (26+/-years old), participated in this study and were asked to come for 2 consecutive days. On the first day the experiment objective, tasks, and experiment setting was explained. Then, they completed a 30 minutes guided training. On the second day each subject was tested in 3 different modalities: Auditory Feedback only control (AF), Visual Feedback only control (VF), and Audiovisual Feedback control (AVF). For each modality they were asked to perform 10 trials. At the end of each test, the subject had to answer the NASA TLX questionnaire. Also, during the test the subject’s EEG, ECG, electro-dermal activity (EDA), and respiration rate were measured.
The results show that a higher mental effort is needed when the subjects rely only on their vision, and that this effort seems to be reduced when auditory feedback is added to the human-machine interaction (multimodal feedback). Furthermore, better temporal performance and better grasping performance was obtained in the audiovisual modality.
The performance improvements when using auditory cues, along with vision (multimodal feedback), can be attributed to a reduced attentional demand during the task, which can be attributed to a visual “pop-out” or enhance effect. Also, the NASA TLX, the EEG’s Alpha and Beta band, and the Heart Rate could be used to further evaluate sensory feedback systems in prosthetic applications.
Glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), a conserved three-carbon sugar, is an obligatory component of energy-producing reactions including glycolysis and glycerolipid biosynthesis. G3P can be derived via the glycerol kinase-mediated phosphorylation of glycerol or G3P dehydrogenase (G3Pdh)-mediated reduction of dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Previously, we showed G3P levels contribute to basal resistance against the hemibiotrophic pathogen, Colletotrichum higginsianum. Inoculation of Arabidopsis with C. higginsianum correlated with an increase in G3P levels and a concomitant decrease in glycerol levels in the host. Plants impaired in GLY1 encoded G3Pdh accumulated reduced levels of G3P after pathogen inoculation and showed enhanced susceptibility to C. higginsianum. Recently, we showed that G3P is also a potent inducer of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in plants. SAR is initiated after a localized infection and confers whole-plant immunity to secondary infections. SAR involves generation of a signal at the site of primary infection, which travels throughout the plants and alerts the un-infected distal portions of the plant against secondary infections. Plants unable to synthesize G3P are defective in SAR and exogenous G3P complements this defect. Exogenous G3P also induces SAR in the absence of a primary pathogen. Radioactive tracer experiments show that a G3P derivative is translocated to distal tissues and this requires the lipid transfer protein, DIR1. Conversely, G3P is required for the translocation of DIR1 to distal tissues. Together, these observations suggest that the cooperative interaction of DIR1 and G3P mediates the induction of SAR in plants.
An attempt was made to verify the observation that Streptomyces griseus was prevalent in soil based on isolation work. A genus-specific PCR was developed for Streptomyces based on the housekeeping gene atpD and used to investigate species diversity within selected soils. The presence of S. griseus was investigated to determine coexistence of resistance-only streptomycin phosphotransferase (strA) in the same soil as streptomycin producers. Two additional PCR-based assays were developed; one specific for strA in association with production, the other for more diverse strA and other related phosphotranferases. Both the S. griseus atpD and strA genes were below the PCR detection limit in all soils examined. A number of more diverse phosphotransferase genes were amplified, a minority of which may be associated with streptomycin production. We conclude that neither streptomycin producers nor S. griseus are prevalent in the fresh or chitin and starch-amended soils examined (less than 0.1% of soil actinobacteria). One of the soil sites had received plantomycin (active ingredient: streptomycin) and diversity studies suggested that this altered the streptomycete populations present in the soil.
Complement has both protective and pathogenic functions in lupus due to a balance between its role in the clearance of immune complexes (IC’s) and apoptotic cells versus inflammation. The classical pathway contributes to IC and apoptotic cell clearance, whereas the alternative pathway is a key mediator of renal inflammation. We investigated the effect of a new targeted inhibitor of the alternative pathway, CR2-fH, on lupus-like renal disease in MRL/lpr mice.
Mice were treated with either saline, CR2-fH, CR2-Crry (inhibits all complement pathways) or sCR2 (C3d-binding targeting vehicle). Sera were analyzed every 2 weeks for autoantibodies, circulating ICs and C3. Urinary albumin was also determined, and kidneys collected for histological evaluation at 23 weeks.
CR2-fH and CR2-Crry treatment improved survival and significantly reduced proteinuria, glomerular C3 deposition and circulating IC’s. CR2-fH, but not CR2-Crry, also significantly reduced glomerulonephritis, serum anti-dsDNA antibodiesa, and glomerular IgG and C1q deposition. Interestingly, sCR2 also significantly reduced levels of anti-dsDNA antibodies, circulating IC’s and glomerular deposition of IgG, C1q and C3, although there was no significant reduction in glomerulonephritis, proteinuria or mortality.
