To pinpoint the exact location of the etiological variant/s present at 1q21.1 harboring FCRL1-5 and CD5L genes, we carried out a refined association study in the entire FCRL region in 1,536 patients with Graves’ disease (GD) and 1,516 sex-matched controls by imputation analysis, logistic regression, and cis-eQTL analysis. Among 516 SNPs with P<0.05 in the initial GWAS scan, the strongest signals associated with GD and correlated to FCRL3 expression were located at a cluster of SNPs including rs7528684 and rs3761959. And the allele-specific effects for rs3761959 and rs7528684 on FCRL3 expression level revealed that the risk alleles A of rs3761959 and C of rs7528684 were correlated with the elevated expression level of FCRL3 whether in PBMCs or its subsets, especially in CD19+ B cells and CD8+ T subsets. Next, the combined analysis with 5,300 GD cases and 4,916 control individuals confirmed FCRL3 was a susceptibility gene of GD in Chinese Han populations, and rs3761959 and rs7528684 met the genome-wide association significance level (Pcombined = 2.27×10−12 and 7.11×10−13, respectively). Moreover, the haplotypes with the risk allele A of rs3761959 and risk allele C of rs7528684 were associated with GD risk. Finally, our epigenetic analysis suggested the disease-associated C allele of rs7528684 increased affinity for NF-KB transcription factor. Above data indicated that FCRL3 gene and its proxy SNP rs7528684 may be involved in the pathogenesis of GD by excessive inhibiting B cell receptor signaling and the impairment of suppressing function of Tregs.
Early stages of mucosal infection are potential targets for HIV-1 prevention. CD4 is the primary receptor in HIV-1 infection whereas DC-SIGN likely plays an important role in HIV-1 dissemination, particularly during sexual transmission. To test the hypothesis that an inhibitor simultaneously targeting both CD4 and DC-SIGN binding sites on gp120 may provide a potent anti-HIV strategy, we designed constructs by fusing the extracellular CD4 and DC-SIGN domains together with varied arrangements of the lengths of CD4, DC-SIGN and the linker. We expressed, purified and characterized a series of soluble CD4-linker–DC-SIGN (CLD) fusion proteins. Several CLDs, composed of a longer linker and an extra neck domain of DC-SIGN, had enhanced affinity for gp120 as evidenced by molecular-interaction analysis. Furthermore, such CLDs exhibited significantly enhanced neutralization activity against both laboratory-adapted and primary HIV-1 isolates. Moreover, CLDs efficiently inhibited HIV-1 infection in trans via a DC-SIGN-expressing cell line and primary human dendritic cells. This was further strengthened by the results from the human cervical explant model, showing that CLDs potently prevented both localized and disseminated infections. This is the first time that soluble DC-SIGN-based bifunctional proteins have demonstrated anti-HIV potency. Our study provides proof of the concept that targeting both CD4 and DC-SIGN binding sites on gp120 represents a novel antiviral strategy. Given that DC-SIGN binding to gp120 increases exposure of the CD4 binding site and that the soluble forms of CD4 and DC-SIGN occur in vivo, further improvement of CLDs may render them potentially useful in prophylaxis or therapeutics.
Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a central transcriptional factor and a pleiotropic regulator of many genes involved in acute lung injury. Andrographolide is found in the plant of Andrographis paniculata and widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, exhibiting potently anti-inflammatory property by inhibiting NF-κB activity. The purpose of our investigation was designed to reveal the effect of andrographolide on various aspects of LPS induced inflammation in vivo and in vitro.
Methods and Results
In vivo, BALB/C mice were subjected to LPS injection with or without andrographolide treatments to induce ALI model. In vitro, MLE-12 cells were stimulated with LPS in the presence and absence of andrographolide. In vivo, pulmonary inflammation, pulmonary edema, ultrastructure changes of type II alveolar epithelial cells, MPO activity, total cells, neutrophils, macrophages, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in BALF, along with the expression of VCAM-1 and VEGF were dose-dependently attenuated by andrographolide. Meanwhile, in vitro, the expression of VCAM-1 and VEGF was also reduced by andrographolide. Moreover, our data showed that andrographolide significantly inhibited the ratios of phospho-IKKβ/total IKKβ, phospho-IκBα/total IκBα and phospho-NF-κB p65/total NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p65 DNA binding activities, both in vivo and in vitro.
