Neurons excited by stimulation of one ear and suppressed by the other, called EI neurons, are sensitive to interaural intensity disparities (IIDs), the cues animals use to localize high frequencies. EI neurons are first formed in lateral superior olive (LSO), which then sends excitatory projections to the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) and the inferior colliculus (IC), both of which contain large populations of EI cells. We evaluate the inputs that innervate EI cells in the IC of Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasilensis mexicana, with in vivo whole cell recordings from which we derived excitatory and inhibitory conductances. We show that the basic EI property in the majority of IC cells is inherited from LSO, but each type of EI cell is also innervated by the ipsi- or contralateral DNLL, as well as additional excitatory and inhibitory inputs from monaural nuclei. We identify three EI types, where each type receives a set of projections that are different from the other types. To evaluate the role that the various projections played in generating binaural responses, we used modeling to compute a predicted response from the conductances. We then omitted one of the conductances from the computation to evaluate the degree to which that input contributed to the binaural response. We show that formation of the EI property in the various types is complex, and that some projections exert such subtle influences that they could not have been detected with extracellular recordings or even from intracellular recordings of post-synaptic potentials.
Binaural processing; excitatory-inhibitory neurons; IC; in vivo whole-cell recordings
Background and Aims
Previous studies have shown impaired cerebral autoregulation (CA) in carotid and middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis/occlusion. Little is known about CA in patients with basilar artery (BA) stenosis. We therefore investigated dynamic CA patterns in BA stenosis using transfer function analysis (TFA).
We measured spontaneous oscillations of blood flow velocity (CBFV) in the right posterior cerebral artery (PCA), and left MCA and mean arterial pressure (ABP) continuously in 25 patients with BA stenosis (moderate n=16 with 50-69% occlusion and severe n=9 with ≥70% occlusion) and 22 healthy volunteers in supine position during 6 circles per minute deep breath. Analysis was based on the ‘black-box’ model of transfer function deriving phase and gain in both PCA and MCA.
Though changes of phase shift and gain between the patients and healthy controls were observed in MCA, the differences are however not significant. Phase shift in PCA was significantly decreased in severe stenosis when comparing with healthy controls and moderate stenosis (4.2±34.2° VS 41.1±40.4°, 4.2±34.2° VS 34.2±27.2°, both p<0.05), whilst the gain in PCA is increased for moderate BA stenosis and decreased for severe BA stenosis. Furthermore, we found that phase shift were almost abolished in patients with ischemic stroke who developed unfavorable clinical outcome (mRs>2) on the 90 days after stroke onset.
Dynamic CA in PCA reduces in patients with severe BA stenosis and those with ischemic stroke who present poor outcome in 90 days after stroke onset. Phase shift might be a sensitive index prompting impaired CA in posterior circulation.
Gemcitabine is a nucleoside analog that is currently the best available single-agent chemotherapeutic drug for pancreatic cancer. However, efficacy is limited by our inability to deliver sufficient active metabolite into cancer cells without toxic effects on normal tissues. Targeted delivery of gemcitabine into cancer cells could maximize effectiveness and concurrently minimize toxic side effects by reducing uptake into normal cells. Most pancreatic cancers overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a trans-membrane receptor tyrosine kinase. We utilized a nuclease resistant RNA aptamer that binds and is internalized by EGFR on pancreatic cancer cells to deliver gemcitabine-containing polymers into EGFR-expressing cells and inhibit cell proliferation in vitro. This approach to cell type–specific therapy can be adapted to other targets and to other types of therapeutic cargo.