Targeted and selective inhibition of the alternative complement pathway is an effective treatment for murine lupus, and is more effective than blockade of all pathways. The data demonstrate benefits to leaving the classical/lectin pathways intact, and indicate distinct roles for the classical and alternative pathways of complement in progression of the disease. The sCR2 targeting vehicle contributes to therapeutic activity, possibly via modulation of autoimmunity.
Complement; lupus; factor H; kidney; autoimmunity
Dome-type carcinoma (DC) is a distinct variant of colorectal adenocarcinoma and less than 10 cases have been described in the literature. Most of the previously reported cases were early lesions and no endoscopic observations have been described so far. We herein report a case of a DC invading the subserosal layer, including endoscopic findings.
A highly elevated lesion in the transverse colon was diagnosed by colonoscopy in a 77-year-old man. The tumor appeared to be similar to a submucosal tumor (SMT), however, a demarcated area of reddish and irregular mucosa was observed at the top of the tumor. There were no erosions or ulcers. Laparoscopic-assisted right hemicolectomy was performed and pathological examination revealed a well-circumscribed tumor invading the subserosal layer. The tumor was a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma associated with a dense lymphocytic infiltration and showed expansive growth. The overlying mucosal layer showed high-grade dysplasia.
The present lesion was diagnosed as a DC of the colon invading the subserosal layer. Because the association of mucosal dysplasia is common in DCs, the detection of dysplastic epithelium would be important to discriminate DCs from SMTs.
Colorectal carcinoma; Gut-associated lymphoid tissue; Dome-type carcinoma
Osteoclastogenesis plays an important role in the bone erosion of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recently, Notch receptors have been implicated in the development of osteoclasts. However, the responsible Notch ligands have not been identified yet. This study was undertaken to determine the role of individual Notch receptors and ligands in osteoclastogenesis.
Mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages or human peripheral blood monocytes were used as osteoclast precursors and cultured with receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) to induce osteoclasts. Osteoclasts were detected by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. K/BxN serum-induced arthritic mice and ovariectomized mice were treated with anti-mouse Delta-like 1 (Dll1) blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb).
Blockade of a Notch ligand Dll1 with mAb inhibited osteoclastogenesis and, conversely, immobilized Dll1-Fc fusion protein enhanced it in both mice and humans. In contrast, blockade of a Notch ligand Jagged1 enhanced osteoclastogenesis and immobilized Jagged1-Fc suppressed it. Enhancement of osteoclastogenesis by agonistic anti-Notch2 mAb suggested that Dll1 promoted osteoclastogenesis via Notch2, while suppression by agonistic anti-Notch1 mAb suggested that Jagged1 suppressed osteoclastogenesis via Notch1. Inhibition of Notch signaling by a gamma-secretase inhibitor suppressed osteoclastogenesis, implying that Notch2/Dll1-mediated enhancement was dominant. Actually, blockade of Dll1 ameliorated arthritis induced by K/BxN serum transfer, reduced the number of osteoclasts in the affected joints and suppressed ovariectomy-induced bone loss.
The differential regulation of osteoclastogenesis by Notch2/Dll1 and Notch1/Jagged1 axes may be a novel target for amelioration of bone erosion in RA patients.
Management of job satisfaction is of growing importance in terms of the maintenance of employees’ health. This study aimed to evaluate which and to what extent facets of job satisfaction contributed to global job satisfaction.
The participants were 4286 employees aged 18–69 years working in local government in Japan. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 1998–1999. Seven facets of job satisfaction were evaluated. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate which facets of job satisfaction contributed to global job satisfaction.
For all employees, all of the facets of job satisfaction significantly contributed to global job satisfaction. Among the facets of job satisfaction, ‘being satisfied with interests and skills involved in work’ and ‘how abilities were used’ contributed more strongly to global satisfaction than ‘being satisfied with how the section is running’, ‘co-workers’, ‘work prospects’, ‘physical working conditions’ and ‘payment’. The differing associations of facets of job satisfaction with global job satisfaction did not change substantially in stratified analysis by occupation, with one exception that only three facets of job satisfaction contributed to global job satisfaction in administrative workers.
Job satisfaction related to the intrinsic aspects of the job (i.e., ‘interests and skills involved in work’ and ‘how abilities were used’) contributed more to global job satisfaction than the other aspects of job satisfaction. Longitudinal research in employees with various occupations may be needed to confirm the results of this study.
Job satisfaction; Occupation; Working environments; The JACS study; Japan