Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Genome-wide association studies have identified FGFR2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene. Common variation in other fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors might also modify risk. We tested this hypothesis by studying genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and imputed SNPs in FGFR1, FGFR3, FGFR4 and FGFRL1 in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.
Data were combined from 49 studies, including 53 835 cases and 50 156 controls, of which 89 050 (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) were of European ancestry, 12 893 (6269 cases and 6624 controls) of Asian and 2048 (1116 cases and 932 controls) of African ancestry. Associations with risk of breast cancer, overall and by disease sub-type, were assessed using unconditional logistic regression.
Little evidence of association with breast cancer risk was observed for SNPs in the FGF receptor genes. The strongest evidence in European women was for rs743682 in FGFR3; the estimated per-allele odds ratio was 1.05 (95% confidence interval=1.02–1.09, P=0.0020), which is substantially lower than that observed for SNPs in FGFR2.
Our results suggest that common variants in the other FGF receptors are not associated with risk of breast cancer to the degree observed for FGFR2.
breast cancer; SNP; FGF receptors; susceptibility; disease subtypes
The case-cohort study design, used to reduce costs in large cohort
studies, is a random sample of the entire cohort, named the subcohort, augmented
with subjects having the disease of interest but not in the subcohort sample.
When several diseases are of interest, several case-cohort studies may be
conducted using the same subcohort, with each disease analyzed separately,
ignoring the additional exposure measurements collected on subjects with the
other diseases. This is not an efficient use of the data, and in this paper, we
propose more efficient estimators. We consider both joint and separate analyses
for the multiple diseases. We propose an estimating equation approach with a new
weight function, and we establish the consistency and asymptotic normality of
the resulting estimator. Simulation studies show that the proposed methods using
all available information gain efficiency. We apply our proposed method to the
data from the Busselton Health Study.
Case-cohort study; Multiple disease outcomes; Multivariate failure time; Proportional hazards; Survival analysis
Current studies find that degenerated cartilage endplates (CEP) of vertebrae, with
fewer diffusion areas, decrease nutrient supply and accelerate intervertebral disc
degeneration. Many more apoptotic cells have been identified in degenerated than in
normal endplates, and may be responsible for the degenerated grade. Previous findings
suggest that inhibition of apoptosis is one possible approach to improve disc
regeneration. It is postulated that inhibition of CEP cell apoptosis may be
responsible for the regeneration of endplates. Caspase-3, involved in the execution
phase of apoptosis, is a candidate for regulating the apoptotic process. In the
present study, CEP cells were incubated in 1% fetal bovine serum. Activated caspases
were detected to identify the apoptotic pathway, and apoptosis was quantified by flow
cytometry. Lentiviral caspase-3 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was employed to study its
protective effects against serum deprivation. Silencing of caspase-3 expression was
quantified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blots, and
inhibition of apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry. Serum deprivation increased
apoptosis of rat CEP cells through activation of a caspase cascade. Lentiviral
caspase-3 shRNA was successfully transduced into CEP cells, and specifically silenced
endogenous caspase-3 expression. Surviving cells were protected by the downregulation
of caspase-3 expression and activation. Thus, lentiviral caspase-3 shRNA-mediated
RNAi successfully silenced endogenous caspase-3 expression, preventing inappropriate
or premature apoptosis.
Cartilaginous endplate; Chondrocytes; RNA interference; Apoptosis; Caspase-3; Serum deprivation
Zeaxanthin (Zea) is a major carotenoid pigment contained in human retina, and its daily supplementation associated with lower risk of age-related macular degeneration. Despite known property of Zea as an antioxidant, its underlying molecular mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. In this study, we aim to study the regulation mechanism of Zea on phase II detoxification enzymes. In normal human retinal pigment epithelium cells, Zea promoted the nuclear translocation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and induced mRNA and protein expression of phase II enzymes, the induction was suppressed by specific knockdown of Nrf2. Zea also effectively protected against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Glutathione (GSH) as the most important antioxidant was also induced by Zea through Nrf2 activation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, whereas the protective effects of Zea were decimated by inhibition of GSH synthesis. Finally, Zea activated the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathway, whereas only PI3K/Akt activation correlated with phase II enzymes induction and Zea protection. In further in vivo analyses, Zea showed effects of inducing phase II enzymes and increased GSH content, which contributed to the reduced lipid and protein peroxidation in the retina as well as the liver, heart, and serum of the Sprague–Dawley rats. For the first time, Zea is presented as a phase II enzymes inducer instead of being an antioxidant. By activating Nrf2-mediated phase II enzymes, Zea could enhance anti-oxidative capacity and prevent cell death both in vivo and in vitro.