TP63 is required for preservation of epithelial regenerative stasis and regulates the activity of diverse genetic pathways; however, specific effector pathways are poorly understood. Data presented here indicate that reciprocal regulatory interactions between hedgehog signaling and TP63 mediate stage-specific effects on proliferation and clonigenicity of separable enriched mammary stem and progenitor fractions. Analysis of ΔN-p63 and TA-p63 indicates segregated expression in mammary stem and progenitor fractions, respectively, demonstrating that differential TP63 promoter selection occurs during elaboration of mammary progenitors by mammary stem cells. This segregation underlies mammary progenitor-specific expression of Indian Hedgehog, identifying it as a binary transcriptional target of TP63. Hedgehog activation in vivo enhances elaboration of mammary progenitors and decreases label retention within mammary stem cell-enriched fractions, suggesting that hedgehog exerts a mitogenic effect on mammary stem cells. Hedgehog signaling promotes differential TP63 promoter usage via disruption of Gli3 or Gli3R accumulation, and shRNA-mediated disruption of Gli3 expression was sufficient to alter TP63 promoter usage and enhance clonigenicity of mammary stem cells. Finally, hedgehog signaling is enhanced during pregnancy, where it contributes to expansion of the mammary progenitor compartment. These studies support a model in which hedgehog activates elaboration and differentiation of mammary progenitors via differential TP63 promoter selection and forfeiture of self-renewing capacity.
Mammary stem cells; Mammary progenitors; Quiescence; TP63; Hedgehog; Gli3
T lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1) is a potential modifier of tumor development and progression. Our previous study in vitro and in nude mice suggested a promotion role of Tiam1 on invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, we generated Tiam1/C1199-CopGFP transgenic mice to investigate the tumorigenetic, invasive and metastatic alterations in the colon and rectum of wild-type and Tiam1 transgenic mice under 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) treatment.
Transgenic mice were produced by the method of pronuclear microinlectlon. Whole-body fluorescence imaging (Lighttools, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada), PCR, and immunohistochemical techniques (IHC) were applied sequentially to identify the transgenic mice. The carcinogen DMH (20 mg/kg) was used to induce colorectal tumors though intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections once a week for 24 weeks from the age of 4 weeks on Tiam1 transgenic or non-transgenic mice.
We successfully generated Tiam1/C1199-CopGFP transgenic mice and induced primary tumors in the intestine of both wild type and Tiam1 transgenic mice by DMH treatment. In addition, Tiam1 transgenic mice developed larger and more aggressive neoplasm than wild-type mice. Moreover, immunohistochemical staining revealed that upregulation of Tiam1 was correlated with increased expression of β-Catenin and Vimentin, and downregulation of E-Cadherin in these mice.
Our study has provided in vivo evidence supporting that Tiam1 promotes invasion and metastasis of CRC, most probably through activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, in a Tiam1 transgenic mouse model.
Almost all of the processing that occurs in the various lower auditory nuclei converges upon a common target in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc) thus making the ICc the nexus of the auditory system. A variety of new response properties are formed in the ICc through the interactions among the excitatory and inhibitory inputs that converge upon it. Here we review studies that illustrate the dominant role inhibition plays in the ICc. We begin by reviewing studies of tuning curves and show how inhibition shapes the variety of tuning curves in the ICc through sideband inhibition. We then show how inhibition shapes selective response properties for complex signals, focusing on selectivity for the sweep direction of frequency modulations (FM). In the final section we consider results from in vivo whole-cell recordings that show how parameters of the incoming excitation and inhibition interact to shape directional selectivity. We show that post-synaptic potentials (PSPs) evoked by different signals can be similar but evoke markedly different spike-counts. In these cases, spike threshold acts as a non-linear amplifier that converts small differences in PSPs into large differences in spike output. Such differences between the inputs to a cell compared to the outputs from the same cell suggest that highly selective discharge properties can be created by only minor adjustments in the synaptic strengths evoked by one or both signals. These findings also suggest that plasticity of response features may be achieved with far less modifications in circuitry than previously supposed.
