The display of full-length antibody on the cell surface was achieved by fusing a transmembrane domain of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) to the C-terminus of the heavy chain constant region. We also incorporated a furin cleavage site between the constant region and PDGFR transmembrane domain to obtain secreted antibodies. As a result, antibodies can be expressed simultaneously on the cell surface in a membrane-anchored version for screening and selecting through fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis, as well as in conditioned medium in a secreted version for function analysis.
AIM: To investigate the effect of antiviral therapy with nucleoside analogs in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhosis and esophageal varices.
METHODS: Eligible patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and esophageal varices who consulted two tertiary hospitals in Beijing, China, the Chinese Second Artillery General Hospital and Chinese PLA General Hospital, were enrolled in the study from January 2005 to December 2009. Of 117 patients, 79 received treatment with different nucleoside analogs and 38 served as controls. Bleeding rate, change in variceal grade and non-bleeding duration were analyzed. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression was used to identify factors related to esophageal variceal bleeding.
RESULTS: The bleeding rate was decreased in the antiviral group compared to the control group (29.1% vs 65.8%, P < 0.001). Antiviral therapy was an independent factor related to esophageal bleeding in multivariate analysis (HR = 11.3, P < 0.001). The mean increase in variceal grade per year was lower in the antiviral group (1.0 ± 1.3 vs 1.7 ± 1.2, P = 0.003). Non-bleeding duration in the antiviral group was prolonged in the Kaplan-Meier model. Viral load rebound was observed in 3 cases in the lamivudine group and in 1 case in the adefovir group, all of whom experienced bleeding. Entecavir and adefovir resulted in lower bleeding rates (17.2% and 28.6%, respectively) than the control (P < 0.001 and P = 0.006, respectively), whereas lamivudine (53.3%) did not (P = 0.531).
CONCLUSION: Antiviral therapy delays the progression of esophageal varices and reduces bleeding risk in HBV-related cirrhosis, however, high-resistance agents tend to be ineffective for long-term treatment.
Nucleoside analog; Esophageal variceal bleeding; Hepatitis B virus; Cirrhosis; Resistance; Entecavir; Lamivudine; Adefovir
Quantum-dots (QDs) have fuelled up intensive research efforts over the past two decades. Nevertheless, currently developed two classes of fluorescent QDs, colloidal semiconductor QDs and carbonaceous QDs suffer from either toxicity or short luminescence lifetime. Here, we report a new class of fluorescent bio-dots that are derived from DNA via self-assembly at low temperatures down to 80°C, which has an optical bandgap of 3.4 eV, and in particular possesses strong photoluminescence with a much longer luminescence lifetime (τ1 = 10.44 ns) than the carbonaceous QDs (τ1 < 0.5 ns). It is discovered that it is the interactions of base pair cytosines with each other to form sp2 carbon–like centers as luminescence centers or chromophores for the photoluminescence. The use of bio-dots in cell imaging with strong photoluminescence signal and good biocompatibility demonstrates great potentials of broad biological and optoelectronic applications.
To accurately measure the end-expiratory pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) with the “expiration holding” function on the ventilator and the “pulmonary artery wedge pressure review” software on the monitor.
Materials and methods
Fifty prospective measurements were made on 12 patients undergoing pulmonary artery catheter and mechanical ventilation. All measurements were divided into <8 mmHg or ≥8 mmHg subgroups according to respiratory variability, and they were then subdivided into either an airway pressure display measurement group (AM group) or an expiration holding (EH) group for comparison.
In all measurements, the two groups showed similar levels of accuracy; however, for the time spent for measurement, the EH group was much faster than the airway pressure display measurement group (P<0.001). Additionally, the EH group was associated with lower medical costs.
The expiration holding approach measured the PAWP more accurately, more quickly, and with reduced costs in comparison to the airway pressure display approach.
expiration holding; pulmonary artery wedge pressure; eePAWP; mechanical ventilation; pulmonary artery catheter
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in China for thousands of years to treat and prevent diseases. TCM has been proven safe and effective, and it is being considered as one of the important types of complementary and alternative medicine and receives increasing attention worldwide. The dried root of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. (also known as “Hu Zhang” in Chinese) is one of the medicinal herbs listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. Hu Zhang is widely distributed in the world. It can be found in Asia and North America and is used as folk medicine in countries such as Japan and Korea. In China, Hu Zhang is usually used in combination with other TCM herbs. The therapeutic uses of those Hu Zhang-containing TCM prescriptions or formulations are for treating cough, hepatitis, jaundice, amenorrhea, leucorrhea, arthralgia, burns and snake bites. Recent pharmacological and clinical studies have indicated that Hu Zhang has antiviral, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and cardioprotective functions. This review gives a summary of the reported therapeutic effects of the active compounds and the different extracts of Hu Zhang.