zeaxanthin; glutathione; reactive oxygen species; Nrf2; mitochondria
A new strategy of co-inoculating Bacillus subtilis MA139 with Streptococcus thermophilus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to produce fermented soybean meal (FSBM). Three experiments were conducted to determine the concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) (Exp. 1), apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) (Exp. 2), and feeding value (Exp. 3) of FSBM produced by this new strategy (NFSB) compared with soybean meal (SBM) and conventionally available FSBM (Suprotein). In Exp. 1, twenty-four barrows (initial body weight [BW] of 32.2 ±1.7 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 diets with 6 replicates per diet. A corn basal diet and 3 diets based on a mixture of corn and 1 of 3 soybean products listed above were formulated and the DE and ME contents were determined by the difference method. The results showed that there were no differences in DE and ME between SBM and either FSBM product (p>0.05). In Exp. 2, eight barrows (initial BW of 26.8±1.5 kg) were fitted with ileal T-cannulaes and used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Three corn-starch-based diets were formulated using each of the 3 soybean products as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also formulated to measure endogenous losses of AA. The results showed that the SID of all AA except arginine and histidine was similar for NFSB and SBM (p>0.05), but Suprotein had greater (p<0.05) SID of most AA except lysine, aspartate, glycine and proline than NFSB. In Exp. 3, a total of 144 piglets (initial BW of 8.8±1.2 kg) were blocked by weight and fed 1 of 4 diets including a control diet with 24% SBM as well as diets containing 6% and 12% NFSB or 12% Suprotein added at the expense of SBM. During d 15 to 28, replacing SBM with 6% NFSB significantly improved average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.05) for nursery piglets. During the overall experiment, ADG of piglets fed diets containing 6% NFSB was significantly greater (p<0.05) than that of piglets fed SBM. In conclusion, fermentation with the new strategy did not affect the energy content or the AID and the SID of AA in SBM. However, inclusion of 6% NFSB in diets fed to nursery piglets improved performance after weaning likely as a result of better nutritional status and reduced immunological challenge.
Energy; Fermented Soybean Meal; Ileal Digestible Amino Acids; Performance; Pigs; Soybean Meal
Do genetic polymorphisms which influence age at menarche in women of European ancestry also influence women of Chinese ancestry?
Many genetic variants influencing age at menarche in European populations appear to impact Chinese populations in a similar manner.
WHAT IS KNOWN AND WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS
Prior genome-wide association studies have uncovered 42 SNPs associated with age at menarche in European populations. This study is the first to demonstrate that many of the genetic determinants of age at menarche are shared between European and Chinese women.
PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING
We evaluated 37 of 42 SNPs identified as associated with age at menarche from a recent, large meta-analysis, consisting primarily of women of European ancestry, in a population of 6929 Chinese women from Shanghai, China. We also constructed weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) combining the number of effect variants for all 37 SNPs, or only the SNPs associated with age at menarche among our study population, to evaluate their joint influence on age at menarche.
For 32 of the 37 evaluated variants, the direction of the allele associations were the same between women of European ancestry and women of Chinese ancestry (P = 3.71 × 10−6, binomial sign test); 9 of these were statistically significant. Subjects in the highest quintile of GRSs began menarche ∼5 months later than those in the lowest quintile.
BIAS, LIMITATIONS AND GENERALIZABILITY TO OTHER POPULATIONS
Age at menarche was obtained by self-report, which can be subject to recall errors. The current analysis was restricted to loci which met or approached GWAS significance thresholds and did not evaluate loci which may act predominantly or exclusively in the Chinese population. The smaller sample size for our meta-analysis compared with meta-analyses conducted in European populations reduced the power to detect significant results.
STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS
This study was supported, in part, by grants from US National Institutes of Health (grants R01CA124558, R01CA090899, R01CA070867; R01CA064277 and R01CA092585 and UL1 RR024975), Ingram professorship funds and Allen Foundation funds. There are no competing interests to declare.
menarche; genome-wide association study; genetics; reproductive endocrinology
Leptin is an adiposity hormone that plays an important role in regulating food intake and energy homeostasis. This study investigated the effects of a high-fat (HF) and a low-fat, high-carbohydrate/sugar (LF) diet on leptin sensitivity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in rats. The animals were exposed to a HF or LF diet for 16 weeks. Then the effects of intra-VTA leptin (150 and 500 ng/side, unilateral dose) on food intake and body weights were investigated while the animals were maintained on the HF or LF diet. Long-term exposure to the HF or LF diet led to similar body weight gain in these groups. The HF-fed animals consumed a smaller amount of food by weight than the LF-fed animals but both groups consumed the same amount of calories. The bilateral administration of leptin into the VTA decreased food intake (72 h) and body weights (48 h) to a similar degree in the HF and LF-fed animals. When the HF-fed animals were ranked by body weight gain it was shown that the diet-induced obese rats (HF-fed DIO, upper quartile for weight gain) were less sensitive to the effects of leptin on food intake and body weights than the diet-resistant rats (HF-fed DR, lower quartile for weight gain). A control experiment with fluorescent Cy3-labeled leptin showed that leptin did not spread beyond the borders of the VTA. This study indicates that leptin sensitivity in the VTA is the same in animals that are exposed to a HF or LF diet. However, HF-fed DIO rats are less sensitive to the effects of leptin in the VTA than HF-fed DR rats. Leptin resistance in the VTA might contribute to overeating and weight gain when exposed to a HF diet.
Leptin; Cy3-leptin; ventral tegmental area; food intake; high-fat diet; diet-induced obese; rats
We use entropy to characterize intrinsic ageing properties of the human brain. Analysis of fMRI data from a large dataset of individuals, using resting state BOLD signals, demonstrated that a functional entropy associated with brain activity increases with age. During an average lifespan, the entropy, which was calculated from a population of individuals, increased by approximately 0.1 bits, due to correlations in BOLD activity becoming more widely distributed. We attribute this to the number of excitatory neurons and the excitatory conductance decreasing with age. Incorporating these properties into a computational model leads to quantitatively similar results to the fMRI data. Our dataset involved males and females and we found significant differences between them. The entropy of males at birth was lower than that of females. However, the entropies of the two sexes increase at different rates, and intersect at approximately 50 years; after this age, males have a larger entropy.
Penalization methods have been shown to yield both consistent variable selection and oracle parameter estimation under correct model specification. In this article, we study such methods under model misspecification, where the assumed form of the regression function is incorrect, including generalized linear models for uncensored outcomes and the proportional hazards model for censored responses. Estimation with the adaptive least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, lasso, penalty is proven to achieve sparse estimation of regression coefficients under misspecification. The resulting estimators are selection consistent, asymptotically normal and oracle, where the selection is based on the limiting values of the parameter estimators obtained using the misspecified model without penalization. We further derive conditions under which the penalized estimators from the misspecified model may yield selection consistency under the true model. The robustness is explored numerically via simulation and an application to the Wisconsin Epidemiological Study of Diabetic Retinopathy.