Pinelliapedatisecta agglutinin (PPA) has previously been used in labeling fractions of myeloid leukemia cells in our laboratory. We report here that a bacterial expressed recombinant PPA domain b tagged with soluble coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (sCAR-PPAb) preferentially recognized drug resistant cancer cells K562/ADR and H460/5Fu, as compared to their parental cell lines. Pretreatment of K562/ADR cells with sCAR-PPAb significantly enhanced phagocytosis of K562/ADR by macrophages in vivo. Meanwhile, in a K562/ADR xenograft model, intratumoral injection of sCAR-PPAb induced macrophage infiltration and phagocytosis. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry and Western blot identified the membrane target of PPA on K562/ADR as sarcolemmal membrane associated protein (SLMAP). An antibody against SLMAP significantly promoted the phagocytosis of K562/ADR by macrophages in vitro. These findings suggest that PPA not only could be developed into a novel agent that can detect drug resistant cancer cells and predict chemotherapy outcome, but also it has potential value in immunotherapy against drug resistant cancer cells through inducing the tumoricidal activity of macrophages.
Appropriate tillage plays an important role in mitigating the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) in regions with higher crop yields, but the emission situations of some reduced tillage systems such as subsoiling, harrow tillage and rotary tillage are not comprehensively studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the emission characteristics of GHG (CH4 and N2O) under four reduced tillage systems from October 2007 to August 2009 based on a 10-yr tillage experiment in the North China Plain, which included no-tillage (NT) and three reduced tillage systems of subsoil tillage (ST), harrow tillage (HT) and rotary tillage (RT), with the conventional tillage (CT) as the control. The soil under the five tillage systems was an absorption sink for CH4 and an emission source for N2O. The soil temperature positive impacted on the CH4 absorption by the soils of different tillage systems, while a significant negative correlation was observed between the absorption and soil moisture. The main driving factor for increased N2O emission was not the soil temperature but the soil moisture and the content of nitrate. In the two rotation cycle of wheat-maize system (10/2007–10/2008 and 10/2008–10/2009), averaged cumulative uptake fluxes of CH4 under CT, ST, HT, RT and NT systems were approximately 1.67, 1.72, 1.63, 1.77 and 1.17 t ha−1 year−1, respectively, and meanwhile, approximately 4.43, 4.38, 4.47, 4.30 and 4.61 t ha−1 year−1 of N2O were emitted from soil of these systems, respectively. Moreover, they also gained 33.73, 34.63, 32.62, 34.56 and 27.54 t ha−1 yields during two crop-rotation periods, respectively. Based on these comparisons, the rotary tillage and subsoiling mitigated the emissions of CH4 and N2O as well as improving crop productivity of a wheat-maize cropping system.
The present study was aimed to determine if cervicospinal substance P (SP) and its neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were involved in electroacupuncture (EA) analgesia in neck-incision pain rats. EA intervention was applied to bilateral Futu (LI18), Hegu (LI4)-Neiguan (PC6), and Zusanli (ST36)-Yanglingquan (GB34) for 30 min. Cervicospinal SP and CGRP immunoactivity was detected by immunofluorescence technique, NK-1R and COX-1 protein and mRNA expression levels were determined using Western blot and real-time PCR, respectively, and PGE2 content was measured using ELISA. Outcomes indicated that EA of EA-LI18 and LI4-PC6 (not ST36-GB34) significantly suppressed neck-incision induced decrease of thermal pain threshold (P < 0.05). EA stimulation of LI18 and LI4-PC6 markedly inhibited neck-incision induced upregulation of SP and CGRP immunoactivity, NK-1 R and COX-1 mRNA and protein expression levels, as well as the increase of PGE2 content in the dorsal cervicospinal cord (P < 0.05). These findings showed that LI18 and LI4-PC6 EA stimulation-induced downregulation of SP, CGRP, NK-1R, COX-1, and PGE2 levels in the dorsal cervicospinal cord may contribute to their effects in relieving neck-incision pain. This study highlights the targets of EA intervention for reducing post-thyroid-surgery pain for the first time.
