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author:("Li, jindong")
1.  Predicting the Risk of Recurrent Adenoma and Incident Colorectal Cancer Based on Findings of the Baseline Colonoscopy 
Objectives:
The decision tree underlying current practice guidelines for post polypectomy surveillance relies on risk stratification based on predictive attributes gleaned from adenomas removed on screening colonoscopy examination. Our primary aim was to estimate the magnitude of association between baseline adenoma attributes and the risk of adenoma recurrence and invasive colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC). Our secondary aims were to estimate the adenoma detection rate (ADR) of surveillance compared with screening colonoscopies and describe time trends in preventive colonoscopy utilization.
Methods:
We used prospective analyses of retrospectively collected clinical data from electronic health records. A cohort of primary care patients eligible for colorectal cancer screening was assembled encompassing 110,452 subjects, of which 3,300 had adenomas removed on screening examination. Of those patients who had a follow-up surveillance colonoscopy (defined as a patient with a documented adenoma on prior colonoscopy) recorded during the study period, 537 had a recurrent adenoma.
Results:
Of those recurrent adenomas, 354 had a high-risk attributes. High-risk attributes were described at >3 adenomas, at least one adenoma >10 mm in size, high-grade dysplasia, or villous features. The risk of developing invasive CRC among post polypectomy patients was significantly higher if the baseline adenomas displayed any of the following attributes: more numerous than 3 (4.3-fold higher risk, 95% confidence interval (CI) low, high 1.4, 12.9), larger than 10 mm in size (5.2-fold higher risk, 95% CI low, high 1.8, 15.1), high-grade dysplasia (13.2-fold risk, 95% CI low, high 2.8, 62.1), or villous features (7.4-fold higher risk, 95% CI low, high 2.5, 21.5). These attributes combined added a net value of 22.8% to the probability of correctly predicting CRC. There was a threefold increase in surveillance utilization relative to screening from 2005 to 2011. The ADR of surveillance (34.1%) was 1.5-fold higher than that of screening (23.1%).
Conclusions:
These results emphasize the need to mitigate excessive risk by performing timely surveillance colonoscopies in patients with baseline adenomas displaying high-risk attributes as recommended in practice guidelines.
doi:10.1038/ctg.2014.11
PMCID: PMC4274367  PMID: 25472702
2.  Safety and efficacy of transurethral laser therapy for bladder cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis 
Background
Transurethral laser therapy techniques are increasingly being used in the management of bladder tumors. It has reportedly been associated with good outcomes in small case series. The objective of the present study was to review the published literature and compare transurethral laser therapy for non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and conventional transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT).
Methods
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) to assess the two techniques. The eligible RCTs and CCTs were identified in the following electronic databases: PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Embase.
Results
Seven studies were included in this systematic review. The baseline characteristics of these studies are comparable. We found no statistical difference between the two techniques regarding operative time. The intra- and postoperative complications showed that the laser procedure was better than TURBT for NMIBC, including obturator nerve reflex, bladder perforation, bladder irrigation rate, duration of catheterization and length of hospital stay. In addition, the 2-year recurrence-free survival improved in the laser group than in the TURBT group.
Conclusions
Our systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that laser techniques are feasible, safe, effective procedures that provide an alternative treatment for patients with NMIBC. Given that some limitations cannot be overcome, well-designed RCTs are needed to confirm our findings.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-12-301
PMCID: PMC4190332  PMID: 25256383
Bladder tumor; Laser surgery; Meta-analysis; Systematic review
3.  Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for the treatment of post-nerve sparing radical prostatectomy erectile dysfunction in men 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:5801.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common solid neoplasm diagnosed in developed countries. Nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (NS-RP) has been widely accepted as the best choice treatment for localised PCa. However, erectile dysfunction (ED) and urinary incontinence are commonly observed after NS-RP. Using meta-analysis, we examined if phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) could improve the symptoms of ED in patients undergoing NS-RP. This review contained seven randomised placebo-controlled trials with a total of 2,655 male patients. Patients in PDE5-Is group showed significant improvement in the International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function domain score (IIEF-EF), Global Assessment Questionnaire (GAQ), Sexual Encounter Profile question 2 (SEP-2) and SEP-3. Although the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were high in both groups (56.44% vs. 40.63%), the safety profile were acceptable, with low incidence of discontinuation rate due to adverse events. Therefore, PDE5-Is are recommended for the treatment of post-NS-RP ED. Patients should be informed of possible adverse events.
doi:10.1038/srep05801
PMCID: PMC4107345  PMID: 25052550
4.  Relationship between bladder cancer and total fluid intake: a meta-analysis of epidemiological evidence 
Objectives
Epidemiological findings regarding the association between total fluid intake and bladder cancer risk have yielded varying results. Our objective is to examine the possible associations between total fluid intake and bladder cancer risk.