Least false parameter; Model misspecification; Oracle property; Penalization; Selection consistency; Shrinkage estimation; Variable selection
Peptide neurotransmitters function as key intercellular signaling molecules in the nervous system. These peptides are generated in secretory vesicles from proneuropeptides by proteolytic processing at dibasic residues, followed by removal of N- and/or C-terminal basic residues to form active peptides. Enkephalin biosynthesis from proenkephalin utilizes the cysteine protease cathepsin L and the subtilisin-like prohormone convertase 2 (PC2). Cathepsin L generates peptide intermediates with N-terminal basic residue extensions, which must be removed by an aminopeptidase. In this study, we identified cathepsin H as an aminopeptidase in secretory vesicles that produces (Met)enkephalin (ME) by sequential removal of basic residues from KR-ME and KK-ME, supported by in vivo knockout of the cathepsin H gene. Localization of cathepsin H in secretory vesicles was demonstrated by immunoelectron microscopy and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Purified human cathepsin H sequentially removes N-terminal basic residues to generate ME, with peptide products characterized by nano-LC-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry. Cathepsin H shows highest activities for cleaving N-terminal basic residues (Arg and Lys) among amino acid fluorogenic substrates. Notably, knockout of the cathepsin H gene results in reduction of ME in mouse brain. Cathepsin H deficient mice also show a substantial decrease in galanin peptide neurotransmitter levels in brain. These results illustrate a role for cathepsin H as an aminopeptidase for enkephalin and galanin peptide neurotransmitter production.
aminopeptidase; cathepsin H; peptide neurotransmitter; enkephalin; galanin; secretory vesicle; neuropeptide; protease
Chemo-resistance is one of the key causal factors in cancer death and emerging evidences suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) have critical roles in the regulation of chemo-sensitivity in cancers. Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women and insensitive to chemotherapy clinically.
The differentially expressed miRNAs in cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissues were screened by using a microarray platform (μParaflo Sanger miRBase release 13.0). The expression of miR-375 was determined by stem-loop RT–PCR using 23 clinical cervical cancer samples and 2 cervical cancer cell lines. We exogenously upregulated miR-375 expression in SiHa and Caski cells using a pre-miRNA lentiviral vector transfection and observed its impact on paclitaxel sensitivity using MTS. The cells that stably overexpressed miR-375 were subcutaneously injected into mice to determine tumour growth and chemo-sensitivity in vivo.
Twenty-one differentially expressed miRNAs were found by miRNA microarray between pro- and post-paclitaxel cervical cancer tissues. Of those, miR-375 showed consistent high expression levels across paclitaxel-treated cervical cells and tissues. Paclitaxel induced upregulated miR-375 expression in a clear dose-dependent manner. Forced overexpression of miR-375 in cervical cancer cells decreased paclitaxel sensitivity in vitro and in vivo.
Collectively, our results suggest that miR-375 might be a therapeutic target in paclitaxel-resistant cervical cancer.
miR-375; paclitaxel; chemo-resistance; cervical cancer
Clubfoot is a common birth defect characterized by inward posturing and rigid downward displacement of one or both feet. The etiology of syndromic forms of clubfoot is varied and the causes of isolated clubfoot are not well understood. A microduplication of 2.2 Mb on chromosome 17q23.1q23.2 which includes T-box 4 (TBX4), a hindlimb-specific gene, and 16 other genes was recently identified in 3 of 66 families reported as nonsyndromic clubfoot, but additional non-foot malformations place them in the syndromic clubfoot category. Our study assesses whether variation in or around TBX4 contributes to nonsyndromic clubfoot. To determine whether this microduplication was a common cause of nonsyndromic clubfoot, 605 probands (from 148 multiplex and 457 simplex families) with nonsyndromic clubfoot were evaluated by copy number and oligonucleotide array CGH testing modalities. Only one multiplex family (0.68%) that had 16 with clubfoot and 9 with other foot anomalies, had a 350kb microduplication, which included the complete duplication of TBX4 and NACA2 and partial duplication of BRIP1. The microduplication was transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern and all with the microduplication had a range of phenotypes from short wide feet and toes to bilateral clubfoot. Minimal evidence was found for an association between TBX4 and clubfoot and no pathogenic sequence variants were identified in the two known TBX4 hindlimb enhancer elements. Altogether, these results demonstrate that variation in and around the TBX4 gene and the 17q23.1q23.2 microduplication are not a frequent cause of this common orthopedic birth defect and narrows the 17q23.1q23.2 nonsyndromic clubfoot-associated region.
