To determine the relative effect of birth weight and gestational age on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) using preterm twin pairs discordant for birth weight.
This study was a retrospective cohort study including 55 consecutive twin pairs of 110 preterm infants (gestational age ≤33 weeks). The outcomes of ROP including occurrence (any stage), severe ROP (stage 3 or more), and clinically significant ROP requiring laser treatment were compared between twins with the lower birth weight from each pair and their co-twins with the higher birth weight. Using twin pairs having different birth weight and identical gestational age, the independent effects of prematurity and intrauterine growth on ROP could be evaluated. Other perinatal morbidities related to prematurity were also compared between twin pairs.
No significant differences in ROP between larger and smaller infants were observed in the twin-paired analysis while analysis on individual infants showed strong association between small birth weight and ROP outcomes. However, in both the larger and smaller infant groups, gestational age of <28 weeks was significantly associated with ROP outcomes. No differences were found between twin pairs regarding other perinatal morbidities including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, respiratory distress syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, and periventricular leukomalacia.
Birth weight is not associated with ROP, while gestational age is in the twin-paired study, suggesting that gestational age is a better predictor of ROP than birth weight. This indicates that maturity is more important in the pathogenesis of ROP than intrauterine growth.
retinopathy of prematurity; gestational age; birth weight
We performed a phase II study of combination chemotherapy with irinotecan, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin in metastatic gastric cancer patients who were previously treated with taxane and cisplatin, to evaluate the antitumour activity and toxicity of the combination chemotherapy. The metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma patients who were previously treated with taxane and cisplatin combination as first line, and had at least one measurable lesion, 0–2 ECOG performance status and adequate organ functions, were considered eligible. They received irinotecan (150 mg m−2, day 1) and leucovorin (100 mg m−2, day 1), followed by continuous infusion of 5-FU (1000 mg m−2 day−1, days 1 and 2) every 2 weeks. Treatment was continued until progression of disease was observed. In all, 64 patients were treated with this combination chemotherapy. The median age of the patients was 55 years (range, 33–74 years), and the median ECOG performance status was 1 (0–1, 61 (95%)). Out of 64 patients, 57 were assessable for response. Among 57 assessable patients, no complete response and 12 partial responses were observed (overall response rate, 21%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 10–32%). Stable disease was observed in 14 patients (25%) and progressive disease in 31 patients (54%). The median time to progression was 2.5 months (95% CI, 1.6–3.4) and the median overall survival since the start of the second-line modified FOLFIRI was 7.6 months (95% CI, 6.5–8.7). Grade 3–4 haematologic toxicities included neutropenia in seven patients (11%) and thrombocytopenia in five patients (8%). Grade 3–4 nonhaematologic toxicities included diarrhoea in two patients (3%) and vomiting in two patients (3%). There were no treatment-related deaths. The combination of irinotecan, 5-FU and leucovorin showed moderate activity and favourable toxicity profile as a second-line treatment in metastatic gastric cancer patients, who were previously treated with taxane and cisplatin.
gastric carcinoma; irinotecan; 5-FU; salvage chemotherapy
Nasal-type NK/T cell lymphoma is an increasingly recognised disease entity of aggressive clinical behaviour. The objective of this study was to investigate clinical features and treatment outcomes in patients with nasal-type NK/T cell lymphoma. From January 1991 to December 2003, 26 patients diagnosed as nasal-type NK/T cell lymphoma were included in the analysis. One half of patients presented with poor performance status (ECOG ⩾2); 46% of patients were categorised as high intermediate or high-risk group according to IPI; and 46% of patients were diagnosed at advanced stage. The median survival for 26 patients with nasal-type NK/T cell lymphoma was 7.4 months (95% CI, 0.1, 16.9). The treatment outcome of primary anthracycline-based chemotherapy was poor: 60% CR rate in localised disease and 0% CR rate in advanced disease. After a median follow-up of 24.4 months (range 3.1–99.0) in patients with localised disease who had achieved a CR (range 29.6–165.7), three patients (50.0%) developed disease recurrence at 6.1, 21.8, and 52.1 months, respectively, and all patients presented with locoregional failure. The predictive factors for poor survival were of age greater than 60, advanced stage and poor performance in multivariate analysis. In conclusion, Nasal-type NK/T cell lymphomas showed a poor response to the conventional anthracycline-based chemotherapy, and thus an investigation for an innovative therapy is urgently needed to improve survival in these patients.
