Previous studies support Beck's cognitive model of vulnerability to depression. However, the relationship between his cognitive triad and other clinical features and risk factors among those with major depression (MD) has rarely been systematically studied.
The three key cognitive symptoms of worthlessness, hopelessness and helplessness were assessed during their lifetime worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent MD. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression.
Compared to patients who did not endorse the cognitive trio, those who did had a greater number of DSM-IV A criteria, more individual depressive symptoms, an earlier age at onset, a greater number of episodes, and were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for melancholia, postnatal depression, dysthymia and anxiety disorders. Hopelessness was highly related to all the suicidal symptomatology, with ORs ranging from 5.92 to 6.51. Neuroticism, stressful life events (SLEs) and a protective parental rearing style were associated with these cognitive symptoms.
During the worst episode of MD in Han Chinese women, the endorsement of the cognitive trio was associated with a worse course of depression and an increased risk of suicide. Individuals with high levels of neuroticism, many SLEs and high parental protectiveness were at increased risk for these cognitive depressive symptoms. As in Western populations, symptoms of the cognitive trio appear to play a central role in the psychopathology of MD in Chinese women.
Cognitive trio; Han Chinese women; major depression; suicide; symptoms
Despite its anatomical prominence, the function of primate pulvinar is poorly understood. A few electrophysiological studies in simian primates have investigated the functional organization of pulvinar by examining visuotopic maps. Multiple visuotopic maps have been found in all studied simians, with differences in organization reported between New and Old World simians. Given that prosimians are considered closer to the common ancestors of New and Old World primates, we investigated the visuotopic organization of pulvinar in the prosimian bush baby (Otolemur garnettii). Single electrode extracellular recording was used to find the retinotopic maps in the lateral (PL) and inferior (PI) pulvinar. Based on recordings across cases a 3D model of the map was constructed. From sections stained for Nissl bodies, myelin, acetylcholinesterase, calbindin or cytochrome oxidase, we identified three PI chemoarchitectonic subdivisions, lateral central (PIcl), medial central (PIcm) and medial (PIm) inferior pulvinar. Two major retinotopic maps were identified that cover PL and PIcl, the dorsal one in dorsal PL and the ventral one in PIcl and ventral PL. Both maps represent the central vision at the posterior end of the border between the maps, the upper visual field in the lateral half and the lower visual field in the medial half. They share many features with the maps reported in the pulvinar of simians, including location in pulvinar and the representation of the upper-lower and central-peripheral visual field axes. The second order representation in the lateral map and a laminar organization are likely features specific to Old World simians.
electrophysiology; greater galago; chemoarchitecture; single unit; thalamus; vision
To investigate the relative performance of T2
weighted short tau inversion–recovery (STIR) and fat-suppressed T1
weighted gadolinium contrast-enhanced sequences in depicting active inflammatory
lesions in ankylosing spondylitis (AS).
Whole-spine MRI was performed on 32 patients with AS, who participated
in a clinical trial of infliximab treatment, by STIR and contrast-enhanced
sequences at baseline and after 30 weeks. The AS spine MRI-activity (ASspiMRI-a)
scoring method was used. The images from these two imaging techniques were
evaluated separately by two independent readers.
For the pre-treatment lesion status, the intraclass correlation coefficients
comparing STIR readings and contrast-enhanced readings were 0.69±0.23
for Reader 1 and 0.65±0.21 for Reader 2. At baseline, the mean ASspiMRI-a
score was 15.4% and 17.7% higher for contrast-enhanced images
than for STIR images for Reader 1 and Reader 2, respectively. After infliximab
treatment, Reader 1 rated an ASspiMRI-a score reduction of 50.8±33.6%
and 25.3±35.3% for STIR images and contrast-enhanced images,
respectively, whereas Reader 2 rated an ASspiMRI-a score reduction of 42.4±50.4%
and 32.9±35.6% for STIR images and contrast-enhanced images,
While both contrast-enhanced and STIR sequences showed sensitivity to change
over a short period of time after infliximab treatment, these two sequences
may reflect different disease mechanisms.
