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1.  The first non-mammalian CXCR5 in a teleost fish: molecular cloning and expression analysis in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) 
BMC Immunology  2010;11:25.
Background
Chemokines, a group of small and structurally related proteins, mediate chemotaxis of various cell types via chemokine receptors. In mammals, seven different CXC chemokine receptors denoted as CXCR1 to CXCR7 have been reported. However, the chemokine receptor CXCR5 has not been reported in other vertebrates.
Results
In the present study, the genomic sequence of CXCR5 was isolated from the grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. The cDNA sequence of grass carp CXCR5 (gcCXCR5) consists of 1518 bp with a 43 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR) and a 332 bp 3' UTR, with an open reading frame of 1143 bp encoding 381 amino acids which are predicted to have seven transmembrane helices. The characteristic residues (DRYLAIVHA) and conserved cysteine residues are located in the extracellular regions and in the third to seventh transmembrane domains. The deduced amino acid sequence shows 37.6-66.6% identities with CXCR5 of mammals, avian and other fish species. The grass carp gene consists of two exons, with one intervening intron, spaced over 2081 bp of genomic sequence. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that the gcCXCR5 is clustered with those in other teleost fish and then in chicken and mammals. Real-time PCR analysis showed that gcCXCR5 was expressed in all tested organs/tissues and its expression level was the highest in trunk kidney, followed by in the spleen. The expression of gcCXCR5 was significantly modulated by immunostimulants such as peptidoglycan (PGN), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid sodium salt (Poly I:C) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA).
Conclusion
The cDNA and genomic sequences of CXCR5 have been successfully characterized in a teleost fish, the grass carp. The CXCR5 has in general a constitutive expression in organs/tissues examined, whereas its expression was significantly up-regulated in immune organs and down-regulated in brain, indicating its potential role in immune response and central nervous system.
doi:10.1186/1471-2172-11-25
PMCID: PMC2889864  PMID: 20504365
2.  Colorimetric and Fluorescent Sensing of SCN- Based on meso-Tetraphenylporphyrin/meso-Tetraphenylporphyrin Cobalt(II) System 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2007;7(3):410-419.
An approach for colorimetric and fluorescent sensing of thiocyanate (SCN-) has been proposed based on the competitive-displacement strategy between meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) and meso-tetraphenylporphyrin cobalt(II) (CoTPP). In THF-water solution, TPP emits strong fluorescence at 651 nm; however, the fluorescence was quenched stepwise by CoTPP, and then restored by SCN-, the detection limit is 6.0 × 10-4 M. The recognition of SCN- could also be easily achieved by visual way since the assembly system showed significant color change by the anion. Both the fluorescence and the color change of the system exhibits remarkably high selectivity to SCN- over a large series of anions. The interaction mechanisms among TPP, CoTPP and SCN- were primarily investigated by fluorescence lifetime. The quenching of TPP fluorescence is attributed to the formation of TPP/CoTPP aggregates, and the fluorescence restoration is due to the binding of CoTPP with SCN-, releasing the free TPP. This simple system has the potential to be used as a latent fluorescent sensing approach for SCN- for environmental analysis.
PMCID: PMC3756729
Porphyrin; Fluorescent; Colorimetric; Sensor; Thiocyanate
3.  Childhood sexual abuse and the risk for recurrent major depression in Chinese women 
Psychological Medicine  2011;42(2):409-417.
Background
Studies in Western countries have repeatedly shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD). Would this relationship be found in China?
Method
Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse) were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression and regression coefficients by linear or Poisson regression.
Results
Any form of CSA was significantly associated with recurrent MD [OR 3.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.95–5.45]. This association strengthened with increasing CSA severity: non-genital (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.17–5.23), genital (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.32–5.83) and intercourse (OR 13.35, 95% CI 1.83–97.42). The association between any form of CSA and MD remained significant after accounting for parental history of depression, childhood emotional neglect (CEN), childhood physical abuse (CPA) and parent–child relationship. Among the depressed women, those with CSA had an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes and an increased risk for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.39–2.66) and dysthymia (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.52–3.09).
Conclusions
In Chinese women CSA is strongly associated with MD and this association increases with greater severity of CSA. Depressed women with CSA have an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes and increased co-morbidity with GAD and dysthymia. Although reporting biases cannot be ruled out, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that, as in Western countries, CSA substantially increases the risk for MD in China.
doi:10.1017/S0033291711001462
PMCID: PMC3250087  PMID: 21835095
Childhood sexual abuse; co-morbidity; major depression
4.  A comparison of the clinical characteristics of women with recurrent major depression with and without suicidal symptomatology 
Psychological Medicine  2012;42(12):2591-2598.
Background
The relationship between recurrent major depression (MD) in women and suicidality is complex. We investigated the extent to which patients who suffered with various forms of suicidal symptomatology can be distinguished from those subjects without such symptoms.
Method
We examined the clinical features of the worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent DSM-IV MD between the ages of 30 and 60 years from across China. Student's t tests, and logistic and multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between suicidality and other clinical features of MD.
Results
Suicidal symptomatology is significantly associated with a more severe form of MD, as indexed by both the number of episodes and number of MD symptoms. Patients reporting suicidal thoughts, plans or attempts experienced a significantly greater number of stressful life events. The depressive symptom most strongly associated with lifetime suicide attempt was feelings of worthlessness (odds ratio 4.25, 95% confidence interval 2.9–6.3). Excessive guilt, diminished concentration and impaired decision-making were also significantly associated with a suicide attempt.
Conclusions
This study contributes to the existing literature on risk factors for suicidal symptomatology in depressed women. Identifying specific depressive symptoms and co-morbid psychiatric disorders may help improve the clinical assessment of suicide risk in depressed patients. These findings could be helpful in identifying those who need more intense treatment strategies in order to prevent suicide.
doi:10.1017/S003329171200058X
PMCID: PMC3488812  PMID: 22716960
Co-morbidity; major depression; suicidal ideation; suicide; women

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