Methods
Databases searched include the EMBASE and PUBMED, from inception to February 2014, with no limits on study language. We also reviewed the reference lists of identified studies. Stratified analyses were performed. A random-effect model was used to summarize the estimates of odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Results
Overall,17 case-control and four cohort studies were included. The overall OR of bladder cancer for the highest versus the lowest fluid intake was 1.06 (95% CI: 0.88-1.27). In the subgroup analyses, the overall ORs for coffee, green, and black tea intake were 1.17 (95% CI: 1.03-1.33), 0.76 (95% CI: 0.66-0.95), and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65-0.97), respectively. A significantly decreased risk was observed in Asian people (OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10-0.72). Among smokers, a suggestive inverse association was observed between total fluid intake and overall bladder cancer risk (OR 0.80; 95% CI: 0.62-1.02).
Conclusions
Although this meta-analysis suggested that greater consumption of fluid may have a protective effect on bladder cancer in Asian people, there was no convincing evidence on this association because of the limitations of the individual trials.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-12-223
PMCID: PMC4127191  PMID: 25033957
Bladder neoplasms; Fluid consumption; Etiology; Meta-analysis
5.  Efficacy and safety of muscarinic antagonists as add-on therapy for male lower urinary tract symptoms 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:3948.
Alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists (alpha-blockers) are widely prescribed to treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men but fail to ameliorate LUTS sufficiently, especially the storage symptoms related to frequency, urgency and nocturia. We performed a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing an alpha-blocker plus muscarinic antagonist with an alpha-blocker alone in male LUTS patients who were treated with alpha-blocker prior to randomisation. The review contained six randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that included a total of 2,208 male patients who were randomised to receive alpha-blocker plus muscarinic antagonist or alpha-blocker alone. The add-on group experienced significantly greater improvement in both total IPSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) and storage IPSS. Adverse events (AEs) were commonly experienced by both groups (41.6 vs. 33.3%) though they were not severe. Our meta-analysis indicated that muscarinic antagonists as add-on therapy alleviate LUTS, especially storage symptoms. The add-on therapy demonstrated safety and tolerability comparable with alpha-blocker monotherapy in male with LUTS.
doi:10.1038/srep03948
PMCID: PMC3912477  PMID: 24492830
6.  Therapeutic Outcome of Fluorescence Cystoscopy Guided Transurethral Resection in Patients with Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e74142.
Objectives
To conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the therapeutic outcome of fluorescence cystoscopy (FC) guided transurethral resection (TUR) in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).
Materials and Methods
Relevant RCTs were identified from electronic database (MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library). The proceedings of relevant congress were also searched. The primary parameters were recurrence rate, the time to fist recurrence, recurrence free survival rate (RFS) and progression rate.
Results
12 RCTs including 2258 patients, which were identified for analysis in our study. Our study showed that the FC group have lower recurrence rate than the white light cystoscopy (WLC) group with statistically significant difference (OR: 0.5; p<0.00001). The time of the FC group first recurrence delayed significantly 7.39 weeks than WLC group (MD: 7.39 weeks; p<0.0001). There was a statistically significant difference in favor of FC in RFS at 1 yr (HR: 0.69; p<0.00001) and 2 yrs (HR: 0.65; p=0.0004). However, the FC group cannot significantly reduce the rate of progression into muscle invasive bladder cancer compared with the WLC group (OR: 0.85; p=0.39).
Conclusions
FC guided TUR was demonstrated to be an effective procedure for delaying recurrence of NMIBC. Unfortunately, FC guided TUR could not significantly decrease the rate of progression into muscle invasive bladder cancer.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074142
PMCID: PMC3772837  PMID: 24058522
7.  Floral heteromorphy in Primula vulgaris: progress towards isolation and characterization of the S locus 
Annals of Botany  2011;108(4):715-726.
Background
The common primrose, Primula vulgaris, along with many other species of the Primulaceae, exhibits floral heteromorphy in which different individuals develop one of two possible forms of flower, known as pin and thrum. Both flower types are hermaphrodite and exhibit reciprocal positions of male and female reproductive structures, which together with a sporophytic incompatibility system, prevent self-pollination and promote out-crossing. The development of the two different forms of flower is controlled by a co-adapted linkage group of genes known as the S locus.
Scope
Here progress towards identification and characterization of these genes is described to provide a molecular genetic explanation of the different floral characteristics that define heterostyly in Primula as observed and described by Charles Darwin. Previous work to identify and characterize developmental mutations linked to the P. vulgaris S locus, together with the isolation of S locus-linked genes and polymorphic DNA sequences markers, is summarized. The development of tools are described which will facilitate isolation and characterization of the S locus and its environs, including the creation of two expressed sequence tag libraries from pin and thrum flowers, as well as the construction and screening of two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries containing thrum genomic DNA. Screening of these libraries with four S locus-linked sequences has enabled us to assemble four BAC contigs representing over 40 individual overlapping BAC clones which represent over 2·2 Mb of S locus-linked genomic sequence. PCR-based approaches for identification of the allelic origin of these BACs are described as well as identification of an additional 14 S locus-linked genes within BAC-end sequences.