extra-nasal; natural killer cell lymphoma; treatment
Neurofibromatos is type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common inherited disorders and is characterized by abnormalities in multiple tissues derived from the neural crest. The NF-1 gene has been cloned and mapped to human chromosome 17q11.2. The NF-1 gene has an open reading frame that predicts a protein consisting of 2,818 amino acids, known as neurofibromin. Here, we report two kinds of novel frame shift mutations of the NF1 gene from 2 out of 56 unrelated Korean NF1 patients. These mutations were detected using polymerase chain reaction and single strand conformational polymorphism analysis. Sequencing analysis revealed four base pair insertion at codon 1270 of exon 22, and a base pair deletion at codon 1398 of exon 24. These mutations resulted in premature termination of the mutant alleles and may encode truncated forms of neurofibromin.
The purpose of this study was to present the CT and MRI findings of patients with fibrous dysplasia (FD) of the spine.
Among the patients with pathologically proven skeletal FD, 12 (8 males and 4 females; mean age, 43 years) who were evaluated with either spine CT or MRI were included. The number and location of the involved vertebral segments, the presence of lytic lesions, ground-glass opacity (GGO), an expansile nature, cortical disruption, a sclerotic rim, a decrease in body height and contour deformity were examined on CT scans (n = 12), while signal intensity, enhancement patterns and the presence of a dark signal rim on the lesion were examined using MRI (n = 9).
Nine patients had polyostotic FD, including one with an isolated spinal localisation, while three had monostotic FD. An expansile nature (n = 3) and osteolytic lesions with GGO (n = 3) were seen. On CT images, GGO was noted in all patients. An expansile nature (n = 11) and presence of lytic lesions (n = 11) were noted. A decrease in body height (n = 9) and sclerotic rim formation (n = 9) were indicated. Contour deformities were visible in six patients. The MRI findings were non-specific. Dark signal rims were visible on MRI in seven patients.
Typical imaging findings of extraspinal FD were noted on spine CT scans. These characteristic CT imaging findings of spinal FD may be helpful in differentiating FD from other common spine diseases.
The evidence for a role of tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, and body mass index (BMI) in the etiology of small intestine cancer is based mainly on case–control studies from Europe and United States.
Subjects and methods
We harmonized the data across 12 cohort studies from mainland China, Japan, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan, comprising over 500 000 subjects followed for an average of 10.6 years. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for BMI and (only among men) tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking.
A total of 134 incident cases were observed (49 adenocarcinoma, 11 carcinoid, 46 other histologic types, and 28 of unknown histology). There was a statistically non-significant trend toward increased HR in subjects with high BMI [HR for BMI >27.5 kg/m2, compared with 22.6–25.0, 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76–2.96]. No association was suggested for tobacco smoking; men drinking >400 g of ethanol per week had an HR of 1.57 (95% CI 0.66–3.70), compared with abstainers.