Background: Vitamin D, beyond its role in calcium and bone metabolism, exhibits immunomodulatory effects on innate and adaptive immune pathways and is suggestively related to liver diseases. Objective: This study investigated the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in vitamin D functions with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Methods: Five hundred Chinese Han subjects, including 274 chronic HBV patients, 68 HBV infection resolvers, and 158 healthy controls without HBV infection, were studied. The CYP27B1-1260 promoter and the VDR Taq I polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: Although there was no difference between HBV patients and healthy controls, HBV patients and healthy controls had a higher frequency of the CYP27B1-1260 genotype CC (15.0% vs. 2.9%, p=0.004 and 13.3% vs. 2.9%, p=0.006, respectively) and allele C (38.3% vs. 25.7%, p=0.006 and 39.2% vs. 25.7%, p=0.006, respectively) compared with resolvers. The genotype and allele frequencies of the VDR Taq I polymorphism had no difference between patients, resolvers, and healthy controls. Conclusion: These results suggest that the CYP27B1-1260 promoter polymorphism is possibly associated with the persistence, but not susceptibility to HBV infection in Chinese HBV patients, and that the VDR Taq I polymorphism is not suggested to be related to chronic HBV infection.
The findings on the association between fish intake and the risk of heart failure (HF) have been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to clarify this potential association. We searched for relevant studies in the PubMed database through January 2012 and manually reviewed references. Five independent prospective cohort studies involving 5,273 cases and 144,917 participants were included. The summary relative risk estimates (SRRE) based on the highest compared with the lowest category of fish consumption were estimated by variance-based meta-analysis. In addition, we performed sensitivity and dose-response analyses to examine the association. Overall, an absence of an association between fish intake and HF was observed (SRRE=1.00; 95% CI, 0.81–1.24). However, fried fish intake positively associated with HF (SRRE=1.40; 95% CI, 1.22–1.61). In addition, dose-response analysis of fried fish suggested that each increment of six fried fish per month corresponded to a 37% increase of HF rate (RR=1.37; 95% CI, 1.20–1.56). In conclusion, our findings suggest that there is no significant association between fish intake and risk of HF, with the exception of a possible positive correlation with individuals comsuming fried fish, based on a limited number of studies. Future studies are required to confirm these findings.
fish; nutrition; heart failure; meta-analysis
Design of antimicrobial polymers for enhancing healthcare issues and minimizing environmental problems is an important endeavor with both fundamental and practical implications. Quaternary ammonium silane-functionalized methacrylate (QAMS) represents an example of antimicrobial macromonomers synthesized by a sol-gel chemical route; these compounds possess flexible Si-O-Si bonds. In present work, a partially-hydrolyzed QAMS copolymerized with bis-GMA is introduced. This methacrylate resin was shown to possess desirable mechanical properties with both a high degree of conversion and minimal polymerization shrinkage. Kill-on-contact microbiocidal activities of this resin were demonstrated using single-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 36558), Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) and Candida albicans (ATCC 90028). Improved mechanical properties after hydration provided the proof-of-concept that QAMS-incorporated resin exhibits self-repair potential via water-induced condensation of organic modified silicate (ormosil) phases within the polymerized resin matrix.
Quaternary ammonium; Organic modified silicate; Antimicrobial; Sol-gel technique; Self-repair
AIM: To study effect of diterpenoid C extracted from radix curcumae on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-infected inflammation, intestinal metaplasia, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway in vitro.
METHODS: We used I-type H. pylori to infect human gastric epithelial gastric epithelium cell line (GES-1) cell lines, and then H. pylori-infected GES-1 cells were treated with radix curcumae (RC)-derived diterpenoid C of different concentrations (5, 10, 20 μg/mL) and amoxicillin. The expression of p65, IκB kinase (IKK) α and IKKγ proteins was detected with Western blotting, and the expression of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6 and IL-4 was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Data were analyzed using SPSS software ver18.0. For comparisons between groups of more than two unpaired values, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. If an ANOVA F value was significant, post hoc comparisons were performed between groups. If results were not normally distributed, the Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare two groups of unpaired values, whereas for comparisons between groups of more than two unpaired values, the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used. Statistical significance was established at P < 0.05.