These results indicate that andrographolide dose-dependently suppressed the severity of LPS-induced ALI, more likely by virtue of andrographolide-mediated NF-κB inhibition at the level of IKKβ activation. These results suggest andrographolide may be considered as an effective and safe drug for the potential treatment of ALI.
In general, bony injuries heal well with immobilization when the fractured segments are well apposed in the cases of stable atlas fracture. Osseous nonunion of the displaced anterior arch fracture of the atlas has been reported in the literature. However, there have been no reports published on the treatment of nonunion of the atlas fractures.
The objective of this study is to describe a new technique for direct repair of the displaced anterior arch fracture of the atlas in a minimally invasive manner.
Seven patients with the atlas fracture were treated by a minimally invasive approach. Reduction of anterior arch fractures was not performed by skull traction and the displacement of fractures was more than 5 mm. Direct autograft was performed under microendoscope to improve union of the anterior arch fractures. Radiographic and CT evaluation of the atlas fractures were performed at 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively.
Seven cases of the atlas fractures (one old and six new fractures) underwent the surgical procedure smoothly without major complications. Total average displacement of the anterior arch fracture was 5.7 mm (range 5–8 mm) before surgery. Of the seven patients, bony union of the fracture developed in six. At latest follow-up, two patients had neck pain associated with movement and limited range of rotational motion.
Direct repair under microendoscope is a new technique that improves bony union of displaced anterior arch of the atlas fractures.
Atlas fracture; Repair; Microendoscope; Minimally invasive spine surgery
Concerns surrounding the oncogenic potential of recombinant gammaretroviral vectors has spurred a great deal of interest in vector integration site (VIS) preferences. Although gammaretroviral vectors exhibit a modest preference for integration near transcription start sites (TSS) of active genes, such associations only account for about a third of all VIS. Previous studies suggested a correlation between gammaretroviral VIS and DNase hypersensitive sites (DHS), which mark chromatin regions associated with cis-regulatory elements. In order to study this issue directly, we assessed the correlation between 167 validated gammaretroviral VIS and a deep genome-wide map of DHS, both determined in the same cell line (the human fibrosarcoma HT1080). The DHS map was developed by sequencing individual DNase I cleavage sites using massively parallel sequencing technologies. These studies revealed an overwhelming preference for integrations associated with DHS, with a median distance of only 238 bp between individual VIS and the nearest DHS for the experimental dataset, compared to 3 kb for a random dataset and 577 to 1457 bp for two unrelated cell lines (p<0.001). Indeed, nearly 84% of all VIS were found to be located within 1 kb of a DHS (p=10−43). Further, this correlation was statistically independent from the association with TSS. The preference for DHS far exceeds that seen for other hallmarks of gammaretroviral VIS, including TSS, and may help explain several aspects of gammaretroviral vector biology, including the mechanism of VIS selection, as well as the relative frequency and underlying biology of gammaretroviral vector-mediated genotoxicity.
Liu and colleagues correlate between 167 validated gammaretroviral vector integration sites (VIS) and a deep genome-wide map of DNase-hypersensitive sites (DHS) in the human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line. The study reveals an overwhelming preference for integrations associated with DHS that far exceeds and is independent of the previously known association of VIS with transcription start sites.
The growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with predefined structure is of great importance for both fundamental research and their practical applications. Traditionally, SWCNTs are grown from a metal catalyst with a vapor-liquid-solid mechanism, where the catalyst is in liquid state with fluctuating structures, and it is intrinsically unfavorable for the structure control of SWCNTs. Here we report the heteroepitaxial growth of SWCNTs from a platelet boron nitride nanofiber (BNNF), which is composed of stacked (002) planes and is stable at high temperatures. SWCNTs are found to grow epitaxially from the open (002) edges of the BNNFs, and the diameters of the SWCNTs are multiples of the BN (002) interplanar distance. In situ transmission electron microscopy observations coupled with first principles calculations reveal that the growth of SWCNTs from the BNNFs follows a vapor-solid-solid mechanism. Our work opens opportunities for the control over the structure of SWCNTs by hetero-crystallographic epitaxy.
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In this study, recombinant analgesic-antitumor peptide (rAGAP), a protein consisting of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) linked with a hexa-histidine tag, was used as an antitumor analgesic peptide. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antitumor activity of rAGAP in human colon adenocarcinoma SW480 cells and its potential molecular mechanisms of action. In this study, cell viability and apoptosis of rAGAP-treated SW480 cells was evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. Western blotting was used to investigate the effects of rAGAP on p27, Bcl-2/Bax and PTEN/PI3K/Akt cellular signal transduction. Our results showed that rAGAP not only enhanced apoptosis, but also inhibited the proliferation of SW480 cells. rAGAP upregulates the expression of p27 in SW480 cells and leads to cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. Furthermore, rAGAP significantly increases the production of Bax and PTEN and suppresses the activation of Bcl-2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and phospho-Akt (p-Akt) in SW480 cells. These results suggest that rAGAP may be a potential new anti-colorectal cancer drug.
analgesic-antitumor peptide; colorectal cancer; apoptosis; cell cycle; proliferation
The cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin limits its clinical use in the treatment of a variety of malignancies. Previous studies suggest that doxorubicin-associated cardiotoxicity is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced apoptosis. We therefore investigated if baicalein, a natural antioxidant component of Scutellaria baicalensis, could attenuate ROS generation and cell death induced by doxorubicin. Using an established chick cardiomyocyte model, doxorubicin (10 μM) increased cell death in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. ROS generation was increased in a dose-response fashion and associated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Doxorubicin also augmented DNA fragmentation and increased the phosphorylation of ROS-sensitive pro-apoptotic kinase c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Adjunct treatment of baicalein (25 μM) and doxorubicin for 24 h significantly reduced both ROS generation (587 ± 89 a.u. vs. 932 a.u. ± 121 a.u., P < 0.01) and cell death (30.6 ± 5.1% vs. 46.8 ± 8.3%, P < 0.01). The dissipated mitochondrial potential and increased DNA fragmentation were also ameliorated. Along with the reduction of ROS and apoptosis, baicalein attenuated phosphorylation of JNK induced by doxorubicin (1.7 ± 0.3 vs. 3.0 ± 0.4 fold, P < 0.05). Co-treatment of cardiomyocytes with doxorubicin and JNK inhibitor SP600125 (10 μM; 24 h) reduced JNK phosphorylation and enhanced cell survival, suggesting that the baicalein protection against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity was mediated by JNK activation. Importantly, concurrent baicalein treatment did not interfere with the anti-proliferative effects of doxorubicin in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, baicalein adjunct treatment confers anti-apoptotic protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity without compromising its anti-cancer efficacy.
BAICALEIN; DOXORUBICIN; OXIDATIVE STRESS; APOPTOSIS; JNK; ANTIPROLIFERATIVE EFFECT
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are common genetic material changes that often occur naturally. SNPs can cause amino acid replacements that may lead to severe diseases, such as the well-known sickle-cell anemia. We constructed eight SNP mutants of human brain-type creatine kinase (CKB) based on bioinformatics predictions. The biochemical and biophysical characteristics of these SNP mutants were determined and compared to those of the wild-type creatine kinase to explore the potential molecular mechanisms of possible creatine kinase SNP-induced diseases. While the reactivation of six SNP mutants after heat shock dropped more than 45%, only three of them showed notable increases in ANS fluorescence intensity and decreases in catalytic efficiency. Among them, H26Y and P36T bind substrates as well as the wild-type form does, but the melting temperatures (Tm) dropped below body temperature, while the T59I mutant exhibited decreased catalytic activity that was most likely due to the much reduced binding affinity of this mutant for substrates. These findings indicate that SNPs such as H26Y, P36T and T59I have the potential to induce genetic diseases by different mechanisms.
