RNA activation (RNAa) is a mechanism of gene activation triggered by promoter-targeted small double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), also known as small activating RNA (saRNA). p21WAF1/CIP1 (p21) is a putative tumor suppressor gene due to its role as a key negative regulator of the cell cycle and cell proliferation. It is frequently downregulated in cancer including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but is rarely mutated or deleted, making it an ideal target for RNAa-based overexpression to restore its tumor suppressor function. In the present study, we investigated the antigrowth effects of p21 RNAa in HCC cells. Transfection of a p21 saRNA (dsP21-322) into HepG2 and Hep3B cells significantly induced the expression of p21 at both the mRNA and protein levels, and inhibited cell proliferation and survival. Further analysis of dsP21-322 transfected cells revealed that dsP21-322 arrested the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase in HepG2 cells but at G2/M phase in Hep3B cells which lack functional p53 and Rb genes, and induced both early and late stage apoptosis by activating caspase 3 in both cell lines. These results demonstrated that RNAa of p21 has in vitro antigrowth effects on HCC cells via impeding cell cycle progression and inducing apoptotic cell death. This study suggests that targeted activation of p21 by RNAa may be explored as a novel therapy for the treatment of HCC.
Argonaute proteins are often credited for their cytoplasmic activities in which they function as central mediators of the RNAi platform and microRNA (miRNA)-mediated processes. They also facilitate heterochromatin formation and establishment of repressive epigenetic marks in the nucleus of fission yeast and plants. However, the nuclear functions of Ago proteins in mammalian cells remain elusive. In the present study, we combine ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with massively parallel sequencing) with biochemical assays to show that nuclear Ago1 directly interacts with RNA Polymerase II and is widely associated with chromosomal loci throughout the genome with preferential enrichment in promoters of transcriptionally active genes. Additional analyses show that nuclear Ago1 regulates the expression of Ago1-bound genes that are implicated in oncogenic pathways including cell cycle progression, growth, and survival. Our findings reveal the first landscape of human Ago1-chromosomal interactions, which may play a role in the oncogenic transcriptional program of cancer cells.
Argonaute (Ago) proteins are an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins indispensable for a gene regulation mechanism known as RNA interference (RNAi) which is mediated by small RNA including microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) and occurs mainly in the cytoplasm. In mammalian cells, however, the function of Agos in the nucleus is largely unknown despite a few examples in which Agos are shown to be involved in regulating gene transcription and alternative splicing. In this study, by taking a genome-wide approach, we found that human Ago1, but not Ago2, is pervasively associated with gene regulatory sequences known as promoter and interacts with the core component of the gene transcription machinery to exert positive impact on gene expression in cancer cells. Strikingly, the genes bound and regulated by Ago1 are mostly genes that stimulate cell growth and survival, and are known to be involved in the development of cancer. The findings from our study unveil an unexpected role of nuclear Ago1 in regulating gene expression which may be important both in normal cellular processes and in disease such as cancer.
Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) is one of the most important pathogens of silkworm. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to play key roles in regulating host-pathogen interaction. However, there are limited reports on the miRNAs expression profiles during insect pathogen challenges. In this study, four small RNA libraries from BmCPV-infected midgut of silkworm at 72 h post-inoculation and 96 h post-inoculation and their corresponding control midguts were constructed and deep sequenced. A total of 316 known miRNAs (including miRNA*) and 90 novel miRNAs were identified. Fifty-eight miRNAs displayed significant differential expression between the infected and normal midgut (P value < = 0.01 and fold change > = 2.0 or < = 0.5), among which ten differentially expressed miRNA were validated by qRT-PCR method. Further bioinformatics analysis of predicted target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs showed that the miRNA targets were involved in stimulus and immune system process in silkworm.