Introduction: Musical performance is thought to rely predominantly on event-based timing involving a clock-like neural process and an explicit internal representation of the time interval. Some aspects of musical performance may rely on emergent timing, which is established through the optimization of movement kinematics, and can be maintained without reference to any explicit representation of the time interval. We predicted that musical training would have its largest effect on event-based timing, supporting the dissociability of these timing processes and the dominance of event-based timing in musical performance.
Materials and Methods: We compared 22 musicians and 17 non-musicians on the prototypical event-based timing task of finger tapping and on the typically emergently timed task of circle drawing. For each task, participants first responded in synchrony with a metronome (Paced) and then responded at the same rate without the metronome (Unpaced).
Results: Analyses of the Unpaced phase revealed that non-musicians were more variable in their inter-response intervals for finger tapping compared to circle drawing. Musicians did not differ between the two tasks. Between groups, non-musicians were more variable than musicians for tapping but not for drawing. We were able to show that the differences were due to less timer variability in musicians on the tapping task. Correlational analyses of movement jerk and inter-response interval variability revealed a negative association for tapping and a positive association for drawing in non-musicians only.
Discussion: These results suggest that musical training affects temporal variability in tapping but not drawing. Additionally, musicians and non-musicians may be employing different movement strategies to maintain accurate timing in the two tasks. These findings add to our understanding of how musical training affects timing and support the dissociability of event-based and emergent timing modes.
music; timing; finger tapping; circle drawing; emergent timing; event-based timing
Background and aims
A recent genome-wide association study identified rs2943641C > T, 500 kb from the insulin receptor substrate-1 gene (IRS1), as a type-2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility locus. We aimed to replicate this association by meta-analysis and examine whether common variants within IRS1, present on the HumanCVD BeadChip, were associated with T2D risk.
Methods and results
We genotyped rs2943641 in 2389 prevalent or incident T2D patients and 6494 controls from two prospective and three case studies based in UK and in the European Atherosclerosis Research Study-II (EARSII; n = 714). Thirty-three IRS1 variants had been genotyped in the prospective Whitehall-II study (n = 4752) using the HumanCVD BeadChip. In a fixed-effects meta-analysis of the UK study cohorts rs2943641T allele was associated with 6% lower risk of T2D (p = 0.18), with T-allele carriers having an odds ratio (OR) of 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.80–1.00, p = 0.056) compared to CC subjects. The T-allele was also associated with lower fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance in Whitehall-II and with lower post-load insulin after an oral glucose tolerance test in EARSII (all p < 0.05). None of the IRS1 variants on the chip showed linkage disequilibrium with rs2943641. In silico analysis with follow-up genotyping (total n = 9313) identified that the rare allele of the IRS1 promoter variant rs6725556A > G showed association with reduced T2D risk (OR per G-allele: 0.82, 95%CI: 0.69–0.96, p = 0.015).
We confirm the association of rs2943641T with T2D protection. There is a possible independent effect on risk of a putative IRS1 promoter variant.