Our study supports the hypothesis that elevated BMI may be a risk factor for small intestine cancer. An etiologic role of alcohol drinking was suggested. Our results reinforce the existing evidence that the epidemiology of small intestine cancer resembles that of colorectal cancer.
alcohol drinking; body mass index; prospective studies; small intestine cancer; tobacco smoking
Age-related increase in monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) may contribute to CNS neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, MAO-B inhibitors are used in the treatment of idiopathic Parkinson disease as preliminary monotherapy or adjunct therapy with L-dopa. To date, meager natural sources of MAO-B inhibitors have been identified, and the relative strength, potency and rank of many plants relative to standard drugs such as Selegiline (L-deprenyl, Eldepryl) are not known. In this work, we developed and utilized a high throughput enzyme microarray format to screen and evaluate 905 natural product extracts (0.025–.7 mg/ml) to inhibit human MAO-B derived from BTI-TN-5B1-4 cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. The protein sequence of purified enzyme was confirmed using 1D gel electrophoresis-matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight-tandem mass spectroscopy, and enzyme activity was confirmed by  substrate conversion (3-mM benzylamine) to H202 and  benzaldehyde. Of the 905 natural extracts tested, the lowest IC50s [<0.07 mg/ml] were obtained with extracts of Amur Corktree (Phellodendron amurense), Bakuchi Seed(Cyamopsis psoralioides), Licorice Root (Glycyrrhiza glabra/uralensis), Babchi (Psoralea corylifolia seed). The data also show, albeit to a lesser extent, inhibitory properties of herbs originating from the mint family (Lamiaceae) and Turmeric, Comfrey, Bringraj, Skullcap, Kava-kava, Wild Indigo, Gentian and Green Tea. In conclusion, the data reflect relative potency information by rank of commonly used herbs and plants that contain human MAO-B inhibitory properties in their natural form.
monoamine oxidase; Parkinson’s; herbs; natural medicine; MPTP; dopamine
To compare the intraocular pressure (IOP) after 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy (TSV) and conventional 20-gauge vitrectomy for various vitreoretinal diseases.
This was a retrospective interventional case series including 338 cases of 23-gauge TSV and 476 cases of 20-gauge vitrectomy with minimum follow-up period of 1 month. Postoperative 1 day, 1 week and 1 month IOPs were compared. Multiple regression analysis to assess the actual effect of gauge of vitrectomy on postoperative IOP was performed including intraoperative and postoperative factors influencing postoperative IOP as covariates.
The mean IOP of 20-gauge vitrectomy was significantly higher than that of 23-gauge TSV (20.6±8.02 mm Hg vs12.8±4.48 mm Hg, P<0.001) at postoperative day 1, but the differences were not significant at postoperative 1 week and 1 month. The IOP pattern of 23-gauge TSV demonstrated more stable course than that of 20-gauge vitrectomy. At 1 day post vitrectomy, the incidence of hypertony was higher in 20-gauge, whereas that of hypotony was higher in 23-gauge. Among risk factors, the 20-gauge vitrectomy showed the strongest association with postoperative 1 day IOP rise.
Twenty-three-gauge TSV has stable and lower IOP in the early postoperative period than the 20-gauge vitrectomy. In patients whose retina and optic nerves are vulnerable to higher or fluctuating IOP, 23-gauge TSV may be more beneficial.
20-gauge; 23-gauge; hypotony; intraocular pressure; transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy
Cytokine and activation of lymphocytes are critical for tumor growth. We investigated whether interleukin (IL)-32β overexpression changes other cytokine levels and activates cytotoxic lymphocyte, and thus modify tumor growth. Herein, IL-32β inhibited B16 melanoma growth in IL-32β-overexpressing transgenic mice (IL-32β mice), and downregulated the expressions of anti-apoptotic proteins (bcl-2, IAP, and XIAP) and cell growth regulatory proteins (Ki-67 antigen (Ki-67) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)), but upregulated the expressions of pro-apoptotic proteins (bax, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-9). IL-32β also inhibited colon and prostate tumor growth in athymic nude mice inoculated with IL-32β-transfected SW620 colon or PC3 prostate cancer cells. The forced expression of IL-32β also inhibited cell growth in cultured colon and prostate cancer cells, and these inhibitory effects were abolished by IL-32 small interfering RNA (siRNA). IL-10 levels were elevated, but IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were reduced in the tumor tissues and spleens of IL-32β mice, and athymic nude mice. The number of cytotoxic T (CD8+) and natural killer (NK) cells in tumor tissues, spleen, and blood was significantly elevated in IL-32β mice and athymic nude mice inoculated with IL-32β-transfected cancer cells. Constituted activated NF-κB and STAT3 levels were reduced in the tumor tissues of IL-32β mice and athymic nude mice, as well as in IL-32β-transfected cultured cancer cells. These findings suggest that IL-32β inhibits tumor growth by increasing cytotoxic lymphocyte numbers, and by inactivating the NF-κB and STAT3 pathways through changing of cytokine levels in tumor tissues.
