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1.  Relationship between age and prostate size 
Asian Journal of Andrology  2012;15(1):116-120.
In a community-based study, the relationship between age and human prostate size was investigated in a population of men between the ages of 40 and 70 years to determine the normal prostate increase curve equation. One thousand male volunteers were randomly recruited from the Shanghai community, and the length, width, height, volume of the transition zone (TZ) and the whole prostates were measured by transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). Each volunteer was evaluated by the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Among those who completed the examination, the mean prostate parameters were all positively associated with increased age. There were statistically significant differences between each age group (P<0.05). The mean transition zone volume (TZV) had a higher increase rate with age than the mean total prostate volume (TPV), indicating that the enlargement of the TZ contributed the most to the increase in TPV. While all prostate parameters were positively correlated with the IPSS, the strongest correlation was associated with the TZ length (TZL) and TZV. The growth curve equations for prostate width, height and length were also positively associated with increasing age.
doi:10.1038/aja.2012.127
PMCID: PMC3739117  PMID: 23223031
benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH); growth equation; International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS); prostate; transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)
2.  Ingredients of Huangqi decoction slow biliary fibrosis progression by inhibiting the activation of the transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway 
Background
Huangqi decoction was first described in Prescriptions of the Bureau of Taiping People's Welfare Pharmacy in Song Dynasty (AD 1078), and it is an effective recipe that is usually used to treat consumptive disease, anorexia, and chronic liver diseases. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) plays a key role in the progression of liver fibrosis, and Huangqi decoction and its ingredients (IHQD) markedly ameliorated hepatic fibrotic lesions induced by ligation of the common bile duct (BDL). However, the mechanism of IHQD on hepatic fibrotic lesions is not yet clear. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate the roles of TGFβ1 activation, Smad-signaling pathway, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the pathogenesis of biliary fibrosis progression and the antifibrotic mechanism of IHQD.
Methods
A liver fibrosis model was induced by ligation of the common bile duct (BDL) in rats. Sham-operation was performed in control rats. The BDL rats were randomly divided into two groups: the BDL group and the IHQD group. IHQD was administrated intragastrically for 4 weeks. At the end of the fifth week after BDL, animals were sacrificed for sampling of blood serum and liver tissue. The effect of IHQD on the TGFβ1 signaling pathway was evaluated by western blotting and laser confocal microscopy.
Results
Decreased content of hepatic hydroxyproline and improved liver function and histopathology were observed in IHQD rats. Hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, and myofibroblasts in the cholestatic liver injury released TGFβ1, and activated TGFβ1 receptors can accelerate liver fibrosis. IHQD markedly inhibited the protein expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ1 receptors, Smad3, and p-ERK1/2 expression with no change of Smad7 expression.
Conclusion
IHQD exert significant therapeutic effects on BDL-induced fibrosis in rats through inhibition of the activation of TGFβ1-Smad3 and TGFβ1-ERK1/2 signaling pathways.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-33
PMCID: PMC3419610  PMID: 22471627
Ingredients of Huangqi decoction; Cholestatic liver fibrosis; Transforming growth factor beta 1; Smad-signaling pathway, Extracellular signal-regulated kinase
3.  Study of pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of liposomal brucine for dermal administration 
Objective:
To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of liposomal brucine (LB) for dermal application.
Methods:
Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution were studied by in vivo animal testing. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to detect the concentration of brucine in rats’ skin, plasma and various tissues.
Results:
After dermal administration, LB was absorbed rapidly in the skin and could be detected after 0.5 hours. After 36 hours, levels were too low to be detected. In plasma, levels were also too low to be detected after 36 hours. The concentration of LB reached 50% of the maximum in all tissues except the brain, peaking after 1.5 hours but still detectable after 12 hours.
Conclusion:
The concentration of LB was high in skin at the application site. LB was quickly absorbed into tissues through the blood circulation and widely distributed throughout the whole body. There was no obvious toxicity and LB did not readily accumulate in tissues and organs. It showed local potency but low overall systemic toxicity.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S17255
PMCID: PMC3118685  PMID: 21698079
liposomal brucine; dermal administration; pharmacokinetics; tissue distribution

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