IRS1; GWAS; Genetic variation; Type-2 diabetes; Hyperinsulinemia; Insulin resistance; IRS1, Insulin receptor substrate-1; T2D, Type-2 diabetes; CVD, Cardiovascular disease; GWAS, Genome-wide association studies; SNP, Single nucleotide polymorphism; HOMA-IR, Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; OGTT, Oral glucose tolerance test; LD, Linkage disequilibrium; WHII, Whitehall-II; NPHSII, Northwick Park Heart Study-II; UDACS, UniversityCollege London Diabetes and Cardiovascular Study; EDS, Ealing Diabetes Study; PREDICT, PRospective Evaluation of Diabetic Ischemic heart disease by Computed Tomography; EARSII, European Atherosclerosis Research Study-II; DIAGRAM, Diabetes Genetics Replication and Meta-analysis Consortium
Preclinical studies indicate that focused ultrasound at exposure conditions close to the threshold for thermal damage can increase drug delivery at the focal region. Although these results are promising, the optimal control of temperature still remains a challenge. To address this issue, computer-simulated ultrasound treatments have been performed. When the treatments are delivered without taking into account the cooling effect exerted by the blood flow, the resulting thermal dose is highly variable with regions of thermal damage, regions of underdosage close to the vessels, and areas in between these two extremes. When the power deposition is adjusted so that the peak thermal dose remains close to the threshold for thermal damage, the thermal dose is more uniformly distributed but under-dosage is still visible around the thermally significant vessels. The results of these simulations suggest that, for focused ultrasound, as for other delivery methods, the only way to control temperature is to adjust the average energy deposition to compensate for the presence of thermally significant vessels in the target area. By doing this, we have shown that it is possible to reduce the temperature heterogeneity observed in focused ultrasound thermal treatments.
Pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU) is a method for delivering ultrasound to tissue while avoiding high temperatures. The technique has been suggested for non-destructively enhancing local uptake of drugs. Side effects include thermal necrosis, therefore, realtime monitoring of tissue temperature is advantageous. This paper outlines a method for improving the treatment effciency of (pHIFU) using the MR image guided InSightec ExAblate® 2000, an ultrasound system integrated into a whole body human MRI scanner with the ability to measure temperature at the treatment location in near real-time. Thermal measurements obtained during treatment of a tissue phantom were used to determine appropriate heating parameters, and compared to in vivo treatment of rabbit muscle. Optimization of the treatment procedure and ultrasound transducer steering patterns was then conducted with the goal of minimizing treatment time while avoiding overheating. The optimization was performed on the basis of approximate solutions to the standard bioheat equation. The commercial system software of the Exablate® system was modified to assist in this optimization. Depending on the size of the treatment volume, the presented results demonstrate that it is possible to use the technique described to cut treatment times significantly, up to one third of that required by the current standard treatment cycle.
The aim was to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiological features of a consecutive series of cases of orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) affecting a Hong Kong Chinese community and to determine the outcome by follow-up.
All cases were accompanied by appropriate radiography and were confirmed by histopathology.
The clinical and conventional radiological presentations, differential diagnoses and outcomes of follow-up of five consecutive OOCs were reviewed. There were two males and three females. All affected the posterior sextant. The mean age at first presentation was 33.5 years. The mean of their period of prior awareness was 0.11 years. Swelling was the most frequent presenting symptom. All presented as well-defined corticated radiolucencies; three were unilocular and two were multilocular and all displayed expansion. This resulted in displacement and erosion of the lower border of the mandible in one case and the downward displacement past the lower border of a lateral cortex in two others. The inferior dental canal in each mandibular case exhibited both displacement and absence. The antrum was affected in a sole maxillary case. Four patients were followed up for a mean of 8.5 years. The fifth patient discharged himself shortly after surgery. No lesions recurred.
OOCs in this community displayed an expansile character, but did not recur after moderately long follow-up. The time between the prior awareness of their disease and their presentation for diagnosis and treatment was, so far, the shortest for any lesion affecting the jaw in this Hong Kong Chinese community.
orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst; keratocyst; bone; jaw; radiology
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and conventional radiological features of a consecutive series of cases of “keratocystic odontogenic tumour” (KCOT) affecting a Hong Kong Chinese community and to determine their outcome by follow-up.
All cases were accompanied by appropriate radiography and were histopathologically confirmed.
33 consecutive KCOTs were reviewed. 18 patients were male. The mean age at first presentation was 30.6 years. Swelling was the most frequent presenting symptom. Those patients first presenting with pain were significantly older, whereas those first presenting with a maxillary lesion were significantly younger. The maxilla and mandible were affected in 13 and 20 cases, respectively. KCOTs were most frequently confined to the posterior sextants of both jaws. KCOTs affecting the maxilla were mainly unilocular, whereas those affecting the mandible were multilocular. Patients with multilocular KCOTs were significantly older. Patients with KCOTs associated with root resorption were significantly older, whereas patients associated with unerupted teeth were significantly younger. 69% displaced teeth, 41% resorbed them and 56% were associated with unerupted teeth. All but two were followed up for at least 2 years. Three lesions recurred.