In the present study, rapid resolution liquid chromatography was coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) to identify the absorbed components and metabolites in rat urine after oral administration of Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD). After oral administration of BYHWD, urine samples were collected and pretreated by solid phase extraction. The mass measurements were accurate within 5 ppm of error for all the protonated molecules, and subsequent fragment ions offered higher quality structural information for interpretation of the fragmentation pathways of various compounds. A total of 50 compounds were detected in rat urine samples within 20 min, including 12 parent compounds and 38 metabolites. Except for three prototype components (Hydroxysafflor yellow A, Paeoniflorin, and Amygdalin), the metabolites identified mainly came from Radix Astragali, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, and Rhizoma Chuanxiong. The results indicated that glucuronidation and sulfation were the major metabolic pathways of isoflavonoids, while glutathione conjugation, glucuronidation and sulfation were the main metabolic pathways of phthalides. No saponin-related metabolites were detected. The present study provided important structural information on the metabolism of BYHWD. Furthermore, the results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of the RRLC/ESI-QTOF-MS approach for rapid and reliable characterization of metabolites from herbal medicines.
Buyang Huanwu decoction; quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry; metabolite profiling; urine
In visceral pain, anxiety and pain occur simultaneously, but the etiogenesis of this effect is not yet well-described. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is known to be associated with the affective response to noxious stimuli. The aim of the current study is to define the role of ACC extracellular signal-regulated (ERK)-1 and-2 (ERK1/2) activity in the development of pain-related anxiety/depression and the nocifensive response in acetic acid (AA)-elicited visceral pain. The model of visceral pain was created by intraperitoneal (ip) injection of AA to female Kunming mice. We found that AA injection resulted in a dynamic, bilateral ERK1/2 activation pattern in the ACC. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation 2 hr after AA injection by subcutaneous (sc) injection of the mitogen-activating extracellular kinase (MEK) inhibitor, SL327, had no effect on the nocifensive responses, but did attenuate anxiety-like behavior, as determined by elevated plus-maze and open-field testing results. These data suggest that AA-induced visceral pain activates expression of ACC ERK1/2, which regulates visceral pain-related anxiety, but not the nocifensive response.
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC); extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK); visceral pain; anxiety-like behavior
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates inflammatory reactions and the pathophysiology of many inflammatory diseases. Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is characterized by an inflammatory reaction, but the potential role of MIF in IVD degeneration has not been determined. Recent studies have shown that MIF and its receptor, CD74, are involved in regulating the migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); Thus, MIF might impair the ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to home to injured tissues. Our previous studies indicated that cartilage endplate (CEP)-derived stem cells (CESCs) as a type of MSCs exist in human degenerate IVDs. Here, we investigate the role of MIF in regulating the migration of CESCs.
Methods and Findings
CESCs were isolated and identified. We have shown that MIF was distributed in human degenerate IVD tissues and was subject to regulation by the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Furthermore, in vitro cell migration assays revealed that nucleus pulposus (NP) cells inhibited the migration of CESCs in a number-dependent manner, and ELISA assays revealed that the amount of MIF in conditioned medium (CM) was significantly increased as a function of increasing cell number. Additionally, recombinant human MIF (r-MIF) inhibited the migration of CESCs in a dose-dependent manner. CESCs migration was restored when an antagonist of MIF, (S, R)-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4, 5-dihydro-5-isoxazole acetic acid methyl ester (ISO-1), was added. Finally, a CD74 activating antibody (CD74Ab) was used to examine the effect of CD74 on CESCs motility and inhibited the migration of CESCs in a dose-dependent manner.
