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author:("Ma, ayuyan")
1.  Association of Dll4/Notch and HIF-1a -VEGF Signaling in the Angiogenesis of Missed Abortion 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e70667.
Dll4/Notch and HIF-1a-VEGF have been shown to play an important role during angiogenesis, but there are no data about their roles and association in missed abortion. In this study, we investigated the association of Dll4/Notch and HIF-1a-VEGF signaling in missed abortion.
Women with missed abortion (n = 27) and healthy controls (n = 26) were included in the study. Real-time Reverse Transcription-PCR Analyses (RT-PCR) was used to analyze the mRNA levels of Dll4/Notch and HIF-1a-VEGF signaling molecules. The protein level for Dll4 was measured by immunohistochemistry.
Compared with induced abortion, the expression of VEGF was statistically reduced while the level of VEGFR1 and Notch1 was significantly up-regulated in missed abortion. Though other molecules (VEGFR2 and Dll4) were marginally higher in missed abortion, no statistical difference was observed. The expression of HIF-1a was significantly up-regulated, and close negatively correlated with VEGF in missed abortion. Both in induced abortion and missed abortion, Dll4 was positively correlated with Notch1.
The early pregnancy is in a hypoxic environment, this may encourage the angiogenesis, but severe hypoxic may inhibit the angiogenesis. Aberrant Dll4/Notch and HIF-1a-VEGF signaling may have a role in missed abortion.
PMCID: PMC3739820  PMID: 23950980
2.  Promoter Hypermethylation of ARID1A Gene Is Responsible for Its Low mRNA Expression in Many Invasive Breast Cancers 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e53931.
ARID1A (AT-rich interactive domain 1A) has recently been identified as a tumor suppressor gene. Its mRNA expression is significantly low in many breast cancers; this is often associated with more aggressive phenotypes. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for its low expression has not been fully understood. This study was undertaken to evaluate the contribution of gene copy number variation, mutations, promoter methylation and histone modification to ARID1A’s low expression. 38 pairs of breast invasive ductal carcinomas and their normal breast tissue counterparts from the same patients were randomly selected for gene expression and copy number variation detection. Promoter methylation and histone modification levels were evaluated by MeDIP-qPCR and ChIP-qPCR, respectively. PCR product Sanger sequencing was carried out to detect the exon mutation rate. Twenty-two out of 38 invasive ductal carcinomas in the study (57.9%) revealed ARID1A mRNA low expression by realtime RT-PCR. The relative promoter methylation level was, significantly higher in ARID1A mRNA low expression group compared with its high expression group (p<0.001). In the low expression group, nineteen out of 22 invasive ductal carcinomas (86.4%) exhibited ARID1A promoter hypermthylation. In addition, the promoter hypermethylation was accompanied with repressive histone modification (H3K27Me3). Although five out of 38 invasive ductal carcinomas (13.2%) exhibited loss of ARID1A gene copy number by realtime PCR and nine exon novel mutations are seen from eight out of 33 invasive ductal carcinomas (24.2%), there was no statistically significant difference in both ARID1A mRNA low and high expression groups (p = 0.25,and p = 0.68, respectively). We demonstrate that promoter hypermethylation was the main culprit for ARID1A mRNA low expression in invasive ductal carcinomas. The influence of mutation and copy number variation on the expression were statistically insignificant at mRNA level, and were, therefore, not considered the main causes for ARID1A mRNA low expression in invasive breast cancer.
PMCID: PMC3549982  PMID: 23349767
3.  Single Endemic Genotype of Measles Virus Continuously Circulating in China for at Least 16 Years 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(4):e34401.
The incidence of measles in China from 1991 to 2008 was reviewed, and the nucleotide sequences from 1507 measles viruses (MeV) isolated during 1993 to 2008 were phylogenetically analyzed. The results showed that measles epidemics peaked approximately every 3 to 5 years with the range of measles cases detected between 56,850 and 140,048 per year. The Chinese MeV strains represented three genotypes; 1501 H1, 1 H2 and 5 A. Genotype H1 was the predominant genotype throughout China continuously circulating for at least 16 years. Genotype H1 sequences could be divided into two distinct clusters, H1a and H1b. A 4.2% average nucleotide divergence was found between the H1a and H1b clusters, and the nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid homologies of H1a viruses were 92.3%–100% and 84.7%–100%, H1b were 97.1%–100% and 95.3%–100%, respectively. Viruses from both clusters were distributed throughout China with no apparent geographic restriction and multiple co-circulating lineages were present in many provinces. Cluster H1a and H1b viruses were co-circulating during 1993 to 2005, while no H1b viruses were detected after 2005 and the transmission of that cluster has presumably been interrupted. Analysis of the nucleotide and predicted amino acid changes in the N proteins of H1a and H1b viruses showed no evidence of selective pressure. This study investigated the genotype and cluster distribution of MeV in China over a 16-year period to establish a genetic baseline before MeV elimination in Western Pacific Region (WPR). Continuous and extensive MeV surveillance and the ability to quickly identify imported cases of measles will become more critical as measles elimination goals are achieved in China in the near future. This is the first report that a single endemic genotype of measles virus has been found to be continuously circulating in one country for at least 16 years.
PMCID: PMC3332093  PMID: 22532829

Results 1-3 (3)