Significance: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has traditionally been considered a toxic environmental pollutant. In the late 1990s, the presumed solely harmful role of H2S has been challenged because H2S may also be involved in the maintenance and preservation of cardiovascular homeostasis. Recent Advances: The production of endogenous H2S has been attributed to three key enzymes, cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine β-synthase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase. The recognition of H2S as the third gaseous signaling molecule has stimulated research on a multitude of pathophysiologic events in the cardiovascular system. In particular, important roles in cardiovascular disorder processes are ascribed to the CSE/H2S pathway, such as atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, hypertension, and shock. Critical Issues: Many biological activities and molecular mechanisms of H2S in the cardiovascular system have been demonstrated in studies using different tools, such as the genetic overexpression of CSE, the direct administration of H2S donors, or the use of H2S-releasing pro-drugs. Unfortunately, the role of the CSE/H2S pathway in cardiovascular disease remains controversial in numerous areas, and many questions regarding the gaseous molecule still remain unanswered. Future Directions: Advances in basic research indicate that the CSE/H2S pathway may provide potential therapeutic targets for treating cardiovascular disorders. But the molecular targets of H2S still need to be identified. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 106–118.
Background. The RAS-association domain family 1 A (RASSF1A) is a classical member of RAS effectors regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. Loss of RASSF1A expression may shift the balance towards a growth-promoting effect without the necessity of activating K-ras mutations. Its potential association with K-ras mutations in colorectal cancer (CRC) is unclear. Methods. RASSF1A expression was examined in normal mucosa, adenoma, and tumor tissues of colon and rectum, respectively. We examined the association of RASSF1A expression, mutations of K-ras, and EGFR status in 76 primary CRCs. The relationship between clinicopathological characteristics and RASSF1A expression was also analyzed. Results. RASSF1A expression level decreased progressively in normal mucosa, adenoma and, tumor tissues, and the loss of RASSF1A expression occurred more frequently in tumor tissues. Of 76 primary CRCs, loss of RASSF1A expression and/or K-ras mutations were detected in 77% cases. Loss of RASSF1A expression was more frequent in K-ras wild-type than in mutation cases (63% versus 32%, P = 0.011). Conclusions. Our study indicates that loss of RASSF1A may be involved in pathogenesis of CRC, its expression was found predominantly in K-ras wild-type CRCs, suggesting that it may be another way of affecting RAS signaling, in addition to K-ras mutations.
Translation of goose parvovirus (GPV) 72 kDa Rep 1 is initiated from unspliced P9-generated mRNAs in ORF1 from the first in-frame AUG (537 AUG); however, this AUG is bypassed in spliced P9-generated RNA: translation of the 52 kDa Rep 2 protein from spliced RNA is initiated in ORF2 at the next AUG downstream (650 AUG). Usage of the 537 AUG was restored in spliced RNA when the GPV intron was replaced with a chimeric SV40 intron, or following specific mutations of the GPV intron which did not appear in the final spliced mRNA. Additionally, 650 AUG usage was gained in unspliced RNA when the GPV intron splice sites were debilitated. Splicing-dependent regulation of translation initiation was mediated in cis by GPV RNA surrounding the target AUGs. Thus, nuclear RNA processing of GPV P9-generated pre-mRNAs has a complex, but significant, effect on alternative translation initiation of the GPV Rep proteins.
Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) is a rare cancer with poor prognosis and limited response to conventional chemotherapy. The genetic and epigenetic alterations of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-RAS-RAF signaling in penile SCC are unclear. This study aims to investigate four key members of this pathway in penile SCC. We examined the expression of EGFR and RAS-association domain family 1 A (RASSF1A) as well as the mutation status of K-RAS and BRAF in 150 cases of penile SCC. EGFR and RASSF1A expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. KRAS mutations at codons 12 and 13, and the BRAF mutation at codon 600 were analyzed on DNA isolated from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues by direct genomic sequencing. EGFR expression was positive in all specimens, and its over-expression rate was 92%. RASSF1A expression rate was only 3.42%. Significant correlation was not found between the expression of EGFR or RASSF1A and tumor grade, pT stage or lymph node metastases. The detection of KRAS and BRAF mutations analysis was performed in 94 and 83 tumor tissues, respectively. We found KRAS mutation in only one sample and found no BRAF V600E point mutation. In summary, we found over-expression of EGFR in the majority cases of penile SCC, but only rare expression of RASSF1A, rare KRAS mutation, and no BRAF mutation in penile SCC. These data suggest that anti-EGFR agents may be potentially considered as therapeutic options in penile SCC.
