PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-4 (4)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
author:("Li, chunked")
1.  PKC Activation in Niemann Pick C1 Cells Restores Subcellular Cholesterol Transport 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e74169.
Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) has previously been shown to ameliorate the cholesterol transport defect in Niemann Pick Type C1 (NPC1) cells, presumably by increasing the soluble levels of one of its substrates, vimentin. This activity would then restore the vimentin cycle in these cells and allow vimentin-dependent retrograde transport to proceed. Here, we further investigate the effects of PKC activation in NPC1 cells by evaluating different isoforms for their ability to solubilize vimentin and correct the NPC1 cholesterol storage phenotype. We also examine the effects of PKC activators, including free fatty acids and the PKC-specific activator diazoxide, on the NPC1 disease phenotype. Our results indicate that PKC isoforms α, βII, and ε have the greatest effects on vimentin solubilization. Furthermore, expression or activation of PKCε in NPC1 cells dramatically reduces the amount of stored cholesterol and restores cholesterol transport out of endocytic vesicles. These results provide further support for the contribution of PKCs in NPC1 disease pathogenesis and suggest that PKCs may be targeted in future efforts to develop therapeutics for NPC1 disease.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074169
PMCID: PMC3744505  PMID: 23977398
2.  The mechanisms of microtubule catastrophe and rescue: implications from analysis of a dimer-scale computational model 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2012;23(4):642-656.
ETOC: The behavior of a dimer-scale computational model predicts that short interprotofilament “cracks” (laterally unbonded regions between protofilaments) exist even at the tips of growing MTs and that rapid fluctuations in the depths of these cracks govern both catastrophe and rescue.
Microtubule (MT) dynamic instability is fundamental to many cell functions, but its mechanism remains poorly understood, in part because it is difficult to gain information about the dimer-scale events at the MT tip. To address this issue, we used a dimer-scale computational model of MT assembly that is consistent with tubulin structure and biochemistry, displays dynamic instability, and covers experimentally relevant spans of time. It allows us to correlate macroscopic behaviors (dynamic instability parameters) with microscopic structures (tip conformations) and examine protofilament structure as the tip spontaneously progresses through both catastrophe and rescue. The model's behavior suggests that several commonly held assumptions about MT dynamics should be reconsidered. Moreover, it predicts that short, interprotofilament “cracks” (laterally unbonded regions between protofilaments) exist even at the tips of growing MTs and that rapid fluctuations in the depths of these cracks influence both catastrophe and rescue. We conclude that experimentally observed microtubule behavior can best be explained by a “stochastic cap” model in which tubulin subunits hydrolyze GTP according to a first-order reaction after they are incorporated into the lattice; catastrophe and rescue result from stochastic fluctuations in the size, shape, and extent of lateral bonding of the cap.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E11-08-0688
PMCID: PMC3279392  PMID: 22190741
3.  Cyclodextrin Induces Calcium-Dependent Lysosomal Exocytosis 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(11):e15054.
Cyclodextrins (CDs) have long been used to manipulate cellular cholesterol levels both in vitro and in vivo, but their direct effects at a cellular level are not well characterized. Recently, CDs have garnered much interest because of their ability to clear stored cholesterol from Niemann Pick Type C (NPC) cells and markedly prolong the life of NPC1 disease mice. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that treatment with 2-hydroxypropyl- β-cyclodextrin (HPB-CD) stimulates lysosomal exocytosis in a calcium-enhanced manner. We propose that this exocytosis is the mechanism by which HPB-CD ameliorates the endolysosomal cholesterol storage phenotype in NPC cells. These findings have significant implications for the use of HPB-CD in biochemical assays and data interpretation as well as for their use for the treatment for NPC and other disorders.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015054
PMCID: PMC2993955  PMID: 21124786
4.  Therapeutic potential of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2010;12(6):R210.
Introduction
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a T-cell-mediated systemic autoimmune disease, characterized by synovium inflammation and articular destruction. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could be effective in the treatment of several autoimmune diseases. However, there has been thus far no report on umbilical cord (UC)-MSCs in the treatment of RA. Here, potential immunosuppressive effects of human UC-MSCs in RA were evaluated.
Methods
The effects of UC-MSCs on the responses of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) and T cells in RA patients were explored. The possible molecular mechanism mediating this immunosuppressive effect of UC-MSCs was explored by addition of inhibitors to indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), Nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and interleukin 10 (IL-10). The therapeutic effects of systemic infusion of human UC-MSCs on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in a mouse model were explored.
Results
In vitro, UC-MSCs were capable of inhibiting proliferation of FLSs from RA patients, via IL-10, IDO and TGF-β1. Furthermore, the invasive behavior and IL-6 secretion of FLSs were also significantly suppressed. On the other hand, UC-MSCs induced hyporesponsiveness of T cells mediated by PGE2, TGF-β1 and NO and UC-MSCs could promote the expansion of CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells from RA patients. More importantly, systemic infusion of human UC-MSCs reduced the severity of CIA in a mouse model. Consistently, there were reduced levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) and increased levels of the anti-inflammatory/regulatory cytokine (IL-10) in sera of UC-MSCs treated mice. Moreover, such treatment shifted Th1/Th2 type responses and induced Tregs in CIA.
Conclusions
In conclusion, human UC-MSCs suppressed the various inflammatory effects of FLSs and T cells of RA in vitro, and attenuated the development of CIA in vivo, strongly suggesting that UC-MSCs might be a therapeutic strategy in RA. In addition, the immunosuppressive activitiy of UC-MSCs could be prolonged by the participation of Tregs.
doi:10.1186/ar3187
PMCID: PMC3046518  PMID: 21080925

Results 1-4 (4)