Clubfoot; genetics; TBX4; microduplication; association; malformation
Mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction has intimate relationship with redox regulation. The key mechanism about how the mitochondrial respiration-defective cells survive oxidative stress is still elusive. Here, we report that transcription factor zinc-finger protein 143 (ZNF143) expression and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity are markedly increased in the mitochondrial respiratory-defective cells induced by dominant-negative DNA polymerase γ (POLGdn). In this work, investigation of the cellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and enzyme GPX activity in the mitochondrial dysfunction revealed the presence of an increased synthesis of GSH through the activation of GCLC (glutamate–cysteine ligase catalytic subunit) and GCLM (glutamate–cysteine ligase regulatory subunit) gene expression, and also a positive upregulation of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) activity by the transcription factor ZNF143. Significant increase in gene expression of SepSecS, the key enzyme responsible for selenocysteine transfer RNA (tRNA) synthesis, further confirmed the activation of the selenocysteine synthesis pathway. By using both GPX1 and ZNF143 knockdown, we provided insight into the involvement of ZNF143 in promoting GPX1 activity and protecting cells from oxidative damage and cisplatin treatment in the mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, we reported the possible regulation of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) in the mitochondrial dysfunction. Our findings delineate an important antioxidant survival pathway that allows the mitochondrial-defective cells to survive oxidative stress and cisplatin treatment.
ZNF143; mitochondrial dysfunction; GPX1; cisplatin; ROS
There is evidence for a role of insulin and leptin in food intake, but the effects of these adiposity signals on the brain reward system are not well understood. Furthermore, the effects of insulin and leptin on food intake in females are underinvestigated. These studies investigated the role of insulin and leptin in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (Arc) on food intake and brain reward function in female rats. The intracranial self-stimulation procedure was used to assess the effects of insulin and leptin on the reward system. Elevations in brain reward thresholds are indicative of a decrease in brain reward function. The bilateral administration of leptin into the VTA (15–500 ng/side) or Arc (15–150 ng/side) decreased food intake for 72 h. The infusion of leptin into the VTA or Arc resulted in weight loss during the first 48 (VTA) or 24 h (Arc) after the infusions. The administration of insulin (0.005–5 mU/side) into the VTA or Arc decreased food intake for 24 h but did not affect body weights. The bilateral administration of low, but not high, doses of leptin (15 ng/side) or insulin (0.005 mU/side) into the VTA elevated brain reward thresholds. Neither insulin nor leptin in the Arc affected brain reward thresholds. These studies suggest that a small increase in leptin or insulin levels in the VTA leads to a decrease in brain reward function. A relatively large increase in insulin or leptin levels in the VTA or Arc decreases food intake.
leptin; insulin; food; reward; arcuate nucleus; ventral tegmental area
Stress protein mortalin is a multifunctional protein and is highly expressed in cancers. It has been shown to interact with tumor suppressor protein-p53 (both wild and mutant types) and inactivates its transcriptional activation and apoptotic functions in cancer cells. In the present study, we found that, unlike most of the cancer cells, HepG2 hepatoma lacked mortalin–p53 interaction. We demonstrate that the mortalin–p53 interaction exists in cancer cells that are either physiologically stressed (frequently associated with p53 mutations) or treated with stress-inducing chemicals. Targeting mortalin–p53 interaction with either mortalin small hairpin RNA or a chemical or peptide inhibitor could induce p53-mediated tumor cell-specific apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma; p53-null hepatoma or normal hepatocytes remain unaffected.
stress; mortalin–p53 interaction; cancer; target; therapy
FTO harbours the strongest known obesity-susceptibility locus in Europeans. While there is growing evidence for a role for FTO in obesity risk in Asians, its association with type 2 diabetes, independently of BMI, remains inconsistent. To test whether there is an association of the FTO locus with obesity and type 2 diabetes, we conducted a meta-analysis of 32 populations including 96,551 East and South Asians.
All studies published on the association between FTO-rs9939609 (or proxy [r2 > 0.98]) and BMI, obesity or type 2 diabetes in East or South Asians were invited. Each study group analysed their data according to a standardised analysis plan. Association with type 2 diabetes was also adjusted for BMI. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to pool all effect sizes.