RESULTS: The MTT assay results revealed the inhibited rate of GES-1, and indicated that the IC5 of RC-derived diterpenoid C and amoxicillin all were 5 μg/mL for gastric GES-1 cells. The expression of IL-8 was significantly increased, especially at 12 h time point; and the expression of IL-4 was decreased in H. pylori-infected GES-1 cells. After H. pylori-infected GES-1 cells were treated with RC-derived diterpenoid C of different concentrations and amoxicillin, the expression of IL-8 was decreased at 12, 24, 48, 72 h points (P < 0.01), especially in high-concentration diterpenoid C (20 μg/mL) group; and the expression of IL-4 was increased, especially in moderate and high-concentration diterpenoid C (10 and 20 μg/mL) groups. RC-derived diterpenoid C had the inhibitory effects on H. pylori-induced p65 translocation from cytoplasm into cell nucleus, H. pylori-stimulant IkBα degradation, the phosphorylation of p65 and IkBα, and the expression of IKKα and IKKβ proteins.
CONCLUSION: RC-derived diterpenoid C can block NF-κB signal pathway, effectively reducing the secretion of H. pylori-induced proinflammatory cytokine and increasing the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokine.
Radix curcumae-derived diterpenoid C; Helicobacter pylori; Nuclear factor-κB; Inflammatory cytokine
The epithelial barrier dysfunction is an important pathogenic feature in a number of diseases. The underlying mechanism is to be further investigated. The present study aims to investigate the role of tight junction protein claudin-2 (Cldn2) in the compromising epithelial barrier function. In this study, the expression of Cldn2 in the epithelial layer of mice and patients with food allergy was observed by immunohistochemistry. The induction of Cldn2 was carried out with a cell culture model. The Cldn2-facilitated antigen internalization was observed by confocal microscopy. The epithelial barrier function in the gut epithelial monolayer was assessed by recording the transepithelial resistance and assessing the permeability to a macromolecular tracer. The results showed that the positive immune staining of Cldn2 was observed in the epithelial layer of the small intestine that was weakly stained in naïve control mice, and strongly stained in sensitized mice as well as patients with food allergy. Exposure to cholera toxin or Staphylococcal enterotoxin B induced the expression of Cldn2 in HT-29 or T84 cells. Cldn2 could bind protein antigen to form complexes to facilitate the antigen transport across the epithelial barrier. Blocking Cldn2 prevented the allergen-related hypersensitivity the intestine. We conclude that the tight junction protein Cldn2 is involved in the epithelial barrier dysfunction.
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor of metabolism that is an attractive therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Using a homogeneous scintillation proximity assay (SPA), we identified a new small-molecule AMPK activator, ZLN024, which allosterically stimulated active AMPK heterotrimers and the inactive α1 subunit truncations α1 (1–394) and α1 (1–335) but not α1 (1–312). AMPK activation by ZLN024 requires the pre-phosphorylation of Thr-172 by at least one upstream kinase and protects AMPK Thr-172 against dephosphorylation by PP2Cα. ZLN024 activated AMPK in L6 myotubes and stimulated glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation without increasing the ADP/ATP ratio. ZLN024 also activated AMPK in primary hepatocytes, decreased fatty acid synthesis and glucose output. Treatment of db/db mice with 15 mg/kg/day ZLN024 improved glucose tolerance; liver tissue weight, triacylglycerol and the total cholesterol content were decreased. The hepatic transcriptional level of G6Pase, FAS and mtGPAT were reduced. The transcription of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and the mitochondrial biogenesis of muscle tissue were elevated. The ACC phosphorylation was increased in muscle and liver. This study provides a novel allosteric AMPK activator for functional study in vitro and in vivo and demonstrates that AMPK allosteric activators could be a promising therapeutic approach for type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome.