IL-32β; lymphocytes; NF-κB; STAT3; tumor growth
Early reocclusion is a major concern associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with an ischemic cerebral stroke. This occurs most frequently in patients with partial initial recanalization. This study focuses on partial recanalization with stagnant antegrade flow after intravenous (IV) tPA or spontaneously, treated with the administration of intra-arterial (IA) tirofiban. Three patients with initial M1 occlusion on diagnostic studies had an occluded segment that was recanalized with stagnant flow after IV tPA or spontaneously. In all cases, IA tirofiban was administrated. We evaluated the distal blood flow and the degree of vascular narrowing in the pre and post-procedure angiography and at follow-up in addition to the clinical status. In all patients, severe vascular narrowing with stagnation of blood flow was detected in the initial M1. After infusion of IA tirofiban, improvement of the distal blood flow was achieved rapidly within 40 minutes in all patients. The severe vascular narrowing resolved rapidly in two patients without residual stenosis. In one patient, moderate vascular narrowing was still present. The median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores were 18 and the median post-procedural NIHSS scores were 2 at two weeks. No intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in any of the patients. Treatment with IA tirofiban was safe and effective in patients with partial initial recanalization. It can be suggested that detection of any partial recanalization is time for administration of glycoprotein IIb-IIIa receptor inhibitor in hyperacute ischemic stroke.
acute ischemic stroke, reocclusion, endovascular treatment, tirofiban
Neointimal hyperplasia is a major complication of endovascular stent placement with consequent in-stent restenosis or occlusion. Improvements in the biocompatibility of stent designs could reduce stent-associated thrombosis and in-stent restenosis. We hypothesised that the use of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated nitinol stent or a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-DLC-coated nitinol stent could reduce the formation of neointimal hyperplasia, thereby improving stent patency with improved biocompatibility.
A total of 24 stents were implanted, under general anaesthesia, into the iliac arteries of six dogs (four stents in each dog) using the carotid artery approach. The experimental study dogs were divided into three groups: the uncoated nitinol stent group (n = 8), the DLC-nitinol stent group (n = 8) and the PEG-DLC-nitinol stent group (n = 8).
The mean percentage of neointimal hyperplasia was significantly less in the DLC-nitinol stent group (26.7±7.6%) than in the nitinol stent group (40.0±20.3%) (p = 0.021). However, the mean percentage of neointimal hyperplasia was significantly greater in the PEG-DLC-nitinol stent group (58.7±24.7%) than in the nitinol stent group (40.0±20.3%) (p = 0.01).
Our findings indicate that DLC-coated nitinol stents might induce less neointimal hyperplasia than conventional nitinol stents following implantation in a canine iliac artery model; however, the DLC-coated nitinol stent surface when reformed with PEG induces more neointimal hyperplasia than either a conventional or DLC-coated nitinol stent.