The FTO-rs9939609 minor allele increased risk of obesity by 1.25-fold/allele (p = 9.0 × 10−19), overweight by 1.13-fold/allele (p = 1.0 × 10−11) and type 2 diabetes by 1.15-fold/allele (p = 5.5 × 10−8). The association with type 2 diabetes was attenuated after adjustment for BMI (OR 1.10-fold/allele, p = 6.6 × 10−5). The FTO-rs9939609 minor allele increased BMI by 0.26 kg/m2 per allele (p = 2.8 × 10−17), WHR by 0.003/allele (p = 1.2 × 10−6), and body fat percentage by 0.31%/allele (p = 0.0005). Associations were similar using dominant models. While the minor allele is less common in East Asians (12–20%) than South Asians (30–33%), the effect of FTO variation on obesity-related traits and type 2 diabetes was similar in the two populations.
FTO is associated with increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes, with effect sizes similar in East and South Asians and similar to those observed in Europeans. Furthermore, FTO is also associated with type 2 diabetes independently of BMI.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-011-2370-7) contains peer-reviewed but unedited supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
Asians; FTO; Meta-analysis; Obesity; Type 2 diabetes
It is important to identify which proteins can interact with RNA for the purpose of
protein annotation, since interactions between RNA and proteins influence the
structure of the ribosome and play important roles in gene expression. This paper
tries to identify proteins that can interact with RNA using voting systems. Firstly
through Weka, 34 learning algorithms are chosen for investigation. Then simple
majority voting system (SMVS) is used for the prediction of RNA-binding proteins,
achieving average ACC (overall prediction accuracy) value of 79.72% and MCC
(Matthew's correlation coefficient) value of 59.77% for the
independent testing dataset. Then mRMR (minimum redundancy maximum relevance)
strategy is used, which is transferred into algorithm selection. In addition, the
MCC value of each classifier is assigned to be the weight of the
classifier's vote. As a result, best average MCC values are attained
when 22 algorithms are selected and integrated through weighted votes, which are
64.70% for the independent testing dataset, and ACC value is 82.04% at this
Boron plays important roles in many life processes including embryogenesis, bone growth and maintenance, immune function and psychomotor skills. Thus, the delivery of boron by the degradation of borate glass is of special interest in biomedical applications. However, the cytotoxicity of borate glass which arises with the rapid release of boron has to be carefully considered. In this study, it was found that the incorporation of strontium into borate glass can not only moderate the rapid release of boron, but also induce the adhesion of osteoblast-like cells, SaOS-2, thus significantly increasing the cyto-compatibility of borate glass. The formation of multilayers of apatite with porous structure indicates that complete degradation is optimistic, and the spread of SaOS-2 covered by apatite to form a sandwich structure may induce bone-like tissue formation at earlier stages. Therefore, such novel strontium-incorporated borosilicate may act as a new generation of biomaterial for bone regeneration, which not only renders boron as a nutritious element for bone health, but also delivers strontium to stimulate formation of new bones.
borate glass; strontium; cytotoxicity; bone regeneration
The intracellular signaling molecule cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) has been shown to influence surface-associated behaviors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including biofilm formation and swarming motility. Previously, we reported a role for the bifA gene in the inverse regulation of biofilm formation and swarming motility. The bifA gene encodes a c-di-GMP-degrading phosphodiesterase (PDE), and the ΔbifA mutant exhibits increased cellular pools of c-di-GMP, forms hyperbiofilms, and is unable to swarm. In this study, we isolated suppressors of the ΔbifA swarming defect. Strains with mutations in the pilY1 gene, but not in the pilin subunit pilA gene, show robust suppression of the swarming defect of the ΔbifA mutant, as well as its hyperbiofilm phenotype. Despite the ability of the pilY1 mutation to suppress all the c-di-GMP-related phenotypes, the global pools of c-di-GMP are not detectably altered in the ΔbifA ΔpilY1 mutant relative to the ΔbifA single mutant. We also show that enhanced expression of the pilY1 gene inhibits swarming motility, and we identify residues in the putative VWA domain of PilY1 that are important for this phenotype. Furthermore, swarming repression by PilY1 specifically requires the diguanylate cyclase (DGC) SadC, and epistasis analysis indicates that PilY1 functions upstream of SadC. Our data indicate that PilY1 participates in multiple surface behaviors of P. aeruginosa, and we propose that PilY1 may act via regulation of SadC DGC activity but independently of altering global c-di-GMP levels.
