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author:("Li, haimen")
1.  Elimination of paternal mitochondria through the lysosomal degradation pathway in C. elegans 
Cell Research  2011;21(12):1662-1669.
In mammals, the inheritance of mitochondrion and its DNA (mtDNA) is strictly maternal, despite the fact that a sperm can inject up to 100 functional mitochondria into the oocyte during fertilization. The mechanisms responsible for the elimination of the paternal mitochondria remain largely unknown. We report here that this paternal mitochondrial elimination process is conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans, and that the lysosomal pathway actively participates in this process. Molecular and cell biological analyses indicate that in wild-type animals paternal mitochondria and mtDNA are destroyed within two hours after fertilization. In animals with compromised lysosomes, paternal mitochondria persist until late embryonic stages. Therefore, the lysosomal pathway plays an important role in degrading paternal mitochondria introduced into the oocyte during fertilization. Our study indicates that C. elegans is an excellent animal model for understanding and dissecting this conserved biological process critical for animal development and reproduction.
doi:10.1038/cr.2011.182
PMCID: PMC3234996  PMID: 22105480
lysosomal degradation; paternal mitochondria elimination; C. elegans; maternal inheritance; mitochondria DNA; fertilized oocyte
2.  Elimination of paternal mitochondria through the lysosomal degradation pathway in C. elegans 
Cell research  2011;21(12):1662-1669.
In mammals, the inheritance of mitochondrion and its DNA (mtDNA) is strictly maternal, despite the fact that a sperm can inject up to 100 functional mitochondria into the oocyte during fertilization. The mechanisms responsible for the elimination of the paternal mitochondria remain largely unknown. We report here that this paternal mitochondrial elimination process is conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans, and that the lysosomal pathway actively participates in this process. Molecular and cell biological analyses indicate that in wild type animals paternal mitochondria and mtDNA are destroyed within two hours after fertilization. In animals with compromised lysosomes, paternal mitochondria persist until late embryonic stages. Therefore, the lysosomal pathway plays an important role in degrading paternal mitochondria introduced into the oocyte during fertilization. Our study indicates that C. elegans is an excellent animal model for understanding and dissecting this conserved biological process critical for animal development and reproduction.
doi:10.1038/cr.2011.182
PMCID: PMC3234996  PMID: 22105480
3.  Resemblance of Symptoms for Major Depression Assessed at Interview versus from Hospital Record Review 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(1):e28734.
Background
Diagnostic information for psychiatric research often depends on both clinical interviews and medical records. Although discrepancies between these two sources are well known, there have been few studies into the degree and origins of inconsistencies.
Principal findings
We compared data from structured interviews and medical records on 1,970 Han Chinese women with recurrent DSM-IV major depression (MD). Correlations were high for age at onset of MD (0.93) and number of episodes (0.70), intermediate for family history (+0.62) and duration of longest episode (+0.43) and variable but generally more modest for individual depressive symptoms (mean kappa = 0.32). Four factors were identified for twelve symptoms from medical records and the same four factors emerged from analysis of structured interviews. Factor congruencies were high but the correlation of factors between interviews and records were modest (i.e. +0.2 to +0.4).
Conclusions
Structured interviews and medical records are highly concordant for age of onset, and the number and length of episodes, but agree more modestly for individual symptoms and symptom factors. The modesty of these correlations probably arises from multiple factors including i) inconsistency in the definition of the worst episode, ii) inaccuracies in self-report and iii) difficulties in coding medical records where symptoms were recorded solely for clinical purposes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028734
PMCID: PMC3256142  PMID: 22247760
4.  Improved radiosensitizing effect of the combination of etanidazole and paclitaxel for hepatocellular carcinoma in vivo 
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most critical global health issues. Potential curative therapies, including surgical resection, are offered to only a limited number of patients. Therefore, new and effective treatment strategies are required. Recently, radiotherapy with hypoxic radiosensitizers has shown promise in cancer therapy. Our previous study demonstrated that radiosensitization produced by etanidazole and paclitaxel was additive in vitro. This study was carried out to determine the synergistic effect of the two drugs in murine HCC H22 cell xenograft-bearing BALB/c mice in vivo. The morphology of the transplanted tumors was observed. The drug content in the blood and tumors of mice was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The radiosensitizing effect on H22 cell xenograft-bearing mice was evaluated in terms of tumor growth inhibition and survival. Expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) was studied using immunohistochemistry. The morphological consequences on the H22 xenografts were consistent with the pathological characteristics of HCC. There was no significant difference in drug content in the blood and tumors between single drug and combination administration. The combination of the two drugs improved the radiosensitizing effect in vivo compared to single drug administration in an animal model. The changes in HIF-1α expression indirectly verified the above-mentioned results. This study may provide a new combination of radiosensitizers for HCC radiotherapy.