In acute lung injury (ALI), angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a vital role in the stimulation of pulmonary permeability edema formation through the angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor. The effect of Ang II on alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) in ALI remains unknown.
Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized and intratracheally injected with 1 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS), while control rats received saline. The AT1 receptor antagonist ZD7155 was injected intraperitoneally (10 mg/kg) 30 min before LPS administration. The lungs were isolated for AFC measurement, and alpha-epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) messenger RNA and protein expression were detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot.
LPS-induced ALI caused an increase in Ang II levels in plasma and lung tissue but a decrease in AFC. The time course of Ang II levels paralleled that of AFC. Pretreatment with ZD7155 prevented ALI-induced reduction of AFC. ZD7155 also reversed the ALI-induced reduction of beta-ENaC and gamma-ENaC levels, and further decreased alpha-ENaC levels.
These findings suggest that endogenous Ang II inhibits AFC and dysregulates ENaC expression via AT1 receptors, which contribute to alveolar filling and pulmonary edema in LPS-induced ALI.
Acute lung injury; Alveolar fluid clearance; Angiotensin II; Epithelial sodium channel
Preeclampsia, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria, is a multifactorial disease caused by complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors. A recent genome-wide association study of blood pressure reported an association between hypertension and rs11646213. This study evaluated the association between preeclampsia and rs11646213.
A total of 454 cases and 460 controls were recruited to participate in this study. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11646213 was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing.
The allele frequency of rs11646213 was significantly different between the preeclampsia and control groups (P = 0.017, OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.06–1.76). Differences were particularly significant in the severe preeclampsia subgroup (P = 0.002, OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.17–2.03) and the early-onset preeclampsia subgroup (P = 0.004, OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.16–2.13). Genotyping analysis showed that the T allele of rs11646213 could confer a risk for preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia and early-onset preeclampsia.
Rs11646213 upstream of the CDH13 gene is associated with preeclampsia in Han Chinese women.
Recent work suggested that the presence of specific memory or some form of adaptive immunity occurs in insects and shrimp. Hypervariable pattern recognition molecules, known as Down syndrome cell adhesion molecules, are able to mount specific recognition, and immune priming in invertebrates. In the present study, we attempted to understand the immune response pattern of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received primary (PE) and secondary exposure (SE) to Vibrio alginolyticus.
Immune parameters and proliferation of haematopoietic tissues (HPTs) of shrimp which had received PE and SE to V. alginolyticus were measured. In the PE trial, the immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of shrimp that received heat-killed V. alginolyticus (HVa) and formalin-inactivated V. alginolyticus (FVa) were measured. Mortality, immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to HVa after 7 days) and 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to FVa after 7 days) following SE to live V. alginolyticus (LVa) were measured. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were examined for the 7∼35-day-HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp.
HVa-receiving shrimp showed an earlier increase in the immune response on day 1, whereas FVa-receiving shrimp showed a late increase in the immune response on day 5. The 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed enhancement of immunity when encountering SE to LVa, whereas 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp showed a minor enhancement in immunity. 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed higher proliferation and an HPT mitotic index. Both phagocytic activity and clearance maintained higher for both HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp after 28 days.
HVa- and FVa-receiving shrimp showed the bacteria agglutinated prior to being phagocytised. FVa functions as a vaccine, whereas HVa functions as an inducer and can be used as an immune adjuvant. A combined mixture of FVa and HVa can serve as a “vaccine component” to modulate the immunity of shrimp.
AIM: To evaluate the feasibility of a new computed virtual chromoendoscopy (CVC) device (M i-scan) in the diagnosis of gastric neoplasia.