KCOTs in this community displayed some differences from those reported in the literature.
keratocystic odontogenic tumour; keratocyst; bone; jaw; radiology
Chromosomal or sub-chromosomal changes in genomic copy numbers may lead to various genomic disorders and developmental abnormalities including Down Syndrome etc. In addition, these numerical aberrations, also known as aneuploidy, may also occur in embryos, stem cells, and other cell lines during cell culture. Therefore, karyotyping analysis is crucial for clinical research and diagnosis including prenatal diagnostics, IVF (in vitro fertilization), stem cell and cancer research. Most commonly used technologies for karyotyping analysis are microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH). Although they are powerful and have many advantages, their detection of chromosomal gain or loss is not quantitative and may not be reliable. Moreover, the lengthy protocols and cost for sample screening are undesirable. To overcome these problems, we have developed a new method for chromosome karyotyping using TaqMan copy number assays. Since extra or missing chromosomes will cause chromosomal copy number changes, we leverage the existing pre-designed TaqMan Copy Number Assays. We select and validate TaqMan copy number assays that target each of the 24 chromosomes. To cover all the 24 chromosomes on a 384 well plate or a TaqMan Array Card, we select 4 assays per chromosome. We also develop a gene-specific pre-amplification protocol for copy number assays to perform karyotyping analysis using a minute amount of DNA sample. Our preliminary feasibility studies suggest that TaqMan karyotyping assays enable researchers to quantitatively detect chromosome copy number changes for limited quantity of gDNA sample and offer a simple workflow with high sample throughput. As a complementary tool to the existing karyotyping technologies, TaqMan karyotyping is valuable for aneuploidy screening and validating karyotyping results from other platforms.
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a recently discovered pathogen causing a significant portion of respiratory infections in young infants, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. Very little is known regarding the cellular signaling elicited by this virus in airway epithelial cells, the target of hMPV infection. In this study, we investigated the role of the RNA helicases RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene-I) and MDA-5 (melanoma differentiation-associated gene-5) as the main pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) involved in viral detection and subsequent expression of proinflammatory and antiviral genes. HMPV infection readily induced RIG-I and MDA-5 gene and protein expression in A549 cells, a type II-like alveolar epithelial cell line. Expression of dominant negative (DN) RIG-I or downregulation of RIG-I gene expression using small interfering (si)RNA significantly decreased hMPV-induced Interferon (IFN)-β, Interleukin (IL)-8, and RANTES gene transcription, by inhibiting viral-induced activation of Nuclear Factor (NF)-kB and Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF), leading to enhanced viral replication. On the other hand, MDA-5 did not seem to play a significant role in hMPV-induced cellular responses. MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein), an adaptor protein linking both RIG-I and MDA-5 to downstream activation of IRF-3 and NF-kB, was also necessary for hMPV-induced cellular signaling. Expression of a MAVS DN significantly reduced IFN-β and chemokine gene transcription, by inhibiting NF-kB and IRF-dependent gene transcription, in response to hMPV infection. Our results show that hMPV activates the RIG-I-MAVS signaling pathway in airway epithelial cells, leading to the expression of important proinflammatory and antiviral molecules involved in the innate immune response to viruses.