doi:10.3892/etm.2011.389
PMCID: PMC3438662  PMID: 22969885
hepatocellular carcinoma; paclitaxel; etanidazole; combination radiosensitization
5.  Epidemiology, Quality and Reporting Characteristics of Systematic Reviews of Traditional Chinese Medicine Interventions Published in Chinese Journals 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(5):e20185.
Background
Systematic reviews (SRs) of TCM have become increasingly popular in China and have been published in large numbers. This review provides the first examination of epidemiological characteristics of these SRs as well as compliance with the PRISMA and AMSTAR guidelines.
Objectives
To examine epidemiological and reporting characteristics as well as methodological quality of SRs of TCM published in Chinese journals.
Methods
Four Chinese databases were searched (CBM, CSJD, CJFD and Wanfang Database) for SRs of TCM, from inception through Dec 2009. Data were extracted into Excel spreadsheets. The PRISMA and AMSTAR checklists were used to assess reporting characteristics and methodological quality, respectively.
Results
A total of 369 SRs were identified, most (97.6%) of which used the terms systematic review or meta-analysis in the title. None of the reviews had been updated. Half (49.8%) were written by clinicians and nearly half (47.7%) were reported in specialty journals. The impact factors of 45.8% of the journals published in were zero. The most commonly treated conditions were diseases of the circulatory and digestive disease. Funding sources were not reported for any reviews. Most (68.8%) reported information about quality assessment, while less than half (43.6%) reported assessing for publication bias. Statistical mistakes appeared in one-third (29.3%) of reviews and most (91.9%) did not report on conflict of interest.
Conclusions
While many SRs of TCM interventions have been published in Chinese journals, the quality of these reviews is troubling. As a potential key source of information for clinicians and researchers, not only were many of these reviews incomplete, some contained mistakes or were misleading. Focusing on improving the quality of SRs of TCM, rather than continuing to publish them in great quantity, is urgently needed in order to increase the value of these studies.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020185
PMCID: PMC3102106  PMID: 21633698
6.  Actin Filament Assembly by Myristoylated, Alanine-rich C Kinase Substrate–Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-diphosphate Signaling Is Critical for Dendrite Branching 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2008;19(11):4804-4813.
Dendrites undergo extensive growth and branching at early stages, but relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes. Here, we show that increasing the level of myristoylated, alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS), a prominent substrate of protein kinase C and a phosphatidylinositol-4,5-diphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] sequestration protein highly expressed in the brain, enhanced branching and growth of dendrites both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous MARCKS by RNA interference reduced dendritic arborization. Results from expression of different mutants indicated that membrane binding is essential for MARCKS-induced dendritic morphogenesis. Furthermore, MARCKS increased the number and length of filamentous actin-based filopodia along neurites, as well as the motility of filopodia, in a PI(4,5)P2-dependent manner. Time-lapse imaging showed that MARCKS increased frequency of filopodia initiation but did not affect filopodia longevity, suggesting that MARCKS may increase dendritic branching through its action on filopodia initiation. These findings demonstrate a critical role for MARCKS–PI(4,5)P2 signaling in regulating dendrite development.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E08-03-0294
PMCID: PMC2575170  PMID: 18799624

Results 1-6 (6)