METHODS: Patients with superficial lesions no larger than 1.0 cm found during high definition endoscopy were included. Those with advanced or obviously protruded or depressed lesions, lesions larger than 1.0 cm and/or lesions which were not amenable to observation by zoom function were excluded. The endoscopist was required to give the real-time descriptions of surface pit patterns of the lesions, based on surface pattern classification of enhanced magnification endoscopy. According to previous reports, types I-III represent non-neoplastic lesions, and types IV-V represent neoplastic lesions. Diagnosis with M i-scan and biopsy was performed before histopathological diagnosis. Magnified images of gastric lesions with and without enhancement were collected for further analysis. The diagnostic yield of real-time M i-scan and effects on magnification image quality by tone enhancement (TE), surface enhancement (SE) and color enhancement (CE) were calculated. The selected images were sent to another endoscopist. The endoscopist rated the image quality of each lesion at 3 levels. Ratings of image quality were based on visualization of pit pattern, vessel and demarcation line.
RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-three patients were recruited. Five patients were excluded for advanced gastric lesions, 1 patient was excluded for poor preparation and 2 patients were excluded for superficial lesions larger than 1.0 cm; 132 patients were excluded for no lesions found by high definition endoscopy. In the end, 43 patients with 43 lesions were included. Histopathology revealed 10 inflammation, 14 atrophy, 10 metaplasia, 1 low grade dysplasia (LGD), 5 high grade dysplasia (HGD) and 3 cancers. For 7 lesions classified into type I, histopathology revealed 6 atrophy and 1 metaplasia; for 10 lesions classified into type II, histopathology revealed 2 inflammation, 7 atrophy and 1 metaplasia; for 10 lesions classified into type III, histopathology revealed 1 inflammation, 8 metaplasia and 1 LGD; for 9 lesions classified into type IV, histopathology revealed 4 inflammation, 1 atrophy and 4 HGD; for 7 lesions classified into type V, histopathology revealed 3 inflammation, 1 HGD and 3 cancers. A total of 172 still images, including 43 images by white light (MWL) and 129 images by M i-scan (43 with TE, 43 with SE and 43 with CE), were selected and sent to the endoscopist who did the analysis. General image quality of M i-scan with TE and SE was significantly better than that of MWL (TE, 4.55 ± 1.07; SE, 4.30 ± 1.02; MWL, 3.25 ± 0.99; P < 0.001). Visualization of pit pattern was significantly improved by M i-scan with SE (1.93 ± 0.25 vs 1.50 ± 0.50, P < 0.001). Microvessel visualization was significantly improved by M i-scan with TE (1.23 ± 0.78 vs 0.76 ± 0.73, P < 0.001). Demarcation line visualization was improved by M i-scan with both TE and SE (TE, 1.75 ± 0.52; SE, 1.56 ± 0.59; MWL, 0.98 ± 0.44; P < 0.001). M i-scan with CE did not show any significant improvements of image quality in general or in the 3 key parameters. Although M i-scan with TE and SE slightly increased the diagnostic yield of MWL, there was no significant difference (P > 0.1).
CONCLUSION: Although digital enhancement improves the image quality of magnification endoscopy, its value in improving the diagnostic yield seems to be limited.
Computed virtual chromoendoscopy; i-scan; Gastric neoplasia; Diagnosis
To characterize the clinical features of ocular surface in gout patients in coastal area of Shandong Province in China.
A total of 380 consecutive gout patients were examined from January 2011 to May 2011. According to the course of gout, patients were divided into group A (<5 years), B (5-10 years) and C (>10 years). Group D (control group) was consist of 50 healthy subjects. Eyelids, lateral canthus, medial canthus, palpebral conjunctiva, sclera and cornea, anterior chamber, lens, anterior vitreous were examined by slit lamp to find whether there were deposition of uric acid crystals, ocular vascular tortuosity, redness and subconjunctival hemorrhage. The ophthalmic exams of visual acuity, intraocular pressure, fundus were used to assess any gout-related eye disease.
Uric acid crystals were found in 3 patients and the positions of the deposite were in corneal stroma, corneal epithelium and superficial stroma, and sclera respectively. The incidence was 0.79%. Dilatated and tortuous blood vessels in conjunctiva and sclera surface were found in 38 (23.8%), 40 (44.0%), 58 (45.0%), 9 (18.0%) patients in groups A, B, C and D, respectively. The differences between group B and D, group C and D were statistically significant (P<0.01, P<0.01). Transparent vesicles with metal-like reflected light in subconjunctiva were seen in 26 (16.2 %), 29 (31.9%), 41 (31.8%), 2 (4.00%) patients in groups A, B, C and D, respectively. The differences between A and D, B and D, C and D were statistically significant (P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.01). Subconjunctival hemorrhage was found in all groups, the difference among the four groups showed no statistically significance.