Nerve growth factor (NGF) can augment transmitter release in sensory neurons by acutely sensitizing sensory neurons and by increasing the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) over time. The current study examined the intracellular signaling pathways that mediate these two temporally distinct effects of NGF to augment CGRP release from sensory neurons. Growing sensory neurons in 30 or 100 ng/ml of NGF for 7 days increases CGRP content and this increase augments the amount of CGRP that is released by high extracellular potassium. Overexpressing a dominant negative Ras, Ras(17N) or treatment with a farnesyltransferase inhibitor attenuates the NGF-induced increase in CGRP content. Conversely, overexpressing a constitutively active Ras augments the NGF-induced increase in content of CGRP. Inhibiting MEK activity also blocks the ability of NGF to increase CGRP expression. In contrast to the ability of chronic NGF to increase peptide content, acute exposure of sensory neurons to 100 ng/ml NGF augments capsaicin-evoked release of CGRP without affecting the content of CGRP. This sensitizing action of NGF is not affected by inhibiting Ras, MEK, or PI3 kinases. In contrast, the NGF-induced increase in capsaicin-evoked release of CGRP is blocked by the PKC inhibitor, BIM and the Src family kinases inhibitor, PP2. These data demonstrate that different signaling pathways mediate the alterations in expression of CGRP by chronic NGF and the acute actions of the neurotrophin to augment capsaicin-evoked release of CGRP in the absence of a change in the content of the peptide.
Ras; sensitization; inflammatory pain; ERK; PKC; Src
FTO harbours the strongest known obesity-susceptibility locus in Europeans. While there is growing evidence for a role for FTO in obesity risk in Asians, its association with type 2 diabetes, independently of BMI, remains inconsistent. To test whether there is an association of the FTO locus with obesity and type 2 diabetes, we conducted a meta-analysis of 32 populations including 96,551 East and South Asians.
All studies published on the association between FTO-rs9939609 (or proxy [r2 > 0.98]) and BMI, obesity or type 2 diabetes in East or South Asians were invited. Each study group analysed their data according to a standardised analysis plan. Association with type 2 diabetes was also adjusted for BMI. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to pool all effect sizes.
The FTO-rs9939609 minor allele increased risk of obesity by 1.25-fold/allele (p = 9.0 × 10−19), overweight by 1.13-fold/allele (p = 1.0 × 10−11) and type 2 diabetes by 1.15-fold/allele (p = 5.5 × 10−8). The association with type 2 diabetes was attenuated after adjustment for BMI (OR 1.10-fold/allele, p = 6.6 × 10−5). The FTO-rs9939609 minor allele increased BMI by 0.26 kg/m2 per allele (p = 2.8 × 10−17), WHR by 0.003/allele (p = 1.2 × 10−6), and body fat percentage by 0.31%/allele (p = 0.0005). Associations were similar using dominant models. While the minor allele is less common in East Asians (12–20%) than South Asians (30–33%), the effect of FTO variation on obesity-related traits and type 2 diabetes was similar in the two populations.
FTO is associated with increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes, with effect sizes similar in East and South Asians and similar to those observed in Europeans. Furthermore, FTO is also associated with type 2 diabetes independently of BMI.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-011-2370-7) contains peer-reviewed but unedited supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
Asians; FTO; Meta-analysis; Obesity; Type 2 diabetes
Our purpose was to evaluate thymidine synthase (TS), thymidine phosphorylase (TP), and excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) expression as biomarkers for capecitabine and cisplatin (XP) combination chemotherapy in patients with metastatic oesophageal squamous cell cancer.
A total of 113 patients with metastatic oesophageal squamous cell cancer were treated with XP chemotherapy at the Samsung Medical Center between 2003 and 2007, of whom 72 had available clinical data and paraffin blocks for immunohistochemistry of TS, TP, and ERCC1.
The median age of the 72 patients was 62 years. The overall response rate (RR) was 51.4%. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 4.2 and 12.0 months, respectively. High expression of TS and TP was associated with a higher RR than was low expression of TS and TP (54.1 vs 40.5%, P=0.022). Strong ERCC1 expression and a low TS score were identified as unfavourable independent risk factors for PFS (HR 10.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1–54.7, P=0.004 for strong ERCC1 expression; and HR 2.9, 95% CI 1.0–7.9, P=0.044 for low TS score). Strong ERCC1 expression was identified as an unfavourable independent risk factor for OS (HR 3.73, 95% CI 1.39–10.0, P=0.009).