An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated durum wheat transformation system has been developed for the production of 121 independent transgenic lines. This improved system used Agrobacterium strain AGL1 containing the superbinary pGreen/pSoup vector system and durum wheat cv Stewart as the recipient plant. Acetosyringone at 400 μM was added to both the inoculation and cultivation medium, and picloram at 10 mg l−1 and 2 mg l−1 was used in the cultivation and induction medium, respectively. Compared with 200 μM in the inoculation and cultivation media, the increased acetosyringone concentration led to significantly higher GUS (β-glucuronidase) transient expression and T-DNA delivery efficiency. However, no evident effects of acetosyringone concentration on regeneration frequency were observed. The higher acetosyringone concentration led to an improvement in average final transformation efficiency from 4.7% to 6.3%. Furthermore, the concentration of picloram in the co-cultivation medium had significant effects on callus induction and regeneration. Compared with 2 mg l−1 picloram in the co-cultivation medium, increasing the concentration to 10 mg l−1 picloram resulted in improved final transformation frequency from 2.8% to 6.3%, with the highest frequency of 12.3% reached in one particular experiment, although statistical analysis showed that this difference in final transformation efficiency had a low level of significance. Stable integration of foreign genes, their expression, and inheritance were confirmed by Southern blot analyses, GUS assay, and genetic analysis. Analysis of T1 progeny showed that, of the 31 transgenic lines randomly selected, nearly one-third had a segregation ratio of 3:1, while the remainder had ratios typical of two or three independently segregating loci.
Acetosyringone; Agrobacterium tumefaciens; durum wheat cv Stewart; picloram; transformation
Since it was first detected in 1996, the Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (Gs/GD) H5N1 influenza virus and its reassortants have spread to over 60 countries, with over 20 distinct genetic reassortants previously recognized. However, systematic analysis of their interrelationship and the development of genetic diversity have not been explored. As each of those reassortants was first detected in China, here 318 full- length H5N1 virus genomes isolated from 1996–2006 in this region were phylogenetically analyzed. Our findings revealed two major group reassortment events in 2001 and 2002 that were responsible for the generation of the majority of the 44 distinct Gs/GD genotypes identified, excepting those 1997 variants. Genotype replacement and emergence occurred continually, with 34 transient genotypes detected while only 10 variants were persistent. Two major replacements of predominant genotypes were also observed: genotype B replaced by Z in 2002 and then genotype Z replaced by the now predominant genotype V in 2005.
genotype; reassortant; avian influenza
To investigate the frequency and force of chest vibration as applied by 18 physiotherapists working in a teaching hospital.
Chest vibration was applied to a healthy adult male lying supine on a plinth with seven mounted sensors measuring frequency and force, during three test conditions: (1) directly on the chest, (2) on the chest through a layer of sheet, and (3) on the chest through a layer of towelling. The influence of gender and current practice area (physiotherapists working in cardiopulmonary areas [cardiopulmonary physiotherapists] and physiotherapists who presently did not work in the cardiopulmonary area, but had treated cardiopulmonary patients within the last year [general practice physiotherapists]) on the frequency and force of chest vibrations was examined.
Physiotherapists demonstrated a mean frequency of 5.7, 5.3, and 5 Hz and a mean maximum force of 272.78, 273.47, and 271.13 N for conditions 1, 2, and 3 respectively. There were no significant differences in the frequency or forces generated by vibration between cardiopulmonary and general practice physiotherapists, between genders, or among the three test conditions.
Vibration frequency was lower and force higher than previously recorded. Force may vary depending on the patient. The addition of a sheet or towel did not affect the force or frequency of vibration compared to vibration performed directly on the chest.
chest shaking; chest vibration; force; frequency; ébranlement thoracique; force; fréquence; vibration thoracique
The field emission properties of SnO2 nanowires fabricated by chemical vapor deposition with metallic catalyst-assistance were investigated. For the as-fabricated SnO2 nanowires, the turn-on and threshold field were 4.03 and 5.4 V/μm, respectively. Considerable enhancement of field emission of SnO2 nanowires was obtained by a post-annealing process in oxygen at high temperature. When the SnO2 nanowires were post-annealed at 1,000 °C in oxygen, the turn-on and threshold field were decreased to 3.77 and 4.4 V/μm, respectively, and the current density was increased to 6.58 from 0.3 mA/cm2 at the same applied electric field of 5.0 V/μm.