Gout can cause ocular surface abnormalities, such as tophi deposition, subconjunctival transparent vesicles and hemorrhage, and vascular changes. These features have important clinical significance in early detection of the gout and prevention of eye injury.
ocular abnormalities; gout; tophi
AIM: To investigate HER2 expression and its correlation with clinicopathological variables between proximal and distal gastric cancers (GC) in the Chinese population.
METHODS: Immunostaining of HER2 was performed and scored on a scale of 0-3 in 957 consecutive GC cases, according to the revised scoring criteria of HercepTestTM as used in the ToGA trial. Correlations between HER2 expression and clinicopathologic variables of proximal (n = 513) and distal (n = 444) GC were investigated.
RESULTS: Our results showed that HER2 expression was significantly higher in the proximal than in distal GC (P < 0.05). Overall, HER2 expression was significantly higher in male patients (P < 0.01), the Lauren intestinal type (P < 0.001), low-grade (P < 0.001) and pM1 (P < 0.01) diseases, respectively. There was a significant difference in HER2 expression among some pTNM stages (P < 0.05). In contrast, HER2 expression in the distal GC was significantly higher in male patients (P < 0.001), low-grade histology (P < 0.001), the Lauren intestinal type（P < 0.001), and pM1 (P < 0.001). In the proximal GC, however, higher HER2 expression scores were observed only in tumors with low-grade histology (P < 0.001) and the Lauren intestinal type (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: HER2 over-expression in GC of Chinese patients was significantly more common in proximal than in distal GC, and significantly correlated with the Lauren intestinal type and low-grade histology in both proximal and distal GC, and with pM1 disease and male gender in distal GC.
HER2; Gastric cancer; Immunohistochemistry; Clinicopathology
Recent studies haveshown that ginsenoside Rg1, extracted from the dry roots of Panax notoginseng as a traditional Asian medicine, plays an anti-fibrosis role in myocardial remodeling. However, the mechanism still remains unclear. In the present study, we investigate the effect of ginsenoside Rg1on the collagenic remodeling of myocardium in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), and its potential mechanism.
A rat model of CTEPH was established by injecting thrombi through the jugular vein wice in2 weeks. Four weeks later, four groups (Group A: normal rats + normal saline; Group B: normal rats + Rg1; Group C: CTEPH model + normal saline; Group D: CTEPH model + Rg1) were established. Normal saline and Rg1 were administrated by intraperitoneal injection. Ineach group, we measured the hemodynamic parameters, as well as the right ventricle to left ventricle (RV/LV) thickness ratio. Myocardial tissue sections of the RV were stained by hematoxylin-eosin +gentian violet and the morphological characteristics were observed by light microscopy. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) -2 and −9 were detected by the western blot.
Compared with Group A and Group B, the right ventricular systolic pressure was significantly increased in Group C and significantly decreased in Group D. Compared with Group A and Group B, the RV/LV thickness ratio of the rats was significantly higher in Group C and Group D. There was significant fibrosis with collagen in Group C compared with Group A and Group B, and less significant changes in Group D were observed compared with those in Group C. The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 exhibited a significant decrease in Group C and was also significantly decreased in Group D compared withGroup A and Group B. Also, a negative linear relationship was shown between collagen-I and the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9.
Our animal study showed that ginsenoside Rg1 positively affects myocardial remodeling and pulmonary hemodynamics in CTEPH. Upregulation of the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 could explain the beneficial effects of ginsenoside Rg1 in CTEPH.
Panax notoginseng saponins; Ginsenoside Rg1; Chronicthromboembolic pulmonary hypertension; Myocardial remodeling; Matrix metalloproteinases
Only 12 cases of musculoskeletal tuberculosis (TB) that occurred at the site of recent blunt trauma have been previously described.
Materials and methods
A 43-year-old previously healthy man experienced an uncomplicated bursting fracture at the L2 vertebra without any spinal tuberculosis (ST)-associated evidence. During the conservative treatment, he was in good physical condition with back pain totally subsiding and occasional ambulation in a spinal brace, whereas 7 months after the original trauma, he presented with a characteristic manifestation of ST at the same vertebra.
Intraoperatively, biopsy confirmed ST of the L2 vertebra and radical debridement with an anterior fusion was performed. The patient received an 18-month course of anti-TB regimen. Excellent clinical outcomes were achieved.
In developing countries, where TB is still widely prevalent, there must be a heightened awareness of the risk of ST at recently fractured vertebrae, as demonstrated in this case.