We have identified and characterized a novel regulatory mechanism governing cell migration during IVD degeneration. The results will benefit understanding of another possible mechanism for IVD degeneration, and might provide a new method to repair degenerate IVD by enhancing CESCs migration to degenerated NP tissues to exert their regenerative effects.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can induce oxidative injury via iron interactions (i.e. Fenton chemistry and hydroxyl radical formation). Our prior work suggested that American ginseng berry extract and ginsenoside Re were highly cardioprotective against oxidant stress. To extend this study, we evaluated the protective effect of protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside Rb1 (gRb1) on H2O2-induced oxidative injury in cardiomyocytes and explored the ROS-mediated intracellular signaling mechanism. Cultured embryonic chick cardiomyocytes (4–5 day) were used. Cell death was assessed by propidium iodide and lactate dehydrogenase release. Pretreatment with gRb1 (0.01, 0.1, or 1 μM) for 2 h and concurrent treatment with H2O2 (0.5 mM) for 2 h resulted in a dose-dependent reduction of cell death, 36.6 ± 2.9% (n = 12, p < 0.05), 30.5 ± 5.1% (n = 12, p < 0.05) and 28.6 ± 3.1% (n = 12, p < 0.01) respectively, compared to H2O2-exposed cells (48.2 ± 3.3%, n = 12). This cardioprotective effect of gRb1 was associated with attenuated intracellular ROS generation as measured by 6-carboxy-2′, 7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, preserved the mitochondrial membrane potential as determined using JC-1. In the ESR study, gRb1 exhibited the scavenging DPPH and hydroxyl radical activities. Furthermore, our data showed the increased JNK phosphorylation (p-JNK) in H2O2-exposed cells was suppressed by the pretreatment with gRb 1 (1 μM) (p < 0.01). Co-treatment of gRb1 with a specific inhibitor of JNK SP600125 (10 μM) further reduced the p-JNK and enhanced the cell survival after H2O2 exposure. Collectively, our results suggest that gRb1 conferred cardioprotection that was mediated via attenuating ROS and suppressing ROS-induced JNK activation.
Ginsenoside Rb1; Oxidative stress; Cardiomyocyte; JNK
AIM: To evaluate the effect of a 6 and 12 mo lifestyle modification intervention in nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) in Chengyang District of Qingdao.
METHODS: Participants with NAFLD who had resided in Chengyang District for more than 5 years were enrolled in this study. After the 6 and 12 mo lifestyle modification intervention based on physical activity, nutrition and behavior therapy, parameters such as body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase values, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose, fasting insulin and visceral fat area (VFA), the liver-spleen ratio and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were evaluated and compared between participants with and without the intervention.
RESULTS: Seven hundred and twenty-four participants were assigned to the lifestyle intervention group (LS) and 363 participants were assigned to the control group (CON). After the intervention, body weights in the LS group were significantly decreased compared to those in the CON group at 6 mo (11.59% ± 4.7% vs 0.4% ± 0.2%, P = 0.001) and at 12 mo (12.73% ± 5.6% vs 0.9% ± 0.3%, P = 0.001). Compared with the CON group, BMI was more decreased in the LS group after 6 and 12 mo (P = 0.043 and P = 0.032). Waist circumference was more reduced in the LS group than in CON (P = 0.031 and P = 0.017). After the 6 and 12 mo intervention, ALT decreased significantly in the LS group (P = 0.003 and P = 0.002). After 6 and 12 mo, the metabolic syndrome rate had decreased more in the LS group compared with the CON group (P = 0.026 and P = 0.017). After 12 mo, the HOMA-IR score decreased more obviously in the LS group (P = 0.041); this result also appeared in the VFA after 12 mo in the LS group (P = 0.035).