SnO2 nanowires; Chemical vapor deposition; Field emission; Annealing
The field emission properties of SnO2nanowires fabricated by chemical vapor deposition with metallic catalyst-assistance were investigated. For the as-fabricated SnO2nanowires, the turn-on and threshold field were 4.03 and 5.4 V/μm, respectively. Considerable enhancement of field emission of SnO2nanowires was obtained by a post-annealing process in oxygen at high temperature. When the SnO2nanowires were post-annealed at 1,000 °C in oxygen, the turn-on and threshold field were decreased to 3.77 and 4.4 V/μm, respectively, and the current density was increased to 6.58 from 0.3 mA/cm2at the same applied electric field of 5.0 V/μm.
SnO2nanowires; Chemical vapor deposition; Field emission; Annealing
Case reports have suggested that cardiomyopathy may be a complication of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB).
To determine the risk of congestive heart failure (CHF) or cardiomyopathy in each major EB subtype.
These data represent systematic case findings and data collection performed throughout the continental United States from 1986 through 2002, by the National Epidermolysis Bullosa Registry. Study design is cross-sectional (n = 3280) with a nested randomly sampled longitudinal subcohort (n = 450). Frequencies of CHF and cardiomyopathy were determined by patient self-reporting, medical histories and review of medical records. In those who died, death certificates were reviewed and histories obtained from surviving family. Cumulative risks were stratified by cause and EB subtype.
Cardiomyopathy was reported as early as within the first year of life. In patients having no other known risk factors for CHF or cardiomyopathy, the highest risk of cardiomyopathy was seen among patients with Hallopeau–Siemens RDEB (RDEB-HS), with a cumulative risk of 4·51% on or after age 20 years. The cumulative risk of cardiomyopathy was only 1·14% and 0·40% in non-Herlitz junctional EB (JEB) and non-Hallopeau–Siemens RDEB, respectively, and was not observed in any other EB subtype. When patients with coexistent chronic renal failure were included, the cumulative risk for RDEB-HS rose to 18·86% by age 35 years. About 30% of our patients affected with RDEB-HS died of CHF or cardiomyopathy, even those with no other known risk factors.
CHF and cardiomyopathy are uncommon complications in both major RDEB subtypes and non-Herlitz JEB, and may be fatal.
cardiomyopathy; congestive heart failure; epidermolysis bullosa
The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of plasma pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic measures including plasma deoxynucleosides, homocysteine and methylmalonic acid concentrations in understanding the time course and extent of the inhibition of thymidylate synthase (TS) by pemetrexed in the context of a phase I/II combination study with vinorelbine. Eighteen patients received supplementation with folic acid and Vitamin B12 1 week before beginning treatment with pemetrexed and vinorelbine administered in a dose-escalating manner on a 21-day cycle. Heparinised blood samples were collected from consenting patients in the first cycle for pharmacokinetic analyses and in the first two cycles for determination of plasma thymidine, deoxyuridine, homocysteine and methylmalonic acid concentrations. These values were correlated with response and toxicity. Plasma deoxyuridine was used as a measure of TS inhibition, and concentrations of deoxyuridine were significantly elevated relative to baseline on days 1 (P<0.01), 2 (P<0.001) and 3 (P<0.05) after treatment at all pemetrexed dose levels (400–700 mg m−2). The magnitude of deoxyuridine elevation correlated with pemetrexed area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) (r2=0.23, P<0.05). However, deoxyuridine concentrations returned to baseline between 8 and 15 days after treatment with pemetrexed, suggesting that inhibition of TS was not durable. Pemetrexed AUC correlated with the percentage decline (relative to baseline) in both platelets (r2=0.58, P<0.001) and leucocytes (r2=0.26, P<0.05) at day 8. Baseline homocysteine was also significantly correlated with these measures of haematological toxicity (r2=0.37, P<0.01 and r2=0.39, P<0.01, respectively). In addition, there was a significant reduction of plasma homocysteine on days 8 (P<0.005) and 15 (P<0.05) in cycle 1 compared to baseline values. The results suggest that the TS inhibitory effects of pemetrexed are short-lived and make the case for a more frequent schedule of administration such as every 2 weeks. The lack of protracted TS inhibition may be due to concomitant vitamin administration, and this may be the mechanism by which vitamins prevent life-threatening toxicity from pemetrexed. Baseline homocysteine concentration remains a predictive marker for haematological toxicity even following folate supplementation.