Single- and low-copy genes are less likely to be subject to concerted evolution. Thus, they are appropriate tools to study the origin and evolution of polyploidy plant taxa. The plastid 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene (Pgk-1) sequences from 44 accessions of Triticum and Aegilops, representing diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid wheats, were used to estimate the origin of Triticum petropavlovskyi. Our phylogenetic analysis was carried out on exon+intron, exon and intron sequences, using maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference and haplotype networking. We found the D genome sequences of Pgk-1 genes from T. petropavlovskyi are similar to the D genome orthologs in T. aestivum, while their relationship with Ae. tauschii is more distant. The A genome sequences of T. petropavlovskyi group with those of T. polonicum, but its Pgk-1 B genome sequences to some extent diverge from those of other species of Triticum. Our data do not support for the origin of T. petropavlovskyi either as an independent allopolyploidization event between Ae. tauschii and T. polonicum, or as a monomendelian mutation in T. aestivum. We suggest that T. petropavlovskyi originated via spontaneous introgression from T. polonicum into T. aestivum. The dating of this introgression indicates an age of 0.78 million years; a further mutation event concerning the B genome occurred 0.69 million years ago.
AIM: To investigate the prevalence of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and to assess corresponding health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in hospitalized cirrhotic patients in China.
METHODS: This multi-center cross-sectional study included 16 teaching hospitals, which were members of “Hepatobiliary Cooperation Group, Society of Gastroenterology, Chinese Medical Association”, from different areas of China carried out between June and October in 2011. All the eligible hospitalized cirrhotic patients (n = 538) were required to complete triplicate number connection tests combined with one digit symbol test for diagnosing MHE. Patients’ clinical examination data were complemented by a modified questionnaire assessing HRQoL. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient.
RESULTS: Male was predominant (68.6%) in 519 patients who met the criteria of the study, with a mean age of 49.17 ± 11.02 years. The most common cause of liver cirrhosis was chronic hepatitis B (55.9%). The prevalence of MHE was 39.9% and varied by Child-Pugh-Classification score (CPC-A: 24.8%, CPC-B: 39.4% and CPC-C: 56.1%, P < 0.01). MHE (P < 0.01) and higher CPC scores (P < 0.01) were associated with a high HRQoL scores (reflecting poorer quality of life). The prevalence of MHE was proportionate to CPC (P = 0.01) and high quality of life scores (P = 0.01).
CONCLUSION: Hospitalized cirrhotic patients have a high prevalence of MHE that is proportionate to the degree of liver function and HRQoL impairment.
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy; Health-related quality of life; China; Child-Pugh Classification; Liver cirrhosis
A large number of studies have confirmed that excessive apoptosis is one of the reasons for deficient neuronal function in neural tube defects (NTDs). A previous study from our laboratory used 2-D gel electrophoresis to demonstrate that 14-3-3ζ expression was low in the spinal cords of rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta at embryonic day (E) 17. As a member of the 14-3-3 protein family, 14-3-3ζ plays a crucial role in the determination of cell fate and anti-apoptotic activity. However, neither the expression of 14-3-3ζ in defective spinal cords, nor the correlation between 14-3-3ζ and excessive apoptosis in NTDs has been fully confirmed.
We used immunoblotting and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to quantify the expression of 14-3-3ζ and double immunofluorescence to visualize 14-3-3ζ and apoptosis. We found that, compared with controls, 14-3-3ζ was down-regulated in spina bifida between E12 and E15. Excessive apoptotic cells and low expression of 14-3-3ζ were observed in the dorsal region of spinal cords with spina bifida during the same time period. To initially explore the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis in NTDs, we investigated the expression of microRNA-7 (miR-7), microRNA-375 (miR-375) and microRNA-451 (miR-451), which are known to down-regulate 14-3-3ζ in several different cell types. We also investigated the expression of p53, a molecule that is downstream of 14-3-3ζ and can be down-regulated by it. We discovered that, in contrast to the reduction of 14-3-3ζ expression, the expression of miR-451, miR-375 and p53 increased in spina bifida rat fetuses.