Prospectively assess the performance of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) for differentiation of central lung cancer from atelectasis.
Materials and Methods
38 consecutive lung cancer patients (26 males, 12 females; age range: 28–71 years; mean age: 49 years) who were referred for thoracic MR imaging examinations were enrolled. MR examinations were performed using a 1.5-T clinical scanner and scanning sequences of T1WI, T2WI, and DWI. Cancers and atelectasis were measured by mapping of the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) obtained with a b-value of 500 s/mm2.
PET/CT and DW-MR allowed differentiation of tumor and atelectasis in all 38 cases, but T2WI did not allow differentiation in 9 cases. Comparison of conventional T2WI and DW-MRI indicated a higher contrast noise ratio of the central lung carcinoma than the atelectasis by DW-MRI. ADC maps indicated significantly lower mean ADC in the central lung carcinoma than in the atelectasis (1.83±0.58 vs. 2.90±0.26 mm2/s, p<0.0001). ADC values of small cell lung carcinoma were significantly greater than those from squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma (p<0.0001 for both).
DW-MR imaging provides valuable information not obtained by conventional MR and may be useful for differentiation of central lung carcinoma from atelectasis. Future developments may allow DW-MR imaging to be used as an alternative to PET-CT in imaging of patients with lung cancer.
Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), are a group of highly glycosylated proteins that are found throughout the plant kingdom. To date, glycosyltransferases that glycosylate AGP backbone have remained largely unknown. In this study, a gene (GhGalT1) encoding a putative β-1,3-galactosyltransferase (GalT) was identified in cotton. GhGalT1, belonging to CAZy GT31 family, is the type II membrane protein that contains an N-terminal transmembrane domain and a C-terminal galactosyltransferase functional domain. A subcellular localization assay demonstrated that GhGalT1 was localized in the Golgi apparatus. RT-PCR analysis revealed that GhGalT1 was expressed at relatively high levels in hypocotyls, roots, fibers and ovules. Overexpression of GhGalT1 in Arabidopsis promoted plant growth and metabolism. The transgenic seedlings had much longer primary roots, higher chlorophyll content, higher photosynthetic efficiency, the increased biomass, and the enhanced tolerance to exogenous D-arabinose and D-galactose. In addition, gas chromatography (GC) analysis of monosaccharide composition of cell wall fractions showed that pectin was changed in the transgenic plants, compared with that of wild type. Three genes (GAUT8, GAUT9 and xgd1) involved in pectin biosynthesis were dramatically up-regulated in the transgenic lines. These data suggested that GhGalT1 may be involved in regulation of pectin biosynthesis required for plant development.
Pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα plays critical roles in promoting malignant cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and tumor metastasis in many cancers. However, the mechanism of TNFα-mediated tumor development remains unclear. Here, we show that IKKα, an important downstream kinase of TNFα, interacts with and phosphorylates FOXA2 at S107/ S111, thereby suppressing FOXA2 transactivation activity, leading to decreased NUMB expression and further activates the downstream NOTCH pathway and promotes cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Moreover, we found that levels of IKKα, pFOXA2 (S107/111), and activated NOTCH1 were significantly higher in hepatocellular carcinoma tumors than in normal liver tissues and that pFOXA2 (S107/111) expression was positively correlated with IKKα and activated NOTCH1 expression in tumor tissues. Therefore, dysregulation of NUMB-mediated suppression of NOTCH1 by TNFα/IKKα-associated FOXA2 inhibition likely contributes to inflammation-mediated cancer pathogenesis. Here, we report TNFα/IKKα/FOXA2/NUMB/NOTCH1 pathway that is critical for inflammation-mediated tumorigenesis and may provide a target for clinical intervention in human cancer.