thymidylate synthase inhibition; pemetrexed; anti-folates; pharmacodynamic markers; plasma deoxynucleosides; homocysteine
H9N2 influenza viruses have become established in terrestrial poultry in different Asian countries over the last 2 decades. Our previous study demonstrated that quail harbor increasingly diverse novel H9N2 reassortants, including both Chicken/Beijing/1/94 (Ck/Bei-like) and Quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (G1-like) viruses. However, since 1999, the genesis and evolution of H9N2 viruses in different types of poultry have not been investigated systematically. In the present study, H9N2 viruses isolated from chickens, ducks, and other minor poultry species were characterized genetically and antigenically. Our findings demonstrate that Ck/Bei-like H9N2 viruses have been introduced into many different types of poultry in southern China, including quail, partridges, chukar, pheasant, guinea fowl, and domestic ducks, while G1-like viruses were commonly detected in quail, less frequently detected in other minor poultry species, and not detected in chickens and ducks. Genetic analysis revealed 35 genotypes of H9N2 viruses, including 14 novel genotypes that have not been recognized before. Our results also suggested that two-way interspecies transmission exists between different types of poultry. Our study demonstrates that the long-term cocirculation of multiple virus lineages (e.g., H5N1 and H9N2 viruses) in different types of poultry has facilitated the frequent reassortment events that are mostly responsible for the current great genetic diversity in H9N2 and H5N1 influenza viruses in this region. This situation favors the emergence of influenza viruses with pandemic potential.
Objectives: While much research to date has examined female sex trade work, little has been done to evaluate factors associated with male sex trade involvement or to assess their health service needs. This is particularly true for male sex trade workers who are also injection drug users (IDUs). Therefore, the present analyses were undertaken to evaluate factors associated with sex trade work in a prospective cohort study of male IDUs.
Methods: We identified factors associated with sex trade involvement among male participants enrolled in the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study (VIDUS). Since serial measures for each individual were available at semiannual intervals, variables potentially associated with sex trade involvement were evaluated with adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) computed using generalised estimating equations (GEE).
Results: Between 1996 and 2003, 995 male IDUs were enrolled into the VIDUS cohort among whom 108 (11%) reported being involved in the sex trade at enrolment and 102 (10%) individuals initiated sex trade involvement during the follow up period. In multivariate analyses, factors independently associated with sex trade involvement included HIV positive serostatus (AOR: 1.77 (95% CI: 1.44 to 2.17)), daily cocaine injection (AOR: 1.37 (95% CI: 1.11 to 1.70)), daily crack smoking (AOR: 1.36 (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.72)), borrowing syringes (AOR: 1.73 (95% CI: 1.32 to 2.25)), and inconsistent use of condoms with casual sexual partners (AOR 0.66, CI 0.53 to 0.82). We also found that male sex trade workers were more likely to report having sought but been unable to access substance abuse treatment (AOR: 1.28 (95% CI: 0.98 to 1.67); p = 0.076).