These data indicate that expression of TS, TP, and ERCC1 may be predictive markers for response and survival in patients with metastatic oesophageal squamous cell cancer receiving XP chemotherapy.
oesophageal cancer; capecitabine; cisplatin; thymidine synthase (TS); thymidine phosphorylase (TP); excesion repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1)
This paper presents a numerical method for calculating the frequency response of a CMUT with a large number of cells. In a multi-cell configuration, commonly found in CMUTs, each cell is affected by the acoustic loading from neighboring cells. Thus, for an accurate model of a multi-cell CMUT element it is better to consider the mutual acoustic impedance instead of the acoustic impedance of a single cell only. We calculate the velocity of every cell (plate movement) simultaneously, with the mutual impedance effects taken into account. The model predicts that the cells exhibit different frequency responses, based on their locations in the element. We used a laser interferometer to validate the model by measuring the displacement response of a CMUT immersed in vegetable oil. The device has 169 circular cells (single crystal silicon plates, 500 nm thick, 21 μm radii) placed in a hexagonal cell arrangement. The measurement results agree well with the numerical results. The computation time of our method is significantly shorter than finite element based calculations. Our model can be used for finding optimized cell configurations for CMUTs utilized in various applications such as medical imaging and therapeutic treatment.
CMUT; Acoustic impedance; Mutual impedance; MEMS
The primary objective of this study was to access the potential effects of trabectedin on the QT/QTc interval in patients with locally advanced or metastatic solid tumors.
Patients (n = 75) who had received ≤3 previous lines of chemotherapy and had either relapsed or had progressive disease were enrolled. Patients were administered 3-h intravenous infusions of placebo (saline) on day 1 and trabectedin (1.3 mg/m2) on day 2. Time-matched serial triplicate ECG recordings and pharmacokinetic blood samples were collected over 24 h on both days. Heart rate corrected mean QT intervals and changes from predose baseline in QTc (ΔQTc) were assessed. The difference in ΔQTc between trabectedin and placebo was calculated at each time point (ΔΔQTc).
The upper limits of the 90% confidence interval for ΔΔQTcF and ΔΔQTcB at all time points were less than the prespecified noninferiority margin of 10 ms (≤6.65 ms). No patient had a QTc > 500 ms or a time-matched increase from baseline in QTc > 60 ms at any time point. Regression analyses indicated ΔΔQTc was poorly correlated with trabectedin concentration. No adverse events suggestive of proarrhythmic potential were reported.
Trabectedin did not prolong the QTc interval. Safety and pharmacokinetic profiles of trabectedin were similar to that observed in other ovarian and breast cancer studies.
Anti-tumor; ECG; Malignancies; QTc interval; Trabectedin
We investigated the effects of ‘add on' treatment of α-blocker (AB) on blood pressure (BP) and the safety of ABs in men with symptomatic BPH with or without hypertension. We retrospectively reviewed 2,924 BPH outpatients who took ABs at our institution between 2005 and 2009. BPH symptom severity, prostate volume and BP were determined for 953 patients with their baseline data. BP level and International Prostate Symptom Score were measured within 2 months after AB treatment. Patients were assigned to four groups: group 1 had 272 normotensive patients on concomitant hypertensive medication; group 2 had 293 normotensive patients not on the medication; group 3 had 216 hypertensive patients on concomitant medication; and group 4 had 172 hypertensive patients not on the medication. The addition of AB lowered the mean systolic BP by 16.6 mm Hg for group 3 and by 8.6 mm Hg for group 4, and diastolic BP by 18.0 mm Hg for group 3 (P<0.05). However, normotensive groups on entry, irrespective of antihypertensive medication, showed no significant BP changes from baseline after AB medication. In the hypertensive groups on entry, the doxazosin gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) resulted in significant reductions in systolic BP from 142.2 to 134.9 mm Hg and in diastolic BP from 97.6 to 84.6 mm Hg. When analyzed by AB regimen, the incidence of BP-related adverse events was comparable. AB therapy for BPH can have an appropriate and beneficial effect on BP, especially in baseline hypertensive patients. Doxazosin GITS treatment resulted in optimal management of BP within the normal range, especially in pharmacologically or physiologically hypertensive patients.