Recently, transcriptional gene silencing induced by small interfering RNA (siRNA) was found in mammalian and human cells. However, previous studies focused on endogenous genes.
In this study, we designed siRNA targeting the promoter of human papillomavirus 16 E6/E7 and transfected it into the cervical cancer cell line, SiHa. E6 and E7 mRNA and protein expression were detected in cells treated by promoter-targeting siRNA. Futhermore, cellular growth, proliferation, apoptosis and senescence were detected. Thereafter, we investigated promoter DNA methylation and histone methylation status in cells treated with promoter-targeting siRNA.
We found that E6/E7 mRNA and protein were simultaneously reduced, cell growth and proliferation were inhibited and cell death, especially senescence, was remarkably increased. Meanwhile, we also found a significantly increasing histone H3-Lys9 methylation on the promoter when E6/E7 gene expression was inhibited.
Our findings suggest that promoter-targeting siRNA effectively and simultaneously knocks down both extraneous HPV 16 E6 and E7 at the transcriptional level, and consequently inhibits proliferation and induces death in HPV 16-infected cells. This transcriptional repression is probably induced by histone modification rather than by alteration of DNA methylation.
small interfering RNA (siRNA); human papillomavirus (HPV); transcriptional gene silencing (TGS); senescence; histone methylation
Three types of fluorinated carbon, all in their original form and upon sequential chemical lithiations via n-butyllithium, were investigated by 13C and 19F solid-state NMR methods. The three starting CFx materials [where x = 1 (nominally)] were fiber based, graphite based, and petroleum coke based. The aim of the current study was to identify, at the atomic/molecular structural level, factors that might account for differences in electrochemical performance among the different kinds of CFx. Differences were noted in the covalent F character among the starting compounds and in the details of LiF production among the lithiated samples.
Although Wnt signaling activation is frequently observed in human breast cancer, mutations in the genes encoding intracellular components of the Wnt signaling pathway are rare. We found that expression of Wnt signaling co-receptor LRP6 is up-regulated in a subset of human breast cancer tissues and cell lines. To examine whether overexpression of LRP6 in mammary epithelial cells is sufficient to activate Wnt signaling and promote cell proliferation, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing LRP6 in mammary epithelial cells driven by the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter. We found that mammary glands from MMTV-LRP6 mice exhibit significant Wnt activation evidenced by the translocation of β-catenin from membrane to cytoplasmic/nuclear fractions. Expression of several Wnt-target genes including Axin2, Cyclin D1 and c-Myc was also increased in MMTV-LRP6 mice. More importantly, mammary glands from virgin MMTV-LRP6 mice exhibit significant hyperplasia, a precursor to breast cancer, when compared to wild-type littermate controls. Several matrix metalloproteinases are up-regulated in MMTV-LRP6 mice that could contribute to the hyperplasia phenotype. Our results suggest that Wnt signaling activation at the cell surface receptor level can contribute to breast cancer tumorigenesis.
LRP6; Wnt signaling; mammary gland; breast cancer
The semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (C-SWNT) has been synthesized by S-doping, and they have extensive potential application in electronic devices. We investigated the electronic structures of S-doped capped (5, 5) C-SWNT with different doping position using first principles calculations. It is found that the electronic structures influence strongly on the workfunction without and with external electric field. It is considered that the extended wave functions at the sidewall of the tube favor for the emission properties. With the S-doping into the C-SWNT, the HOMO and LUMO charges distribution is mainly more localized at the sidewall of the tube and the presence of the unsaturated dangling bond, which are believed to enhance workfunction. When external electric field is applied, the coupled states with mixture of localized and extended states are presented at the cap, which provide the lower workfunction. In addition, the wave functions close to the cap have flowed to the cap as coupled states and to the sidewall of the tube mainly as extended states, which results in the larger workfunction. It is concluded that the S-doped C-SWNT is not incentive to be applied in field emitter fabrication. The results are also helpful to understand and interpret the application in other electronic devices.
Single-walled carbon nanotube (C-SWNT); Electronic properties; Workfunctions