Spinal tuberculosis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Bursting fracture
SKD1 (suppressor of K+ transport growth defect 1) is an AAA-type ATPase that functions as a molecular motor. It was previously shown that SKD1 accumulates in epidermal bladder cells of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. SKD1 knock-down Arabidopsis mutants showed an imbalanced Na+/K+ ratio under salt stress. Two enzymes involved in protein post-translational modifications that physically interacted with McSKD1 were identified. McCPN1 (copine 1), a RING-type ubiquitin ligase, has an N-terminal myristoylation site that links to the plasma membrane, a central copine domain that interacts with McSKD1, and a C-terminal RING domain that catalyses protein ubiquitination. In vitro ubiquitination assay demonstrated that McCPN1 was capable of mediating ubiquitination of McSKD1. McSnRK1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase) is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that contains an N-terminal STKc catalytic domain to phosphorylate McSKD1, and C-terminal UBA and KA1 domains to interact with McSKD1. The transcript and protein levels of McSnRK1 increased as NaCl concentrations increased. The formation of an SKD1–SnRK1–CPN1 ternary complex was demonstrated by yeast three-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation. It was found that McSKD1 preferentially interacts with McSnRK1 in the cytosol, and salt induced the re-distribution of McSKD1 and McSnRK1 towards the plasma membrane via the microtubule cytoskeleton and subsequently interacted with RING-type E3 McCPN1. The potential effects of ubiquitination and phosphorylation on McSKD1, such as changes in the ATPase activity and cellular localization, and how they relate to the functions of SKD1 in the maintenance of Na+/K+ homeostasis under salt stress, are discussed.
AAA-type ATPase; protein kinase; protein ubiquitination; RING-type ubiquitin ligase; salt stress; SKD1; SnRK1.
The Akt/NF-κB pathways are involved in numerous anti-apoptotic and drug-resistance events that occur in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present study, the role of 7,8-dihydroxycoumarin in the regulation of the anti-apoptotic Akt and NF-κBp65 signaling pathways was explored. A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells were exposed to 7,8-dihydroxycoumarin with a final concentration of 25, 50 and 100 μmol/l for 48 h. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting were performed to detect mRNA and protein expression, respectively. The MTT assay was performed to detect cell proliferation. The results demonstrated that anti-apoptotic phospho-Akt1 (pAkt1), phospho-IκBα (pIκBα), NF-κBp65 and Bcl-2 were inhibited and pro-apoptotic caspase-3 was upregulated in a concentration-dependent manner. At a concentration of 100 μmol/l, the anti-apoptotic NF-κBp65 and Bcl-2 mRNA expression levels decreased 0.12 (5.82/48.5, treated/control)-fold and 0.17 (6.7/39.4, treated/control)-fold, respectively. The pro-apoptotic caspase-3 mRNA was upregulated 4.43 (39.4/8.9, treated/control)-fold. The anti-apoptotic pAkt1, pIκBα, NF-κBp65 and Bcl-2 proteins were downregulated, with blot grayscale values of 7.3 (vs. 52.4 control), 4.3 (vs. 42.2 control), 5.08 (vs. 44.5 control) and 5.92 (vs. 38.5 control), respectively. The proapoptotic caspase-3 was upregulated to a blot grayscale value of 27.8 (vs. 5.8 control). The proliferative activity of A549 cells was reduced significantly compared with that of the control cells (83.7, 27.2 and 9.5 vs. 100%, respectively; P<0.05 for each). 7,8-Dihydroxycoumarin plays an important role in the induction of apoptosis via suppression of Akt/NF-κB signaling in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner. 7,8-Dihydroxycoumarin may be a candidate naturally-occurring drug for the treatment and prevention of lung adenocarcinoma.
7,8-dihydroxycoumarin; lung adenocarcinoma; apoptosis; signaling; Akt; NF-κB
The endophytic bacterium, MD-b1, was isolated from the medicinal plant Ophiopogon japonicas and identified as the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens sp. with 99% similarity based on the partial sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. Exopolysaccharides were extracted from the endophyte for the evaluation of its antitumor activity against gastric carcinoma cell lines (MC-4 and SGC-7901). 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and microscopy were performed to estimate the cell viability and morphological changes of the MC-4 and SGC-7901 cells following treatment with the exopolysaccharides at 14, 22 and 30 μg/μl. The results revealed that the exopolysaccharides displayed concentration-dependent inhibitory effects against the MC-4 and SGC-7901 cells, with an IC50 of 19.7 and 26.8 μg/μl, respectively. The exopolysaccharides also induced morphological abnormalities in the cells. These effects indicated the the exopolysaccharides had an antitumoral mechanism of action associated with the mitochondrial dysfunction of the treated cells. This is the first study to investigate the endophytic microorganism isolated from O. japonicas and also the first discovery of such antitumoral exopolysaccharides derived from the genus Bacillus. This provides a promising and reproducible natural product source with high therapeutic value for anticancer treatment, thereby facilitating the development of new anticancer agents.