CONCLUSION: Lifestyle intervention was effective in improving NAFLD in both 6 and 12 mo interventions. This intervention offered a practical approach for treating a large number of NAFLD patients in the Chengyang District of Qingdao.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Lifestyle intervention; Obese
Two new drimenyl cyclohexenone derivatives, named purpurogemutantin (1) and purpurogemutantidin (2), and the known macrophorin A (3) were isolated from a bioactive mutant BD-1-6 obtained by random diethyl sulfate (DES) mutagenesis of a marine-derived Penicillium purpurogenum G59. Structures and absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined by extensive spectroscopic methods, especially 2D NMR and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) analysis. Possible biosynthetic pathways for 1–3 were also proposed and discussed. Compounds 1 and 2 significantly inhibited human cancer K562, HL-60, HeLa, BGC-823 and MCF-7 cells, and compound 3 also inhibited the K562 and HL-60 cells. Both bioassay and chemical analysis (HPLC, LC-ESIMS) demonstrated that the parent strain G59 did not produce 1–3, and that DES-induced mutation(s) in the mutant BD-1-6 activated some silent biosynthetic pathways in the parent strain G59, including one set for 1–3 production.
purpurogemutantin; purpurogemutantidin; sesquiterpene; meroterpenoid; structure determination; antitumor activity; Penicillium purpurogenum; marine-derived fungus; DES mutagenesis
AIM: To compare the endomicroscopic image quality of integrated confocal laser endomicroscopy (iCLE) and sedation efficacy of propofol vs midazolam plus fentanyl (M/F).
METHODS: Consecutive outpatients undergoing iCLE were prospectively recruited and randomized to the propofol group (P group) or M/F group. The patient, performing endoscopist and endoscopic assistant were blinded to the randomization. The quality of endomicroscopic images and anesthetic efficacy outcomes were blindly evaluated after iCLE examination.
RESULTS: There were significantly more good quality endomicroscopic images in the propofol group than in the M/F group (72.75% vs 52.89%, P < 0.001). The diagnostic accuracy for upper gastrointestinal mucosal lesions using confocal laser endomicroscopy favors the P group, although this did not reach statistical significance. Adverse events and patient assessment were not significantly different for M/F vs propofol except for more frequent intraprocedural recall with M/F. Procedure duration and sedation times were significantly longer in the M/F group, while the scores of endoscopist, anesthetist and assistant assessment were all significantly better in the P group.
CONCLUSION: Sedation with propofol might increase the proportion of good quality endomicroscopic images, and may result in improved procedural efficacy and diagnostic accuracy during iCLE examination.
Confocal laser endomicroscopy; Conscious sedation; Randomized trial; Sensitivity and specificity; Image quality
Macrophages are known to play an important role in hepatocyte mediated liver regeneration by secreting inflammatory mediators. However, there is little information available on the role of resident macrophages in oval cell mediated liver regeneration. In the present study we aimed to investigate the role of macrophages in oval cell expansion induced by 2-acetylaminofluorene/partial hepatectomy (2-AAF/PH) in rats.
We depleted macrophages in the liver of 2-AAF/PH treated rats by injecting liposome encapsulated clodronate 48 hours before PH. Regeneration of remnant liver mass, as well as proliferation and differentiation of oval cells were measured. We found that macrophage-depleted rats suffered higher mortality and liver transaminase levels. We also showed that depletion of macrophages yielded a significant decrease of EPCAM and PCK positive oval cells in immunohistochemical stained liver sections 9 days after PH. Meanwhile, oval cell differentiation was also attenuated as a result of macrophage depletion, as large foci of small basophilic hepatocytes were observed by day 9 following hepatectomy in control rats whereas they were almost absent in macrophage depleted rats. Accordingly, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed lower expression of albumin mRNA in macrophage depleted livers. Then we assessed whether macrophage depletion may affect hepatic production of stimulating cytokines for liver regeneration. We showed that macrophage-depletion significantly inhibited hepatic expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, along with a lack of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation during the early period following hepatectomy.
These data indicate that macrophages play an important role in oval cell mediated liver regeneration in the 2-AAF/PH model.