Conclusions: Males involved in the sex trade in this setting have higher levels of HIV infection and engage in risky injection behaviours at an elevated rate. Since these behaviours have major implications for HIV acquisition and public health, prevention efforts and targeted provision of addiction treatment to this population should be expanded.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses are now endemic in many Asian countries, resulting in repeated outbreaks in poultry and increased cases of human infection. The immediate precursor of these HPAI viruses is believed to be A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 (Gs/GD)-like H5N1 HPAI viruses first detected in Guangdong, China, in 1996. From 2000 onwards, many novel reassortant H5N1 influenza viruses or genotypes have emerged in southern China. However, precursors of the Gs/GD-like viruses and their subsequent reassortants have not been fully determined. Here we characterize low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5 subtype viruses isolated from poultry and migratory birds in southern China and Europe from the 1970s to the 2000s. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Gs/GD-like virus was likely derived from an LPAI H5 virus in migratory birds. However, its variants arose from multiple reassortments between Gs/GD-like virus and viruses from migratory birds or with those Eurasian viruses isolated in the 1970s. It is of note that unlike HPAI H5N1 viruses, those recent LPAI H5 viruses have not become established in aquatic or terrestrial poultry. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the dynamic nature of the influenza virus gene pool in Eurasia with repeated transmissions between the eastern and western extremities of the continent. The data also show reassortment between influenza viruses from domestic and migratory birds in this region that has contributed to the expanded diversity of the influenza virus gene pool among poultry in Eurasia.
H9N2 influenza viruses have become established and maintain long-term endemicity in terrestrial poultry in Asian countries. Occasionally these viruses transmit to other mammals, including humans. Increasing epidemiological and laboratory findings suggest that quail may be an important host, as they are susceptible to different subtypes of influenza viruses. To better understand the role of quail in influenza virus ecology and evolution, H9N2 viruses isolated from quail during 2000 to 2005 were antigenically and genetically characterized. Our results showed that H9N2 viruses are prevalent year-round in southern China and replicate mainly asymptomatically in the respiratory tract of quail. Genetic analysis revealed that both the G1-like and Ck/Bei-like H9N2 lineages were cocirculating in quail since 2000. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that most of the isolates tested were double- or multiple-reassortant variants, with four G1-like and 16 Ck/Bei-like genotypes recognized. A novel genotype of G1-like virus became predominant in quail since 2003, while multiple Ck/Bei-like genotypes were introduced into quail, wherein they incorporated G1-like gene segments, but none of them became established in this host. Those Ck/Bei-like reassortants generated in quail have then been introduced into other poultry. These complex interactions form a two-way transmission system between quail and other types of poultry. The present study provides evidence that H9N2 and H5N1 subtype viruses have also exchanged gene segments to generate currently circulating reassortants of both subtypes that have pandemic potential. Continuing influenza virus surveillance in poultry is critical to understanding the genesis and emergence of potentially pandemic strains in this region.
trypan blue; epiretinal
Background: To date there has been no randomised controlled trial demonstrating the safety and efficacy of macular relocation surgery (MRS) for age related macular degeneration (AMD). Vision can be improved in some patients and made worse in others despite successful surgery or because of complications.
Purpose: To determine which patients would benefit from MRS.
Methods: Twenty nine patients with exudative AMD took part in a prospective, non-comparative, interventional study. Macular relocation surgery involved phacoemulsification, vitrectomy, 360° retinotomy, excision of choroidal neovascular membrane, and macular relocation using an infusion of 5-fluorouracil and low molecular weight heparin as adjuvant to prevent proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Patients underwent protocol refraction preoperatively and six-monthly postoperatively by designated optometrists. Preoperative fundus fluorescein angiograms were read by masked observers and the lesions were classified according to a set protocol. The main outcome measures were visual improvement, final vision of better than 20/400, reading speed, critical print size. Logistic and multiple stepwise linear regressions were used to identify independent factors which predicted the main outcomes.
Results: Preoperative visual acuity (20/120 or worse) and lesion type (predominantly classic or submacular haemorrhage) were significantly associated with visual improvement (coefficient of regression B = 26.8, p<0.001 and B = 14.9 with p = 0.045 respectively). There were no significant independent factors which predicted a final distance logMAR visual acuity of 1.3 (20/400) or any arbitrary definition of blindness.
Conclusions: The study showed that it was possible to select cases that were more likely to experience an improvement in vision following MRS.
Age related macular degeneration; case selection; macular relocation surgery; prospective non-comparative interventional study