Ophiopogon japonicas; Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; exopolysaccharides; endophytic bacteria; antitumor
Cartilage endplate (CEP) degeneration is usually accompanied by loss of cellularity, and this loss may be a crucial key factor in initiation and development of degenerative disc disease. The study of cell types in degenerated CEP could help in understanding CEP etiopathogenesis, and may help in devising new treatments, especially if the presence of progenitor cells could be demonstrated. The aim of this study was to determine if progenitor cells existed in degenerated human CEP.
Materials and methods
Cells isolated from CEP were cultured in a three-dimensional agarose suspension to screen for proliferative cell clusters. Cell clusters were then expanded in vitro and the populations were analyzed for colony forming unit, immunophenotype, multilineage induction, and expression of stem cell-related genes.
The presence of progenitor cells in degenerated human CEP is indicated by the results of CFU, immunophenotype, multilineage induction, and expression of stem cell-related genes.
We believe that this is the first study which has conclusively shown the presence of progenitor cells in degenerated CEP. The finding of this study may influence the clinical management of degenerative disc disorder.
Intervertebral disc; Degenerative disc disease; Cartilage endplate; Progenitor cells; Cell differentiation
Gene targeting (GT) provides a powerful tool for the generation of precise genetic alterations in embryonic stem (ES) cells to elucidate gene function and create animal models for human diseases. This technology has, however, been limited to mouse and rat. We have previously established ES cell lines and procedures for gene transfer and selection for homologous recombination (HR) events in the fish medaka (Oryzias latipes).
Methodology and Principal Findings
Here we report HR-mediated GT in this organism. We designed a GT vector to disrupt the tumor suppressor gene p53 (also known as tp53). We show that all the three medaka ES cell lines, MES1∼MES3, are highly proficient for HR, as they produced detectable HR without drug selection. Furthermore, the positive-negative selection (PNS) procedure enhanced HR by ∼12 folds. Out of 39 PNS-resistant colonies analyzed, 19 (48.7%) were positive for GT by PCR genotyping. When 11 of the PCR-positive colonies were further analyzed, 6 (54.5%) were found to be bona fide homologous recombinants by Southern blot analysis, sequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridization. This produces a high efficiency of up to 26.6% for p53 GT under PNS conditions. We show that p53 disruption and long-term propagation under drug selection conditions do not compromise the pluripotency, as p53-targeted ES cells retained stable growth, undifferentiated phenotype, pluripotency gene expression profile and differentiation potential in vitro and in vivo.
Our results demonstrate that medaka ES cells are proficient for HR-mediated GT, offering a first model organism of lower vertebrates towards the development of full ES cell-based GT technology.
Macrophages play a proatherosclerotic role in atherosclerosis via oxLDL uptake. As an adhesion molecular of I-type lectins, Siglec-1 is highly expressed on circulating monocytes and plaque macrophages of atherosclerotic patients, but the exact role of Siglec-1 has not been elucidated.
In this study, oxLDL was used to stimulate Siglec-1 and some oxLDL receptors (SR-BI, CD64, CD32B, LOX-1 and TLR-4) expression on bone marrow-derived macrophages, whereas small interfering RNA was used to down-regulate Siglec-1. Meanwhile, an ELISA-based assay for Siglec-1-oxLDL interaction was performed, and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) were used to determine the role of Siglec-1 in oxLDL uptake by macrophages.
We found that oxLDL could up-regulate the expression of various potential oxLDL receptors, including Siglec-1, in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, down-regulation of Siglec-1 could attenuate oxLDL uptake by Oil red O staining. LSCM revealed that Siglec-1 and CD64/SR-BI may colocalize on oxLDL-stimulated macrophage surface, whereas co-IP showed that Siglec-1 and SR-BI can be immunoprecipitated by each other. However, no direct interaction between Siglec-1 and oxLDL was found in the in vitro protein interaction system.
