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author:("Li, guanyuan")
1.  Diabetes-Induced Impairment in Visual Function in Mice: Contributions of p38 MAPK, RAGE, Leukocytes, and Aldose Reductase 
Visual function is impaired in diabetes, but molecular causes of this dysfunction are not clear. We assessed effects of diabetes on visual psychophysics in mice, and tested the effect of therapeutic approaches reported previously to inhibit vascular lesions of the retinopathy.
We used the optokinetic test to assess contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency threshold in diabetic C57Bl/6J mice and age-matched nondiabetic controls between 2 and 10 months of diabetes. Contributions of p38 MAP kinase (MAPK), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), leukocytes, and aldose reductase (AR) to the defect in contrast sensitivity were investigated. Cataract, a potential contributor to reductions in vision, was scored.
Diabetes of 2 months' duration impaired contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency threshold in mice. The defect in contrast sensitivity persisted for at least 10 months, and cataract did not account for this impairment. Diabetic mice deficient in AR were protected significantly from development of the diabetes-induced defects in contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency threshold. In contrast, pharmacologic inhibition of p38 MAPK or RAGE, or deletion of inducible nitrous oxide synthase (iNOS) from bone marrow-derived cells did not protect the visual function in diabetes.
Diabetes reduces spatial frequency threshold and contrast sensitivity in mice, and the mechanism leading to development of these defects involves AR. The mechanism by which AR contributes to the diabetes-induced defect in visual function can be probed by identifying which molecular abnormalities are corrected by AR deletion, but not other therapies that do not correct the defect in visual function.
Diabetes impaired contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency threshold in mice, and several therapies that inhibit retinal vascular degeneration did not preserve contrast sensitivity. In contrast, mice lacking aldose reductase were protected from the diabetes-induced defects in contrast sensitivity and visual acuity.
PMCID: PMC4010365  PMID: 23920367
spatial frequency threshold; contrast senstivity; diabetic retinopathy
2.  Modulation of ErbB2 Blockade in ErbB2-Positive Cancers: The Role of ErbB2 Mutations and PHLDA1 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e106349.
We set out to study the key effectors of resistance and sensitivity to ErbB2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as lapatinib in ErbB2-positive breast and lung cancers. A cell-based in vitro site-directed mutagenesis lapatinib resistance model identified several mutations, including the gatekeeper ErbB2 mutation ErbB2-T798I, as mediating resistance. ErbB2-T798I engineered cell models indeed show resistance to lapatinib but remain sensitive to the irreversible EGFR/ErbB2 inhibitor, PD168393, suggestive of potential alternative treatment strategies to overcome resistance. Gene expression profiling studies identified a select group of downstream targets regulated by ErbB2 signaling and define PHLDA1 as an immediately downregulated gene upon oncogenic ErbB2 signaling inhibition. We find significant down-regulation of PHLDA1 in primary breast cancer and PHLDA1 is statistically significantly less expressed in ErbB2 negative compared with ErbB2 positive tumors consistent with its regulation by ErbB2. Lastly, PHLDA1 overexpression blocks AKT signaling, inhibits cell growth and enhances lapatinib sensitivity further supporting an important negative growth regulator function. Our findings suggest that PHLDA1 might have key inhibitory functions in ErbB2 driven lung and breast cancer cells and a better understanding of its functions might point at novel therapeutic options. In summary, our studies define novel ways of modulating sensitivity and resistance to ErbB2 inhibition in ErbB2-dependent cancers.
PMCID: PMC4169529  PMID: 25238247
3.  Ultra-broadband and efficient surface plasmon polariton launching through metallic nanoslits of subwavelength period 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:5914.
Ultra-broadband, efficient and unidirectional surface plasmon polariton (SPP) launching is of great concern in plasmonic devices and circuits. To address this challenge, a novel method adopting deep-subwavelength slits of subwavelength period (λSPP/4 ~ λSPP/3) in a thick metal film and under backside illumination is proposed. A new band pattern featuring broadband and wide angular characteristics, which is due to the coupling of the zeroth-order SPP resonance at the superstrate–metal interface and the first-order SPP resonance at the metal–substrate interface, is observed for the first time in the dispersion diagram. Unidirectional SPP launching efficiency of ~50%, ultra-broad bandwidth of up to 780 nm, covering the entire optical fiber communication bands, and relatively wide angular range of 7° are achieved. This remarkable efficient, ultra-broadband and wide angular performance is demonstrated by carefully designed experiments in the near infrared regime, showing good agreement with numerical results.
PMCID: PMC4118183  PMID: 25081812
4.  Combined Histone Deacetylase and Cyclooxygenase Inhibition Achieves Enhanced Antiangiogenic Effects in Lung Cancer Cells 
Molecular carcinogenesis  2011;52(3):218-228.