Conclusions
On-going work to assemble the four S locus-linked contigs into one contiguous sequence spanning the S locus is outlined in preparation for sequence analysis and characterization of the genes located within this region.
doi:10.1093/aob/mcr181
PMCID: PMC3170159  PMID: 21803742
Primula vulgaris; S locus; floral heteromorphy; heteromorphic flower development
8.  The Genomes of Oryza sativa: A History of Duplications 
Yu, Jun | Wang, Jun | Lin, Wei | Li, Songgang | Li, Heng | Zhou, Jun | Ni, Peixiang | Dong, Wei | Hu, Songnian | Zeng, Changqing | Zhang, Jianguo | Zhang, Yong | Li, Ruiqiang | Xu, Zuyuan | Li, Shengting | Li, Xianran | Zheng, Hongkun | Cong, Lijuan | Lin, Liang | Yin, Jianning | Geng, Jianing | Li, Guangyuan | Shi, Jianping | Liu, Juan | Lv, Hong | Li, Jun | Wang, Jing | Deng, Yajun | Ran, Longhua | Shi, Xiaoli | Wang, Xiyin | Wu, Qingfa | Li, Changfeng | Ren, Xiaoyu | Wang, Jingqiang | Wang, Xiaoling | Li, Dawei | Liu, Dongyuan | Zhang, Xiaowei | Ji, Zhendong | Zhao, Wenming | Sun, Yongqiao | Zhang, Zhenpeng | Bao, Jingyue | Han, Yujun | Dong, Lingli | Ji, Jia | Chen, Peng | Wu, Shuming | Liu, Jinsong | Xiao, Ying | Bu, Dongbo | Tan, Jianlong | Yang, Li | Ye, Chen | Zhang, Jingfen | Xu, Jingyi | Zhou, Yan | Yu, Yingpu | Zhang, Bing | Zhuang, Shulin | Wei, Haibin | Liu, Bin | Lei, Meng | Yu, Hong | Li, Yuanzhe | Xu, Hao | Wei, Shulin | He, Ximiao | Fang, Lijun | Zhang, Zengjin | Zhang, Yunze | Huang, Xiangang | Su, Zhixi | Tong, Wei | Li, Jinhong | Tong, Zongzhong | Li, Shuangli | Ye, Jia | Wang, Lishun | Fang, Lin | Lei, Tingting | Chen, Chen | Chen, Huan | Xu, Zhao | Li, Haihong | Huang, Haiyan | Zhang, Feng | Xu, Huayong | Li, Na | Zhao, Caifeng | Li, Shuting | Dong, Lijun | Huang, Yanqing | Li, Long | Xi, Yan | Qi, Qiuhui | Li, Wenjie | Zhang, Bo | Hu, Wei | Zhang, Yanling | Tian, Xiangjun | Jiao, Yongzhi | Liang, Xiaohu | Jin, Jiao | Gao, Lei | Zheng, Weimou | Hao, Bailin | Liu, Siqi | Wang, Wen | Yuan, Longping | Cao, Mengliang | McDermott, Jason | Samudrala, Ram | Wang, Jian | Wong, Gane Ka-Shu | Yang, Huanming
PLoS Biology  2005;3(2):e38.
We report improved whole-genome shotgun sequences for the genomes of indica and japonica rice, both with multimegabase contiguity, or almost 1,000-fold improvement over the drafts of 2002. Tested against a nonredundant collection of 19,079 full-length cDNAs, 97.7% of the genes are aligned, without fragmentation, to the mapped super-scaffolds of one or the other genome. We introduce a gene identification procedure for plants that does not rely on similarity to known genes to remove erroneous predictions resulting from transposable elements. Using the available EST data to adjust for residual errors in the predictions, the estimated gene count is at least 38,000–40,000. Only 2%–3% of the genes are unique to any one subspecies, comparable to the amount of sequence that might still be missing. Despite this lack of variation in gene content, there is enormous variation in the intergenic regions. At least a quarter of the two sequences could not be aligned, and where they could be aligned, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rates varied from as little as 3.0 SNP/kb in the coding regions to 27.6 SNP/kb in the transposable elements. A more inclusive new approach for analyzing duplication history is introduced here. It reveals an ancient whole-genome duplication, a recent segmental duplication on Chromosomes 11 and 12, and massive ongoing individual gene duplications. We find 18 distinct pairs of duplicated segments that cover 65.7% of the genome; 17 of these pairs date back to a common time before the divergence of the grasses. More important, ongoing individual gene duplications provide a never-ending source of raw material for gene genesis and are major contributors to the differences between members of the grass family.
Comparative genome sequencing of indica and japonica rice reveals that duplication of genes and genomic regions has played a major part in the evolution of grass genomes
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030038
PMCID: PMC546038  PMID: 15685292

Results 1-8 (8)