These data suggest that the reduced expression of 14-3-3ζ plays a role in the excessive apoptosis that occurs in spina bifida and may be partly regulated by the over-expression of miR-451 and miR-375, and the consequent up-regulation of p53 might further promote apoptosis in spina bifida.
A Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) cell surface display system of Bombyx mori acetylcholinesterase (BmAChE) was constructed and its bioactivity was studied. The modified Bombyx mori acetylcholinesterase gene (bmace) was fused with the anchor protein (AGα1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and transformed into P. pastoris strain GS115. The recombinant strain harboring the fusion gene bmace-AGα1 was induced to display BmAChE on the P. pastoris cell surface. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry assays revealed that the BmAChE was successfully displayed on the cell surface of P. pastoris GS115. The enzyme activity of the displayed BmAChE was detected by the Ellman method at 787.7 U/g (wet cell weight). In addition, bioactivity of the displayed BmAChE was verified by inhibition tests conducted with eserine, and with carbamate and organophosphorus pesticides. The displayed BmAChE had an IC50 of 4.17×10−8 M and was highly sensitive to eserine and five carbamate pesticides, as well as seven organophosphorus pesticides. Results suggest that the displayed BmAChE had good bioactivity.
Sepsis is denoted as a complex syndrome that results from a serious infection followed by amplified and dysregulated inflammatory response. The complex immune response associated with sepsis results in a high rate of morbidity and mortality, despite substantial basic science and clinical advances. Recently, accumulating evidence have demonstrated that regulatory T cells (Tregs) play important roles in suppression of immune response, as demonstrated by the number increase and functional enhancement following the onset of severe sepsis or septic shock. This article reviews recent advances in understanding the potential role of Tregs in the pathophysiology of septic response, as well as implications in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for improving the clinical outcome of patients with severe injury and subsequent septic complications.
Monoclonal antibodies have become a part of daily preparation technologies in many laboratories. Attempts have been made to apply monoclonal antibodies to open a new train of thought for clinical treatments of autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases, cancer, and other immune-associated diseases. This paper is a prospective review to anticipate that monoclonal antibody application in the treatment of myocarditis, an inflammatory disease of the heart, could be a novel approach in the future. In order to better understand the current state of the art in monoclonal antibody techniques and advance applications in myocarditis, we, through a significant amount of literature research both domestic and abroad, developed a systematic elaboration of monoclonal antibodies, pathogenesis of myocarditis, and application of monoclonal antibodies in myocarditis. This paper presents review of the literature of some therapeutic aspects of monoclonal antibodies in myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy to demonstrate the advance of monoclonal antibody application in myocarditis and a strong anticipation that monoclonal antibody application may supply an effective therapeutic approach to relieve the severity of myocarditis in the future. Under conventional therapy, myocarditis is typically associated with congestive heart failure as a progressive outcome, indicating the need for alternative therapeutic strategies to improve long-term results. Reviewing some therapeutic aspects of monoclonal antibodies in myocarditis, we recently found that monoclonal antibodies with high purity and strong specificity can accurately act on target and achieve definite progress in the treatment of viral myocarditis in rat model and may meet the need above. However, several issues remain. The technology on how to make a higher homologous and weak immunogenic humanized or human source antibody and the treatment mechanism of monoclonal antibodies may provide solutions for these open issues. If we are to further stimulate progress in the area of clinical decision support, we must continue to develop and refine our understanding and use of monoclonal antibodies in myocarditis.
Monoclonal antibody; Myocarditis; Dilated cardiomyopathy
To evaluate the autoantibody in patients without corresponding symptoms, whether these autoantibody are pathognomonic or not. We hypothesised that autoantibody may be reactive to chronic infection, such as tuberculosis (TB).
Randomised, case–control cohort study.