Thus, Siglec-1 can interact with SR-BI in the phagocytosis of oxLDL by macrophages, rather than act as an independent receptor for oxLDL.
To pinpoint the exact location of the etiological variant/s present at 1q21.1 harboring FCRL1-5 and CD5L genes, we carried out a refined association study in the entire FCRL region in 1,536 patients with Graves’ disease (GD) and 1,516 sex-matched controls by imputation analysis, logistic regression, and cis-eQTL analysis. Among 516 SNPs with P<0.05 in the initial GWAS scan, the strongest signals associated with GD and correlated to FCRL3 expression were located at a cluster of SNPs including rs7528684 and rs3761959. And the allele-specific effects for rs3761959 and rs7528684 on FCRL3 expression level revealed that the risk alleles A of rs3761959 and C of rs7528684 were correlated with the elevated expression level of FCRL3 whether in PBMCs or its subsets, especially in CD19+ B cells and CD8+ T subsets. Next, the combined analysis with 5,300 GD cases and 4,916 control individuals confirmed FCRL3 was a susceptibility gene of GD in Chinese Han populations, and rs3761959 and rs7528684 met the genome-wide association significance level (Pcombined = 2.27×10−12 and 7.11×10−13, respectively). Moreover, the haplotypes with the risk allele A of rs3761959 and risk allele C of rs7528684 were associated with GD risk. Finally, our epigenetic analysis suggested the disease-associated C allele of rs7528684 increased affinity for NF-KB transcription factor. Above data indicated that FCRL3 gene and its proxy SNP rs7528684 may be involved in the pathogenesis of GD by excessive inhibiting B cell receptor signaling and the impairment of suppressing function of Tregs.
Early stages of mucosal infection are potential targets for HIV-1 prevention. CD4 is the primary receptor in HIV-1 infection whereas DC-SIGN likely plays an important role in HIV-1 dissemination, particularly during sexual transmission. To test the hypothesis that an inhibitor simultaneously targeting both CD4 and DC-SIGN binding sites on gp120 may provide a potent anti-HIV strategy, we designed constructs by fusing the extracellular CD4 and DC-SIGN domains together with varied arrangements of the lengths of CD4, DC-SIGN and the linker. We expressed, purified and characterized a series of soluble CD4-linker–DC-SIGN (CLD) fusion proteins. Several CLDs, composed of a longer linker and an extra neck domain of DC-SIGN, had enhanced affinity for gp120 as evidenced by molecular-interaction analysis. Furthermore, such CLDs exhibited significantly enhanced neutralization activity against both laboratory-adapted and primary HIV-1 isolates. Moreover, CLDs efficiently inhibited HIV-1 infection in trans via a DC-SIGN-expressing cell line and primary human dendritic cells. This was further strengthened by the results from the human cervical explant model, showing that CLDs potently prevented both localized and disseminated infections. This is the first time that soluble DC-SIGN-based bifunctional proteins have demonstrated anti-HIV potency. Our study provides proof of the concept that targeting both CD4 and DC-SIGN binding sites on gp120 represents a novel antiviral strategy. Given that DC-SIGN binding to gp120 increases exposure of the CD4 binding site and that the soluble forms of CD4 and DC-SIGN occur in vivo, further improvement of CLDs may render them potentially useful in prophylaxis or therapeutics.
Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a central transcriptional factor and a pleiotropic regulator of many genes involved in acute lung injury. Andrographolide is found in the plant of Andrographis paniculata and widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, exhibiting potently anti-inflammatory property by inhibiting NF-κB activity. The purpose of our investigation was designed to reveal the effect of andrographolide on various aspects of LPS induced inflammation in vivo and in vitro.
Methods and Results
In vivo, BALB/C mice were subjected to LPS injection with or without andrographolide treatments to induce ALI model. In vitro, MLE-12 cells were stimulated with LPS in the presence and absence of andrographolide. In vivo, pulmonary inflammation, pulmonary edema, ultrastructure changes of type II alveolar epithelial cells, MPO activity, total cells, neutrophils, macrophages, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in BALF, along with the expression of VCAM-1 and VEGF were dose-dependently attenuated by andrographolide. Meanwhile, in vitro, the expression of VCAM-1 and VEGF was also reduced by andrographolide. Moreover, our data showed that andrographolide significantly inhibited the ratios of phospho-IKKβ/total IKKβ, phospho-IκBα/total IκBα and phospho-NF-κB p65/total NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p65 DNA binding activities, both in vivo and in vitro.