Bladder exstrophy epispadias complex (BEEC) is a severe congenital anomaly; however, the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of BEEC remain unclear. TP63, a member of TP53 tumor suppressor gene family, is expressed in bladder urothelium and skin over the external genitalia during mammalian development. It plays a role in bladder development. We have previously shown that p63−/− mouse embryos developed a bladder exstrophy phenotype identical to human BEEC. We hypothesised that TP63 is involved in human BEEC pathogenesis. RNA was extracted from BEEC foreskin specimens and, as in mice, ΔNp63 was the predominant p63 isoform. ΔNp63 expression in the foreskin and bladder epithelium of BEEC patients was reduced. DNA was sequenced from 163 BEEC patients and 285 ethnicity-matched controls. No exon mutations were detected. Sequencing of the ΔNp63 promoter showed 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 4 insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms. Indel polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of BEEC. Significantly the sites of indel polymorphisms differed between Caucasian and non-Caucasian populations. A 12-base-pair deletion was associated with an increased risk with only Caucasian patients (p = 0.0052 Odds Ratio (OR) = 18.33), whereas a 4-base-pair insertion was only associated with non-Caucasian patients (p = 0.0259 OR = 4.583). We found a consistent and statistically significant reduction in transcriptional efficiencies of the promoter sequences containing indel polymorphisms in luciferase assays. These findings suggest that indel polymorphisms of the ΔNp63 promoter lead to a reduction in p63 expression, which could lead to BEEC.
Bladder exstrophy epispadias complex is a severe congenital abnormality. The affected babies' bladders are born open, leaking urine constantly. Treatment involves multiple major reconstructive surgeries and the need for lifelong care for the complications of the disease. Although a number of studies have suggested a genetic cause of the disease, the genetic and molecular mechanism underlying the formation of BEEC remains unknown. One gene, TP63, plays a crucial role in the early bladder development. Two different genetic promoters of TP63 produce different forms of the protein with opposing properties. We have shown mice lacking p63 displayed a deformity complex identical to human BEEC. There are no genetic mutations in the p63 protein in BEEC, so genetic variants in the promoter could alter protein expression. Our hypothesis was that loss of p63 expression due to sequence polymorphisms in a promoter is a risk factor for BEEC. We found promoter sequence variants that were statistically associated with the disease and the sequence variant location varied between Caucasian and non-Caucasian patients. This is particularly important as Caucasian populations have a higher risk of BEEC. These findings provide an explanation of BECC and a base for further study of TP63 related genes in this disease.
Epigenetic regulation plays an important role in stem cell self-renewal, maintenance and lineage differentiation. The epigenetic profiles of stem cells are related to their transcriptional signature. Enhancer of Zeste homlog 2 (EZH2), a catalytic subunit of epigenetic regulator Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), has been shown to be a key regulator in controlling cellular differentiation. EZH2 is a histone methyltransferase that not only methylates histone H3 on Lys 27 (H3K27me3) but also interacts with and recruits DNA methyltransferases to methylate CpG at certain EZH2 target genes to establish firm repressive chromatin structures, contributing to tumor progression and the regulation of development and lineage commitment both in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and adult stem cells. In addition to its well-recognized epigenetic gene silencing function, EZH2 also directly methylates nonhistone targets such as the cardiac transcription factor, GATA4, resulting in attenuated GATA4 transcriptional activity and gene repression. This review addresses recent progress toward the understanding of the biological functions and regulatory mechanisms of EZH2 and its targets as well as their roles in stem cell maintenance and cell differentiation.
EZH2; polycomb repressive complex; embryonic stem cells; adult stem cells; chromatin modification; methylation
The title compound, [Pb2(C2O4)(NO3)2(C10H8N2)2(H2O)2], was synthesized hydrothermally. The binuclear complex molecule is centrosymmetric, the inversion centre being located at the mid-point of the oxalate C—C bond. The PbII ion is heptacoordinated by the O atom of one water molecule, two oxalate O atoms, two nitrate O atoms and two 2,2′-bipyridine N atoms, forming an irregular coordination environemnt. Intermolecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between water molecules and oxalate and nitrate ions result in the formation of layers parallel to (010). π–π interactions between pyridine rings in adjacent layers, with centroid–centroid distances of 3.584 (2) Å, stabilize the structural set-up.
