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Li, Jinhong (3)
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Gilmartin, Philip M. (1)
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Efficacy and safety of muscarinic antagonists as add-on therapy for male lower urinary tract symptoms
Alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists (alpha-blockers) are widely prescribed to treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men but fail to ameliorate LUTS sufficiently, especially the storage symptoms related to frequency, urgency and nocturia. We performed a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing an alpha-blocker plus muscarinic antagonist with an alpha-blocker alone in male LUTS patients who were treated with alpha-blocker prior to randomisation. The review contained six randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that included a total of 2,208 male patients who were randomised to receive alpha-blocker plus muscarinic antagonist or alpha-blocker alone. The add-on group experienced significantly greater improvement in both total IPSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) and storage IPSS. Adverse events (AEs) were commonly experienced by both groups (41.6 vs. 33.3%) though they were not severe. Our meta-analysis indicated that muscarinic antagonists as add-on therapy alleviate LUTS, especially storage symptoms. The add-on therapy demonstrated safety and tolerability comparable with alpha-blocker monotherapy in male with LUTS.
Therapeutic Outcome of Fluorescence Cystoscopy Guided Transurethral Resection in Patients with Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Real, Francisco X.
To conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the therapeutic outcome of fluorescence cystoscopy (FC) guided transurethral resection (TUR) in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).
Materials and Methods
Relevant RCTs were identified from electronic database (MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library). The proceedings of relevant congress were also searched. The primary parameters were recurrence rate, the time to fist recurrence, recurrence free survival rate (RFS) and progression rate.
12 RCTs including 2258 patients, which were identified for analysis in our study. Our study showed that the FC group have lower recurrence rate than the white light cystoscopy (WLC) group with statistically significant difference (OR: 0.5; p<0.00001). The time of the FC group first recurrence delayed significantly 7.39 weeks than WLC group (MD: 7.39 weeks; p<0.0001). There was a statistically significant difference in favor of FC in RFS at 1 yr (HR: 0.69; p<0.00001) and 2 yrs (HR: 0.65; p=0.0004). However, the FC group cannot significantly reduce the rate of progression into muscle invasive bladder cancer compared with the WLC group (OR: 0.85; p=0.39).
FC guided TUR was demonstrated to be an effective procedure for delaying recurrence of NMIBC. Unfortunately, FC guided TUR could not significantly decrease the rate of progression into muscle invasive bladder cancer.
Floral heteromorphy in Primula vulgaris: progress towards isolation and characterization of the S locus
Webster, Margaret A.
Smith, Matthew C.
Gilmartin, Philip M.
Annals of Botany
The common primrose, Primula vulgaris, along with many other species of the Primulaceae, exhibits floral heteromorphy in which different individuals develop one of two possible forms of flower, known as pin and thrum. Both flower types are hermaphrodite and exhibit reciprocal positions of male and female reproductive structures, which together with a sporophytic incompatibility system, prevent self-pollination and promote out-crossing. The development of the two different forms of flower is controlled by a co-adapted linkage group of genes known as the S locus.
Here progress towards identification and characterization of these genes is described to provide a molecular genetic explanation of the different floral characteristics that define heterostyly in Primula as observed and described by Charles Darwin. Previous work to identify and characterize developmental mutations linked to the P. vulgaris S locus, together with the isolation of S locus-linked genes and polymorphic DNA sequences markers, is summarized. The development of tools are described which will facilitate isolation and characterization of the S locus and its environs, including the creation of two expressed sequence tag libraries from pin and thrum flowers, as well as the construction and screening of two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries containing thrum genomic DNA. Screening of these libraries with four S locus-linked sequences has enabled us to assemble four BAC contigs representing over 40 individual overlapping BAC clones which represent over 2·2 Mb of S locus-linked genomic sequence. PCR-based approaches for identification of the allelic origin of these BACs are described as well as identification of an additional 14 S locus-linked genes within BAC-end sequences.
On-going work to assemble the four S locus-linked contigs into one contiguous sequence spanning the S locus is outlined in preparation for sequence analysis and characterization of the genes located within this region.
Primula vulgaris; S locus; floral heteromorphy; heteromorphic flower development
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