These results indicate that andrographolide dose-dependently suppressed the severity of LPS-induced ALI, more likely by virtue of andrographolide-mediated NF-κB inhibition at the level of IKKβ activation. These results suggest andrographolide may be considered as an effective and safe drug for the potential treatment of ALI.
Saikosaponin a (SSa), a main constituent of the Chinese herb Bupleurum chinense DC., has been demonstrated to have antiepileptic activity. Recent studies have shown that SSa could inhibit NMDA receptor current and persistent sodium current. However, the effects of SSa on potassium (K+) currents remain unclear. In this study, we tested the effect of SSa on 4AP-induced epileptiform discharges and K+ currents in CA1 neurons of rat hippocampal slices. We found that SSa significantly inhibited epileptiform discharges frequency and duration in hippocampal CA1 neurons in the 4AP seizure model in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50
of 0.7 μM. SSa effectively increased the amplitude of ITotal
and IA, significantly negative-shifted the activation curve, and positive-shifted steady-state curve of IA. However, SSa induced no significant changes in the amplitude and activation curve of IK. In addition, SSa significantly increased the amplitude of 4AP-sensitive K+ current, while there was no significant change in the amplitude of TEA-sensitive K+ current. Together, our data indicate that SSa inhibits epileptiform discharges induced by 4AP in a dose-dependent manner and that SSa exerts selectively enhancing effects on IA. These increases in IA may contribute to the anticonvulsant mechanisms of SSa.
In general, bony injuries heal well with immobilization when the fractured segments are well apposed in the cases of stable atlas fracture. Osseous nonunion of the displaced anterior arch fracture of the atlas has been reported in the literature. However, there have been no reports published on the treatment of nonunion of the atlas fractures.
The objective of this study is to describe a new technique for direct repair of the displaced anterior arch fracture of the atlas in a minimally invasive manner.
Seven patients with the atlas fracture were treated by a minimally invasive approach. Reduction of anterior arch fractures was not performed by skull traction and the displacement of fractures was more than 5 mm. Direct autograft was performed under microendoscope to improve union of the anterior arch fractures. Radiographic and CT evaluation of the atlas fractures were performed at 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively.
Seven cases of the atlas fractures (one old and six new fractures) underwent the surgical procedure smoothly without major complications. Total average displacement of the anterior arch fracture was 5.7 mm (range 5–8 mm) before surgery. Of the seven patients, bony union of the fracture developed in six. At latest follow-up, two patients had neck pain associated with movement and limited range of rotational motion.
Direct repair under microendoscope is a new technique that improves bony union of displaced anterior arch of the atlas fractures.
Atlas fracture; Repair; Microendoscope; Minimally invasive spine surgery
Concerns surrounding the oncogenic potential of recombinant gammaretroviral vectors has spurred a great deal of interest in vector integration site (VIS) preferences. Although gammaretroviral vectors exhibit a modest preference for integration near transcription start sites (TSS) of active genes, such associations only account for about a third of all VIS. Previous studies suggested a correlation between gammaretroviral VIS and DNase hypersensitive sites (DHS), which mark chromatin regions associated with cis-regulatory elements. In order to study this issue directly, we assessed the correlation between 167 validated gammaretroviral VIS and a deep genome-wide map of DHS, both determined in the same cell line (the human fibrosarcoma HT1080). The DHS map was developed by sequencing individual DNase I cleavage sites using massively parallel sequencing technologies. These studies revealed an overwhelming preference for integrations associated with DHS, with a median distance of only 238 bp between individual VIS and the nearest DHS for the experimental dataset, compared to 3 kb for a random dataset and 577 to 1457 bp for two unrelated cell lines (p<0.001). Indeed, nearly 84% of all VIS were found to be located within 1 kb of a DHS (p=10−43). Further, this correlation was statistically independent from the association with TSS. The preference for DHS far exceeds that seen for other hallmarks of gammaretroviral VIS, including TSS, and may help explain several aspects of gammaretroviral vector biology, including the mechanism of VIS selection, as well as the relative frequency and underlying biology of gammaretroviral vector-mediated genotoxicity.
Liu and colleagues correlate between 167 validated gammaretroviral vector integration sites (VIS) and a deep genome-wide map of DNase-hypersensitive sites (DHS) in the human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line. The study reveals an overwhelming preference for integrations associated with DHS that far exceeds and is independent of the previously known association of VIS with transcription start sites.