Small non-coding RNAs such as small interfering RNA (siRNA), microRNA (miRNA) and piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) exist in almost all kingdoms of organisms and have recently emerged as master regulators of gene expression to affect a diverse range of important biological processes. They exert their functions largely through two related but opposing mechanisms: RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by siRNA, miRNA and piRNA, and RNA activation (RNAa) mediated by small activating RNA (saRNA) and miRNA, leading to silencing and overexpression of target genes respectively. Dysregulation of these mechanisms have been implicated in a variety of human diseases including urological and andrological diseases. Importantly, both mechanisms can be readily harnessed for therapeutic purposes for a variety of diseases by using small RNA molecules as the “ribodrug”. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the applications of small RNA as therapeutics for urological cancer, male infertile and erectile dysfunction.
Small RNA; microRNA; RNAi; RNAa; urology; andrology; prostate cancer; bladder cancer; erectile dysfunction
Small RNA molecules, such as microRNA and siRNA, have emerged as master regulators of gene expression through their ability to suppress target genes in a phenomenon collectively called RNA interference (RNAi). There is growing evidence that small RNAs can also serve as activators of gene expression by targeting gene regulatory sequences. This novel mechanism, known as RNA activation (RNAa), appears to be conserved in at least mammalian cells and triggered by both endogenous and artificially designed small RNAs. RNAa depends on Argonaute proteins, but possesses kinetics distinct from that of RNAi. Epigenetic changes are associated with RNAa and may contribute to transcriptional activation of target genes, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Given the potential of RNAa as a molecular tool for studying gene function and as a therapeutic for disease, further research is needed to elucidate fully its molecular mechanism in order to refine the rules for target selection and improve strategies for exploiting it therapeutically.
RNA interference (RNAi) is an evolutionary conserved mechanism by which small double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) – termed small interfering RNA (siRNA) – inhibits translation or degrades complementary mRNA sequences. Identifying features and enzymatic components of the RNAi pathway have led to the design of highly-effective siRNA molecules for laboratory and therapeutic application. RNA activation (RNAa) is a newly discovered mechanism of gene induction also triggered by dsRNAs termed small activating RNA (saRNA). It offers similar benefits as RNA interference (RNAi), while representing a new method of gene overexpression. In the present study, we identify features of RNAa and explore chemical modifications to saRNAs that improve the applicability of RNAa. We evaluate the rate of RNAa activity in order to define an optimal window of gene induction, while comparing the kinetic differences between RNAa and RNAi. We identify Ago2 as a conserved enzymatic component of both RNAa and RNAi implicating that saRNA may tolerate modification based on Ago2 function. As such, we define chemical modifications to saRNAs that manipulate RNAa activity, as well as exploit their effects to design saRNAs with enhanced medicinal properties. These findings reveal functional features of RNAa that may be utilized to augment saRNA function for mechanistic studies or the development of RNAa-based drugs.
Argonaute 2 (Ago2); cancer therapeutics; E-cadherin; gene promoter; p21; RNA activation (RNAa); RNA interference (RNAi); small activating RNA (saRNA); small interfering RNA (siRNA); strand modifications
To investigate the effect of CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) signal on corneal neovascularization (CRNV) induced by alkali burn and to explore its mechanism.
Specific pathogen-free male BALB/C mice (aged 6-8 weeks) were randomly divided into CCR3-antagonist treated group (experimental group) and control group. CRNV was induced by alkali burn in mice. The time kinetic CCR3 expression in injured corneas was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). CCR3-antagonist (SB-328437 at different concentration of 125µg/mL, 250µg/mL, and 500µg/mL) was locally administrated after alkali injury. The formation of CRNV was assessed by CD31 corneal whole mount staining at two weeks after injury. Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3) expressions in the early phase after injury were quantified and compared by RT-PCR. Macrophage intracorneal accumulation in the early phase after injury was evaluated and compared by immunohistochemistry.