PGE2 is an important pro-angiogenic and pro-proliferative cytokine and the key enzymes modulating its levels, COX-2 and 15-PGDH play important opposing roles in carcinogenesis. Previously we found loss of 15-PGDH expression in lung cancer and its reactivation leads to strong in vivo tumor-suppressive effect via an antiangiogenic mechanism. Here we find that HDAC inhibitors (HDACI), such as trichostatin A (TSA) and vorinostat could reactivate 15-PGDH expression but overall induce PGE2 generation and this is the result of concomitant induction of COX-1 and 2 leading to functional promotion of endothelial cell proliferation and capillary formation. Direct TSA treatment inhibits endothelial cell proliferation and capillary formation in our study in line with prior reports as HDACIs have been shown to directly inhibit angiogenesis. The elevation of PGE2 levels induced by HDACI is potently neutralized by indomethacin (INN) or celecoxib co-treatment and accordingly, angiogenesis is more effectively inhibited when using conditioned medium of co-treatment than either alone confirming that this effect is mediated via the PGE2 axis. Accordingly, blockage of EP2/4 receptors mitigates the stimulation of angiogenesis by excessive PGE2 generation mediated by TSA. In this study, we identify a potentially adverse effect of HDACIs through induction of both 15-PGDH and COX-2 leading to elevated PGE2 levels and thereby stimulation of angiogenesis. Co-treatment of TSA and INN shows more potent anti-angiogenic effects by inducing 15-PGDH and inhibiting COX-2. Overall, our results suggest that combined HDACI and COX inhibition should be explored clinically to achieve more meaningful benefits from HDACI therapy in lung cancer.
PMCID: PMC3980866  PMID: 22121107
5.  Marrow-Derived Cells Regulate the Development of Early Diabetic Retinopathy and Tactile Allodynia in Mice 
Diabetes  2012;61(12):3294-3303.
The hypothesis that marrow-derived cells, and specifically proinflammatory proteins in those cells, play a critical role in the development of diabetes-induced retinopathy and tactile allodynia was investigated. Abnormalities characteristic of the early stages of retinopathy and allodynia were measured in chimeric mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) or poly(ADP-ribosyl) polymerase (PARP1) in only their marrow-derived cells. Diabetes-induced capillary degeneration, proinflammatory changes, and superoxide production in the retina and allodynia were inhibited in diabetic animals in which iNOS or PARP1 was deleted from bone marrow cells only. Of the various marrow cells, neutrophils (and monocytes) play a major role in retinopathy development, because retinal capillary degeneration likewise was significantly inhibited in diabetic mice lacking the receptor for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in their marrow-derived cells. Immunodepletion of neutrophils or monocytes inhibited the endothelial death otherwise observed when coculturing leukocytes from wild-type diabetic animals with retinal endothelium. iNOS and PARP1 are known to play a role in inflammatory processes, and we conclude that proinflammatory processes within marrow-derived cells play a central role in the development of diabetes complications in the retina and nerve.
PMCID: PMC3501859  PMID: 22923475
6.  Beneficial effects of a novel RAGE inhibitor on early diabetic retinopathy and tactile allodynia 
Molecular Vision  2011;17:3156-3165.
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous complications of diabetes. We assessed the effect of a novel RAGE fusion protein inhibitor on retinal histopathology and nerve function, and on retinal inflammation and oxidative stress.
C57BL/6J mice were made diabetic with streptozotocin, and some were given a RAGE fusion protein (10, 100, or 300 µg per mouse 3 times per week). Mice were sacrificed at 2 months and 10 months into the study to assess retinal vascular histopathology, accumulation of albumin in the neural retina, cell loss in the ganglion cell layer, and biochemical and physiologic abnormalities in the retina. Tactile allodynia (light touch) was measured on a paw of each animal at 2 months.
Leukostasis, expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), accumulation of albumin in the neural retina, and nitration of retinal proteins were significantly increased in the retinas of mice diabetic for 2 months. The number of degenerate retinal capillaries was significantly increased in mice diabetic for 10 months, compared to the nondiabetic controls. Diabetes also enhanced sensitivity of peripheral nerves to tactile allodynia. All three doses of the RAGE fusion protein inhibited capillary degeneration, accumulation of albumin in the neural retina, nitration of retinal proteins, and tactile allodynia, demonstrating that biologically meaningful levels of the drug reached the retina. RAGE inhibition did tend to inhibit diabetes-induced retinal leukostasis and ICAM-1 expression (previously postulated to be important in the pathogenesis of retinopathy), but these effects were not statistically significant for the use of the lower doses of the drug that normalized the vascular histopathology.