BPH; blood pressure; alpha blocker; adverse events
Many patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with cognitive impairment have fronto‐temporal dysfunction. Whereas in some patients with ALS the fronto‐temporal dysfunction is undoubtedly due to the degenerative process associated with the disease, in others dysfunction cannot be accounted for by an irreversible degenerative process alone, as it also appears to involve a reversible process. We hypothesised that reduced vital capacity can be a key contributor to the fronto‐temporal dysfunction observed in patients with ALS.
To investigate the association between fronto‐temporal dysfunction and reduced vital capacity in ALS.
16 consecutive patients who conformed to a diagnosis of definite or probable ALS (El escorial criteria) were grouped by vital capacity, and their clinical characteristics and cognitive functions, including disease duration, attention, executive function and memory, were measured.
Patients with a reduced vital capacity performed significantly poorer in memory retention (p = 0.028), retrieval efficacy (p = 0.003), spoken verbal fluency (p = 0.03) and spoken verbal fluency indexes (p = 0.016) than those with a normal vital capacity.
The fronto‐temporal dysfunction in ALS might be attributable to potentially reversible secondary effects associated with reduced vital capacity, as well as to the primary degenerative process.
Few cohort studies have investigated Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection before the occurrence of gastric cancer.
Among 14 440 cohort participants, 100 incident gastric cancer cases were individually matched to two controls. Epstein–Barr virus antibodies IgG and IgA against viral capsid antigen (VCA), EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) antibody IgG, and early antigen (EA) antibody IgG were measured using enzyme immunoassays (EIAs).
The highest titres of VCA IgG (odds ratio (OR): 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62–3.06) or EBNA IgG (OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.51–1.46) were not associated with gastric cancer risk.
Higher levels of VCA IgG or EBNA IgG were not associated with increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in Koreans.
stomach neoplasms; Epstein–Barr virus; nested case–control study; Korea
In the title compound, C27H32N2O4, the piperidine and tetrahydropyridine rings adopt chair and half-chair conformations, respectively. The dihedral angle between the two phenyl rings is 32.9 (1)°. The molecular structure is stabilized by a strong intramolecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond, generating an S(6) motif. In the crystal, intermolecular C—H⋯O interactions form a ribbon-like structure along the a axis.
In the title compound, C26H30N2O4S, the thiomorpholine ring adopts a chair conformation whereas the tetrahydropyridine ring is in a half-chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the two phenyl rings is 33.3 (2)°. A strong intramolecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond generates an S(6) motif. In the crystal, molecules are linked by intermolecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating a ribbon-like structure propagating along the a axis.
In the title compound, C20H20BrNO2, the piperidone ring adopts a boat conformation. The phenyl rings are oriented at dihedral angles of 97.8 (2) and 96.0 (1)° with respect to the best plane through the piperidine ring. The dihedral angle between the two phenyl rings is 49.7 (1)°. In the crystal, bifurcated C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds form a R
1(7) ring motif, linking the molecules into centrosymmetric dimers.
In the title compound, C21H25NO3·C2H4O2, the piperidone ring adopts a chair conformation. The two methoxy groups are nearly coplanar with the aromatic rings to which they are attached. The dihedral angle between the two aromatic rings is 60.9 (2)°. There are two short intramolecular N—H⋯O contacts. The crystal packing is stabilized by intermolecular O—H⋯N and C—H⋯O interactions.