Alkali injury induced the time kinetic intracorneal CCR3 expression. 500µg/mL of CCR3-antagonist treatment in the early phase but not the late phase resulted in significant impaired CRNV as compared to control group (P<0.05). CCR3-antagonist treatment in the early phase significantly reduced the intracorneal MCP-1 and MCP-3 enhancement compare to control group at day 2 and day 4 (P<0.05). Moreover, the number of intracorneal macrophage infiltration in the experimental group was reduced than those in control group at day 4 (P<0.05).
CCR3 signal is involved in alkali-induced CRNV. CCR3-antagonist can inhibit alkali-induced CRNV by reducing the intracorneal MCP-1 and MCP-3 mRNA expression and the intracorneal macrophage infiltration.
corneal neovascularization; CCR3; monocyte chemotactic protein 1; monocyte chemotactic protein 3; macrophage
Aberrant regulation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis and translation control can facilitate tumorigenesis. The ErbB2 growth factor receptor is overexpressed in many human tumors and has been detected in the nucleus, but the role of nuclear ErbB2 is obscure. In this study, we defined a novel function of nuclear ErbB2 in enhancing rRNA gene transcription by RNA polymerase-I (RNA Pol I). Nuclear ErbB2 physically associates with β-actin and RNA Pol I, coinciding with active RNA Pol I transcription sites in nucleoli. RNAi-mediated knockdown of ErbB2 reduced pre-rRNA and protein synthesis. In contrast, wild-type ErbB2 augmented pre-rRNA level, protein production and cell size/cell growth, but not by an ErbB2 mutant which is defective in nuclear translocation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that ErbB2 enhances binding of RNA Pol I to rDNA. Additionally, ErbB2 associated with rDNA, RNA Pol I and β-actin, suggesting how it could stimulate rRNA production, protein synthesis and increased cell size and cell growth. Lastly, ErbB2-potentiated RNA Pol I transcription could be stimulated by ligand and was not substantially repressed by inhibition of PI3-K and MEK/ERK, the main ErbB2 effector signaling pathways. Together, our findings indicate that nuclear ErbB2 functions as a regulator of rRNA synthesis and cellular translation, which may contribute to tumor development and progression.
ErbB-2; ribosomal RNA; RNA polymerase I; translation
We sequenced the 5′ UTR of the estrogen-related receptor gamma gene (ERR-γ) in ~500 patient and volunteer samples and found that longer alleles of the (AAAG)n microsatellite were statistically and significantly more likely to exist in the germlines of breast cancer patients when compared to healthy volunteers. This microsatellite region contains multiple binding sites for a number of transcription factors, and we hypothesized that the polymorphic AAAG-containing sequence in the 5′ UTR region of ERR-γ might modulate expression of ERR-γ. We found that the 369 bp PCR product containing the AAAG repeat drove expression of a reporter gene in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells. Our results support a role for the 5′ UTR region in ERR-γ expression, which is potentially mediated via binding to the variable tandem AAAG repeat, the length of which correlates with breast cancer pre-disposition. Our study indicates that the AAAG tetranucleotide repeat polymorphism in ERR-γ gene 5′ UTR region may be a new biomarker for genetic susceptibility to breast cancer.
Microsatellite; Breast cancer; AAAG; Polymorphism; Genetic predisposition
RNAa (RNA activation) is a mechanism by which small dsRNA (double-stranded RNA), termed saRNA (small activating RNA), target promoter sequences to induce gene expression. This technique represents a novel approach to gene overexpression without the use of exogenous DNA. In the present study, we investigated whether RNAa can modulate expression of the development-related gene NANOG and manipulate cell fate. Using a lentivirus-based reporter system as a screening tool, we identified synthetic saRNAs that stimulate NANOG expression in human NCCIT embryonic carcinoma cells. Mismatch mutations to saRNA duplexes define sequence requirement for gene activation. Functional analysis of NANOG induction reveals saRNA treatment predictably modulates the expression of several known downstream target genes, including FOXH1 (forkhead box H1), REST (RE1-silencing transcription factor), OCT4 (octamer-binding protein 4) and REX1 (reduced expression protein 1). Treatment with RA (retinoic acid) triggers NCCIT cell differentiation, reducing NANOG and OCT4 expression and up-regulating several neural markers [i.e. ASCL1 (achaete-scute complex homologue 1), NEUROD1 (neuronal differentiation 1) and PAX6 (paired box 6)]. However, co-treatment with saRNA antagonizes NANOG down-regulation and RA-induced differentiation. Ectopic overexpression of NANOG via lentiviral transduction further recapitulates saRNA results, providing proof-of-concept that RNAa may be utilized to activate development-related genes and manipulate cell fate.
