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author:("Li, haiphong")
1.  Efficacy and Safety of Ivacaftor in Patients Aged 6 to 11 Years with Cystic Fibrosis with a G551D Mutation 
Rationale: Ivacaftor (VX-770), a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiator, has been shown to improve lung function, pulmonary exacerbation rate, respiratory symptoms, and weight gain compared with placebo in patients with cystic fibrosis aged 12 years or older with a G551D-CFTR mutation.
Objectives: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated ivacaftor in patients with cystic fibrosis aged 6–11 years with a G551D-CFTR mutation on at least one allele.
Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to receive ivacaftor administered orally at 150 mg (n = 26) or placebo (n = 26) every 12 hours for 48 weeks in addition to existing prescribed cystic fibrosis therapies.
Measurements and Main Results: Despite near-normal mean baseline values in FEV1, patients receiving ivacaftor had a significant increase in percent predicted FEV1 from baseline through Week 24 versus placebo group (treatment effect, 12.5 percentage points; P < 0.001). Effects on pulmonary function were evident by 2 weeks, and a significant treatment effect was maintained through Week 48. Patients treated with ivacaftor gained, on average, 2.8 kg more than those receiving placebo at Week 48 (P < 0.001). The change from baseline through Week 48 in the concentration of sweat chloride, a measure of CFTR activity, with ivacaftor was −53.5 mmol/L (P < 0.001) versus placebo. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups.
Conclusions: In patients who are younger and healthier than those in previously studied populations, ivacaftor demonstrated a significant improvement in pulmonary function, weight, and CFTR activity compared with placebo. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00909727).
doi:10.1164/rccm.201301-0153OC
PMCID: PMC3734608  PMID: 23590265
cystic fibrosis; cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein; cystic fibrosis, pulmonary; G551D-CFTR mutation; sweat test
2.  Hippocampal Neurochemical Changes in Senescent Mice Induced with Chronic Injection of D-Galactose and NaNO2: An In Vitro High-Resolution NMR Spectroscopy Study at 9.4T 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e88562.
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) has been used to provide useful information about the neurochemical changes reflecting early pathological alterations in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. In this study, we have longitudinally measured the hippocampal neurochemical profile in vitro in senescent mice induced with chronic injection of D-Galactose and NaNO2, at different time point from day 30 to day 70 with a 10-day interval. Pathological brain alterations induced by D-Galactose and NaNO2 were monitored through hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, Congo red staining and bielschowsky silver staining, and the cognition deficits were assessed via Morris Water Maze (MWM) test. This D-galactose and NaNO2 treated mouse model, characterized by an early-onset memory dysfunction, a robust neuronal loss, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in hippocampal subdivision, well mimics a prodromal Alzheimer's phenotype. Consistent with previously published in vivo 1H MRS findings in human AD patients and AD transgenic mice, our in vitro 1H MRS on the perchloric acid extractions of hippocampus in senescent mice observed significant decreases of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and Glutamate (Glu) but an increase in Myo-inositol (mIns). Elevated mIns occurred prior to the reduction of NAA and Glu during the progression of aging. In addition, changes in mIns, NAA and Glu were found to precede pathological abnormalities. Overall, our in vitro findings in senescent mice validated the concept that hippocampal neurochemical alternations preceded the pathological changes of the brain, and could serve as potential markers of AD progression. Reductions of NAA and Glu can be interpreted in terms of neuronal degeneration and dysfunctions in glutamatergic activity that may contribute to the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying AD. Elevated mIns might be related to glial activation. Further experiments are needed to explore the potential value of mIns in the early diagnosis of AD, to verify whether glial cell proliferation occurs earlier than neuronal changes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088562
PMCID: PMC3922890  PMID: 24533108
3.  In vivo Proton Electron Double Resonance Imaging of Mice with Fast Spin Echo Pulse Sequence 
Purpose
To develop and evaluate a 2D fast spin echo (FSE) pulse sequence for enhancing temporal resolution and reducing tissue heating for in vivo proton electron double resonance imaging (PEDRI) of mice.
Materials and Methods
A four-compartment phantom containing 2 mM TEMPONE was imaged at 20.1 mT using 2D FSE-PEDRI and regular gradient echo (GRE)-PEDRI pulse sequences. Control mice were infused with TEMPONE over ∼1 min followed by time-course imaging using the 2D FSE-PEDRI sequence at intervals of 10 – 30 s between image acquisitions. The average signal intensity from the time-course images was analyzed using a first-order kinetics model.
Results
Phantom experiments demonstrated that EPR power deposition can be greatly reduced using the FSE-PEDRI pulse sequence compared to the conventional gradient echo pulse sequence. High temporal resolution was achieved at ∼4 s per image acquisition using the FSE-PEDRI sequence with a good image SNR in the range of 233-266 in the phantom study. The TEMPONE half-life measured in vivo was ∼72 s.
Conclusion
Thus, the FSE-PEDRI pulse sequence enables fast in vivo functional imaging of free radical probes in small animals greatly reducing EPR irradiation time with decreased power deposition and provides increased temporal resolution.
doi:10.1002/jmri.22874
PMCID: PMC3265665  PMID: 22147559
fast MRI; Overhauser MRI; redox imaging; electron paramagnetic resonance; nitroxide; free radicals
4.  Adrenergic gene polymorphisms and cardiovascular risk in the NHLBI-sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation 
Background
Adrenergic gene polymorphisms are associated with cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes. We investigated the influence of adrenergic gene polymorphisms on cardiovascular risk in women with suspected myocardial ischemia.
Methods
We genotyped 628 women referred for coronary angiography for eight polymorphisms in the α1A-, β1-, β2- and β3-adrenergic receptors (ADRA1A, ADRB1, ADRB2, ADRB3, respectively), and their signaling proteins, G-protein β 3 subunit (GNB3) and G-protein α subunit (GNAS). We compared the incidence of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure between genotype groups in all women and women without obstructive coronary stenoses.