A tertiary centre in Taiwan.
We randomly chose 100 patients out of the data bank of patients with TB in a tertiary medical centre. All patients completed the sera sampling. We chose 100 patients according to autoantibody prevalence in previous literature. We also chose 100 medical staff as control group.
We tested anti-SSA, anti-SSB, anti-Sm, anti ribonucleoprotein, anti-Scl 70, anticentromere, anti-double-stranded DNA, anticardiolipin IgG and IgM in all patient and control groups. The clinical symptoms and the underlying disease were all recorded.
Primary and secondary outcome measures
The result of sera antibody titre was recorded. For those with specific positive serology results, following examination was carried out after a 3-month anti-TB medication.
Anticardiolipin IgG titre was significantly higher in patients with TB than in control group. We compared the result with previous population study and found that anti-Scl70 is also significantly higher in patients with TB. The following up data in anti-Scl70 revealed decreased titre after treatment. No correlation between sera titre and clinical conditions was observed.
In TB endemic areas, a significant proportion (32%) of patients with TB have elevated autoantibody titres, especially anticardiolipin IgG and anti-Scl-70. Mycobacterial studies should be performed in patients with elevated serum autoantibody titres but without the typical or multiple manifestations of autoimmune diseases.
The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the hospital (NTUH REC: 9561707008) after informed consent had been obtained from the patients.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have positive effect on the regulation of plasma lipids. But the mechanism for them to modulate lipid homeostasis in macrophage is still unclear. In this study, we employed PUFA to pretreat macrophages and evaluated the variations of lipid droplet (LD) content, lipid composition, and expressions of LD-associated genes in macrophage-derived foam cells.
THP-1-derived macrophages or human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages were pre-treated with four non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) separately: saturated fatty acid (SFA)-palmitic acid (PA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)-oleic acid (OA), PUFAs-linoleic acid (LA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Intracellular lipid content and cholesterol efflux were analyzed in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells. Related gene expressions were detected by quantitative real-time PCR.
PUFA pre-treatment reduced cholesterol content in foam cells and increased cholesterol efflux to lipid-free apoAI in conditioned medium compared with PA or OA group. Cell death-inducing DFF45 like effector (CIDE) and Perilipin-Adipophilin-TIP47 (PAT) family members, as LD-associated proteins, showed specific gene expression profiles after PUFA pre-treatment. These results may help to explain the process of lipid metabolism within foam cells.
PUFA (LA or EPA) had a potential protective effect against cholesterol accumulation. The specific expressions of CIDE and PAT genes may provide clues to explore the protective mechanism of PUFA in foam cells.
Polyunsaturated fatty acid; CIDE; PAT; Lipid metabolism; Atherosclerosis
Chemically synthesized small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been widely used to identify gene function and hold great potential in providing a new class of therapeutics. Chemical modifications are desired for therapeutic applications to improve siRNA efficacy. Appropriately protected ribonucleoside-3′-yl S-[β-(benzoylmercapto)ethyl] pyrrolidinothiophosphoramidite monomers were prepared for the synthesis of siRNA containing phosphorodithioate (PS2) substitutions in which the two non-bridging oxygen atoms are replaced by sulfur atoms. A series of siRNAs containing PS2 substitutions have been strategically designed, synthesized and evaluated for their gene silencing activities. These PS2-siRNA duplexes exhibit an A-form helical structure similar to unmodified siRNA. The effect of PS2 substitutions on gene silencing activity is position-dependent, with certain PS2-siRNAs showing significantly higher activity than unmodified siRNA. The relative gene silencing activities of siRNAs containing either PS2 or phosphoromonothioate (PS) linkages at identical positions are variable and depend on the sites of modification. 5′-Phosphorylation of PS2-siRNAs has little or no effect on gene silencing activity. Incorporation of PS2 substitutions into siRNA duplexes increases their serum stability. These results offer preliminary evidence of the potential value of PS2 modified siRNAs.