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1.  Immunophenotypes and Immune Markers Associated with Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Prognosis 
Disease Markers  2014;2014:421906.
CD2+, CD34+, and CD56+ immunophenotypes are associated with poor prognoses of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The present study aimed to explore the role of APL immunophenotypes and immune markers as prognostic predictors on clinical outcomes. A total of 132 patients with de novo APL were retrospectively analyzed. Immunophenotypes were determined by flow cytometry. Clinical features, complete remission (CR), relapse, and five-year overall survival (OS) rate were assessed and subjected to multivariate analyses. The CD13+CD33+HLA-DR-CD34− immunophenotype was commonly observed in patients with APL. Positive rates for other APL immune markers including cMPO, CD117, CD64, and CD9 were 68.7%, 26%, 78.4%, and 96.6%, respectively. When compared with patients with CD2− APL, patients with CD2+ APL had a significantly higher incidence of early death (50% versus 15.7%; P = 0.016), lower CR rate (50% versus 91.1%; P = 0.042), and lower five-year OS rate (41.7% versus 74.2%; P = 0.018). White blood cell (WBC) count before treatment was found to be the only independent risk factor of early death, CR failure, and five-year mortality rate. Flow cytometric immunophenotype analysis can facilitate prompt APL diagnosis. Multivariate analysis has demonstrated that WBC count before treatment is the only known independent risk factor that predicts prognosis for APL in this study population.
PMCID: PMC4089198  PMID: 25045197
2.  Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia with Gilbert's syndrome 
Acute leukemia with coexisting Gilbert's syndrome treated by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is rarely reported. Here we described a case whose transaminase levels were almost normal, although transient hyperbilirubinemia repeatedly happened during chemotherapy.
PMCID: PMC3069947  PMID: 21388537
3.  Polysaccharides from the root of Angelica sinensis promotes hematopoiesis and thrombopoiesis through the PI3K/AKT pathway 
Dozens of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formulas have been used for promotion of "blood production" for centuries, and we are interested in developing novel thrombopoietic medicines from these TCMs. Our previous studies have demonstrated the hematopoietic effects of DangGui BuXue Tong (DBT), a formula composed of Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Radix Astragali in animal and cellular models. As a step further to identify and characterize the active chemical components of DBT, we tested the hematopoietic and particularly, thrombopoietic effects of polysaccharide-enriched fractions from the root of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (APS) in this study.
A myelosuppression mouse model was treated with APS (10 mg/kg/day). Peripheral blood cells from APS, thrombopoietin and vehicle-treated samples were then counted at different time-points. Using the colony-forming unit (CFU) assays, we determined the effects of APS on the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and megakaryocytic lineages. Using a megakaryocytic cell line M-07e as model, we analyzed the cellular apoptosis progression with and without APS treatment by Annexin V, Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and Caspase 3 assays. Last, the anti-apoptotic effect of APS on cells treated with Ly294002, a Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinse inhibitor (PI3K) was also tested.
In animal models, APS significantly enhanced not only the recovery of platelets, other blood cells and their progenitor cells, but also the formation of Colony Forming Unit (CFU). In M-07e cells, we observed the anti-apoptotic effect of APS. Treatment by Ly294002 alone increased the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis. However, addition of APS to Ly294002-treated cells significantly reduced the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis.
APS promotes hematopoiesis and thrombopoiesis in the mouse model. This effect likely resulted from the anti-apoptosis activity of APS and is likely to involve the PI3K/AKT pathway.
PMCID: PMC3022894  PMID: 21176128
4.  Synergy between Proteasome Inhibitors and Imatinib Mesylate in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(7):e6257.
Resistance developed by leukemic cells, unsatisfactory efficacy on patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) at accelerated and blastic phases, and potential cardiotoxity, have been limitations for imatinib mesylate (IM) in treating CML. Whether low dose IM in combination with agents of distinct but related mechanisms could be one of the strategies to overcome these concerns warrants careful investigation.
Methods and Findings
We tested the therapeutic efficacies as well as adverse effects of low dose IM in combination with proteasome inhibitor, Bortezomib (BOR) or proteasome inhibitor I (PSI), in two CML murine models, and investigated possible mechanisms of action on CML cells. Our results demonstrated that low dose IM in combination with BOR exerted satisfactory efficacy in prolongation of life span and inhibition of tumor growth in mice, and did not cause cardiotoxicity or body weight loss. Consistently, BOR and PSI enhanced IM-induced inhibition of long-term clonogenic activity and short-term cell growth of CML stem/progenitor cells, and potentiated IM-caused inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis of BCR-ABL+ cells. IM/BOR and IM/PSI inhibited Bcl-2, increased cytoplasmic cytochrome C, and activated caspases. While exerting suppressive effects on BCR-ABL, E2F1, and β-catenin, IM/BOR and IM/PSI inhibited proteasomal degradation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), leading to a re-activation of this important negative regulator of BCR-ABL. In addition, both combination therapties inhibited Bruton's tyrosine kinase via suppression of NFκB.
These data suggest that combined use of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and proteasome inhibitor might be helpful for optimizing CML treatment.
PMCID: PMC2705802  PMID: 19606213

Results 1-4 (4)