Results
After a median of 5.8 years of follow-up, 115 women had an event. Patients with the ADRB1 Gly389 polymorphism were at higher risk for the composite outcome due to higher rates of myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 3.63, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.17–11.28; Gly/Gly vs. Arg/Arg HR 4.14, 95%CI 0.88–19.6). The risk associated with ADRB1 Gly389 was limited to those without obstructive CAD (n = 400, Pinteraction = 0.03), albeit marginally significant in this subset (HR 1.71, 95%CI 0.91–3.19). Additionally, women without obstructive CAD carrying the ADRB3 Arg64 variant were at higher risk for the composite endpoint (HR 2.10, 95%CI 1.05–4.24) due to subtle increases in risk for all of the individual endpoints. No genetic associations were present in women with obstructive CAD.
Conclusion
In this exploratory analysis, common coding polymorphisms in the β1- and β3-adrenergic receptors increased cardiovascular risk in women referred for diagnostic angiography, and could improve risk assessment, particularly for women without evidence of obstructive CAD.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00000554.
doi:10.1186/1479-5876-6-11
PMCID: PMC2329599  PMID: 18331634
5.  The Genomes of Oryza sativa: A History of Duplications 
Yu, Jun | Wang, Jun | Lin, Wei | Li, Songgang | Li, Heng | Zhou, Jun | Ni, Peixiang | Dong, Wei | Hu, Songnian | Zeng, Changqing | Zhang, Jianguo | Zhang, Yong | Li, Ruiqiang | Xu, Zuyuan | Li, Shengting | Li, Xianran | Zheng, Hongkun | Cong, Lijuan | Lin, Liang | Yin, Jianning | Geng, Jianing | Li, Guangyuan | Shi, Jianping | Liu, Juan | Lv, Hong | Li, Jun | Wang, Jing | Deng, Yajun | Ran, Longhua | Shi, Xiaoli | Wang, Xiyin | Wu, Qingfa | Li, Changfeng | Ren, Xiaoyu | Wang, Jingqiang | Wang, Xiaoling | Li, Dawei | Liu, Dongyuan | Zhang, Xiaowei | Ji, Zhendong | Zhao, Wenming | Sun, Yongqiao | Zhang, Zhenpeng | Bao, Jingyue | Han, Yujun | Dong, Lingli | Ji, Jia | Chen, Peng | Wu, Shuming | Liu, Jinsong | Xiao, Ying | Bu, Dongbo | Tan, Jianlong | Yang, Li | Ye, Chen | Zhang, Jingfen | Xu, Jingyi | Zhou, Yan | Yu, Yingpu | Zhang, Bing | Zhuang, Shulin | Wei, Haibin | Liu, Bin | Lei, Meng | Yu, Hong | Li, Yuanzhe | Xu, Hao | Wei, Shulin | He, Ximiao | Fang, Lijun | Zhang, Zengjin | Zhang, Yunze | Huang, Xiangang | Su, Zhixi | Tong, Wei | Li, Jinhong | Tong, Zongzhong | Li, Shuangli | Ye, Jia | Wang, Lishun | Fang, Lin | Lei, Tingting | Chen, Chen | Chen, Huan | Xu, Zhao | Li, Haihong | Huang, Haiyan | Zhang, Feng | Xu, Huayong | Li, Na | Zhao, Caifeng | Li, Shuting | Dong, Lijun | Huang, Yanqing | Li, Long | Xi, Yan | Qi, Qiuhui | Li, Wenjie | Zhang, Bo | Hu, Wei | Zhang, Yanling | Tian, Xiangjun | Jiao, Yongzhi | Liang, Xiaohu | Jin, Jiao | Gao, Lei | Zheng, Weimou | Hao, Bailin | Liu, Siqi | Wang, Wen | Yuan, Longping | Cao, Mengliang | McDermott, Jason | Samudrala, Ram | Wang, Jian | Wong, Gane Ka-Shu | Yang, Huanming
PLoS Biology  2005;3(2):e38.
We report improved whole-genome shotgun sequences for the genomes of indica and japonica rice, both with multimegabase contiguity, or almost 1,000-fold improvement over the drafts of 2002. Tested against a nonredundant collection of 19,079 full-length cDNAs, 97.7% of the genes are aligned, without fragmentation, to the mapped super-scaffolds of one or the other genome. We introduce a gene identification procedure for plants that does not rely on similarity to known genes to remove erroneous predictions resulting from transposable elements. Using the available EST data to adjust for residual errors in the predictions, the estimated gene count is at least 38,000–40,000. Only 2%–3% of the genes are unique to any one subspecies, comparable to the amount of sequence that might still be missing. Despite this lack of variation in gene content, there is enormous variation in the intergenic regions. At least a quarter of the two sequences could not be aligned, and where they could be aligned, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rates varied from as little as 3.0 SNP/kb in the coding regions to 27.6 SNP/kb in the transposable elements. A more inclusive new approach for analyzing duplication history is introduced here. It reveals an ancient whole-genome duplication, a recent segmental duplication on Chromosomes 11 and 12, and massive ongoing individual gene duplications. We find 18 distinct pairs of duplicated segments that cover 65.7% of the genome; 17 of these pairs date back to a common time before the divergence of the grasses. More important, ongoing individual gene duplications provide a never-ending source of raw material for gene genesis and are major contributors to the differences between members of the grass family.
Comparative genome sequencing of indica and japonica rice reveals that duplication of genes and genomic regions has played a major part in the evolution of grass genomes
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030038
PMCID: PMC546038  PMID: 15685292

Results 1-5 (5)