Inhibition of RAGE blocked the development of important lesions of diabetic retinopathy, but these beneficial effects seemed not to be mediated via leukostasis. RAGE inhibition also blocked the development of sensory allodynia in diabetes. RAGE is an important therapeutic target to inhibit the development of vascular and neural complications of diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3235538  PMID: 22171162
7.  The Genomes of Oryza sativa: A History of Duplications 
Yu, Jun | Wang, Jun | Lin, Wei | Li, Songgang | Li, Heng | Zhou, Jun | Ni, Peixiang | Dong, Wei | Hu, Songnian | Zeng, Changqing | Zhang, Jianguo | Zhang, Yong | Li, Ruiqiang | Xu, Zuyuan | Li, Shengting | Li, Xianran | Zheng, Hongkun | Cong, Lijuan | Lin, Liang | Yin, Jianning | Geng, Jianing | Li, Guangyuan | Shi, Jianping | Liu, Juan | Lv, Hong | Li, Jun | Wang, Jing | Deng, Yajun | Ran, Longhua | Shi, Xiaoli | Wang, Xiyin | Wu, Qingfa | Li, Changfeng | Ren, Xiaoyu | Wang, Jingqiang | Wang, Xiaoling | Li, Dawei | Liu, Dongyuan | Zhang, Xiaowei | Ji, Zhendong | Zhao, Wenming | Sun, Yongqiao | Zhang, Zhenpeng | Bao, Jingyue | Han, Yujun | Dong, Lingli | Ji, Jia | Chen, Peng | Wu, Shuming | Liu, Jinsong | Xiao, Ying | Bu, Dongbo | Tan, Jianlong | Yang, Li | Ye, Chen | Zhang, Jingfen | Xu, Jingyi | Zhou, Yan | Yu, Yingpu | Zhang, Bing | Zhuang, Shulin | Wei, Haibin | Liu, Bin | Lei, Meng | Yu, Hong | Li, Yuanzhe | Xu, Hao | Wei, Shulin | He, Ximiao | Fang, Lijun | Zhang, Zengjin | Zhang, Yunze | Huang, Xiangang | Su, Zhixi | Tong, Wei | Li, Jinhong | Tong, Zongzhong | Li, Shuangli | Ye, Jia | Wang, Lishun | Fang, Lin | Lei, Tingting | Chen, Chen | Chen, Huan | Xu, Zhao | Li, Haihong | Huang, Haiyan | Zhang, Feng | Xu, Huayong | Li, Na | Zhao, Caifeng | Li, Shuting | Dong, Lijun | Huang, Yanqing | Li, Long | Xi, Yan | Qi, Qiuhui | Li, Wenjie | Zhang, Bo | Hu, Wei | Zhang, Yanling | Tian, Xiangjun | Jiao, Yongzhi | Liang, Xiaohu | Jin, Jiao | Gao, Lei | Zheng, Weimou | Hao, Bailin | Liu, Siqi | Wang, Wen | Yuan, Longping | Cao, Mengliang | McDermott, Jason | Samudrala, Ram | Wang, Jian | Wong, Gane Ka-Shu | Yang, Huanming
PLoS Biology  2005;3(2):e38.
We report improved whole-genome shotgun sequences for the genomes of indica and japonica rice, both with multimegabase contiguity, or almost 1,000-fold improvement over the drafts of 2002. Tested against a nonredundant collection of 19,079 full-length cDNAs, 97.7% of the genes are aligned, without fragmentation, to the mapped super-scaffolds of one or the other genome. We introduce a gene identification procedure for plants that does not rely on similarity to known genes to remove erroneous predictions resulting from transposable elements. Using the available EST data to adjust for residual errors in the predictions, the estimated gene count is at least 38,000–40,000. Only 2%–3% of the genes are unique to any one subspecies, comparable to the amount of sequence that might still be missing. Despite this lack of variation in gene content, there is enormous variation in the intergenic regions. At least a quarter of the two sequences could not be aligned, and where they could be aligned, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rates varied from as little as 3.0 SNP/kb in the coding regions to 27.6 SNP/kb in the transposable elements. A more inclusive new approach for analyzing duplication history is introduced here. It reveals an ancient whole-genome duplication, a recent segmental duplication on Chromosomes 11 and 12, and massive ongoing individual gene duplications. We find 18 distinct pairs of duplicated segments that cover 65.7% of the genome; 17 of these pairs date back to a common time before the divergence of the grasses. More important, ongoing individual gene duplications provide a never-ending source of raw material for gene genesis and are major contributors to the differences between members of the grass family.
Comparative genome sequencing of indica and japonica rice reveals that duplication of genes and genomic regions has played a major part in the evolution of grass genomes
PMCID: PMC546038  PMID: 15685292

Results 1-7 (7)