cell fate; differentiation; induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS cell); NANOG; RNA activation (RNAa); ASCL1, achaete-scute complex homologue 1; dsRNA, double-stranded RNA; ES, embryonic stem; FOXH1, forkhead box H1; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GFP, green fluorescent protein; HEK, human embryonic kidney; Hsp70, heat-shock protein 70; iPS, induced pluripotent stem; MTS, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium; NEUROD1, neuronal differentiation 1; OCT4, octamer-binding protein 4; PAX6, paired box 6; RA, retinoic acid; REST, RE1-silencing transcription factor; REX1, reduced expression protein 1; RNAa, RNA activation; RT, reverse transcription; saRNA, small activating RNA; SSEA, stage-specific embryonic antigen; TSS, transcription start site
Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic tumor with an aggressive biological behavior, and the surgical treatment frequently results in failure for the postoperative recurrence. The aim of this article was to investigate whether the proliferative ability and prognosis of ameloblastoma could be evaluated by the radiographic boundary. The ameloblastoma cases treated by the conservative therapy in our hospital between 1981 and 2001 were divided into three groups based on the nature of the radiographic borders of the lesions. The biologic behavior was evaluated by Ki-67 antibody immunohistochemically. Comparisons of prognosis and Ki-67 expression were carried out by statistic methods. There were 24 cases of well-defined edge with sclerosis (group I), 41 cases of well-defined edge without sclerosis (group II) and 32 cases of ill-defined edge (group III). The recurrent rates were 29.2% in group I, 43.9% in group II and 62.5% in group III (P<0.05). The cells in group III expressed the highest Ki-67 level (P<0.05). The radiographic boundary could be used as one of indicators in evaluating the proliferative ability of ameloblastoma and the patient's prognosis, which was consistent with Ki-67 expression.
ameloblastoma; Ki-67; radiography; prognosis
In the title complex, [CuCl2(C10H7N3S)(C2H5OH)], the CuII ion is five-coordinated in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry by two N atoms from a 2-(1,3-thiazol-4-yl)-1H-benzimidazole ligand, one O atom from an ethanol molecule and two Cl atoms. In the crystal, O—H⋯Cl and N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link the complex molecules into a layer parallel to (100). π–π interactions between the thiazole rings are observed [centroid–centroid distance = 3.749 (3) Å].
In the title complex, [Cd2(C17H14O4S)2(C10H8N2)2], which was hydrothermally synthesized, the CdII cation is hexacoordinated in a distorted octahedral geometry by two N atoms from a 2,2′-bipyridine ligand and by four O atoms from two different 2-[3-carboxylatomethyl-4-(phenylsulfanyl)phenyl]propanoate ligands, forming a cyclic dimetallic complex.
microRNAs (miRNAs), defined as 21–24 nucleotide non-coding RNAs, are important regulators of gene expression. Initially, the functions of miRNAs were recognized as post-transcriptional regulators on mRNAs that result in mRNA degradation and/or translational repression. It is becoming evident that miRNAs are not only restricted to function in the cytoplasm, they can also regulate gene expression in other cellular compartments by a spectrum of targeting mechanisms via coding regions, 5′ and 3′untransalated regions (UTRs), promoters, and gene termini. In this point-of-view, we will specifically focus on the nuclear functions of miRNAs and discuss examples of miRNA-directed transcriptional gene regulation identified in recent years.
Argonaute proteins; RNA activation; chromatin remodeling; gene regulation; promoter-targeting miRNAs; transcriptional gene silencing