Minimally invasive lumbar fusion techniques have been developed in recent 20 years. The goals of these procedures are to reduce approach-related soft tissue injury, postoperative pain, and disability while allowing the surgery to be conducted in an effective manner. There have been no prospective clinical reports published on the comparison of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion as revision surgery for patients previously treated by open discectomy and decompression or a traditional open approach. A prospective clinical study was performed by evaluating the clinical and radiographic results of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion as an alternative new technique in the revision surgery for patients previously treated by open procedure. 52 patients (28 M, 24 F) with an average age of 55.7 (31–76) were prospectively evaluated. All patients who had previous discectomy (n = 13), hemilaminectomy (n = 16), laminectomy (n = 12) and facetectomy (n = 11) underwent monosegmental and bisegmental minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MiTLIF) (n = 25) or open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (OTLIF) (n = 27) by two experienced surgeons at one hospital, from March 2006 to October 2008 (minimum 12-month follow-up). The following data were compared between the two groups: the clinical and radiographic results, operative time, blood loss, X-ray exposure time, postoperative back pain, and complications. Clinical outcome was assessed using the visual analogue scale and the Oswestry disability index (ODI). The operative time and clinical and radiographic results were basically identical in both groups. Comparing with the OTLIF group, the MiTLIF group had significantly less blood loss and less postoperative back pain at the second day postoperatively. The radiation time was significantly longer in the MiTLIF group. Complications included three cases of small dural tear in the MiTLIF group. There were five cases of dural tear and two cases of superficial wound infection in the OTLIF group. One case of nonunion was observed from each group. Minimally invasive TLIF is a safe and effective procedure for treatment of selected revision patients previously treated by open surgery with some potential advantages. However, this technique needs longer X-ray exposure time.
Comparison; Revision spine surgery; Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion; Failed lumbar surgery
Stimulation of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) increases Na+ transport, a driving force of alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) to keep alveolar spaces free of edema fluid that is beneficial for acute lung injury (ALI). It is well recognized that regulation of ENaC by insulin via PI3K pathway, but the mechanism of this signaling pathway to regulate AFC and ENaC in ALI remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of insulin on AFC in ALI and clarify the pathway in which insulin regulates the expression of ENaC in vitro and in vivo.
A model of ALI (LPS at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg) with non-hyperglycemia was established in Sprague-Dawley rats receiving continuous exogenous insulin by micro-osmotic pumps and wortmannin. The lungs were isolated for measurement of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF), total lung water content(TLW), and AFC after ALI for 8 hours. Alveolar epithelial type II cells were pre-incubated with LY294002, Akt inhibitor and SGK1 inhibitor 30 minutes before insulin treatment for 2 hours. The expressions of α-,β-, and γ-ENaC were detected by immunocytochemistry, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting.
In vivo, insulin decreased TLW, enchanced AFC, increased the expressions of α-,β-, and γ-ENaC and the level of phosphorylated Akt, attenuated lung injury and improved the survival rate in LPS-induced ALI, the effects of which were blocked by wortmannin. Amiloride, a sodium channel inhibitor, significantly reduced insulin-induced increase in AFC. In vitro, insulin increased the expressions of α-,β-, and γ-ENaC as well as the level of phosphorylated Akt but LY294002 and Akt inhibitor significantly prevented insulin-induced increase in the expression of ENaC and the level of phosphorylated Akt respectively. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that levels of Nedd4-2 binding to ENaC were decreased by insulin via PI3K/Akt pathway.
Our study demonstrated that insulin alleviated pulmonary edema and enhanced AFC by increasing the expression of ENaC that dependent upon PI3K/Akt pathway by inhibition of Nedd4-2.
Alveolar fluid clearance; Akt; Epithelial sodium channel; Insulin; Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; Acute lung injury
A new approach to activate silent gene clusters for dormant secondary metabolite production has been developed by introducing gentamicin-resistance to an originally inactive, marine-derived fungal strain Penicillium purpurogenum G59. Upon treatment of the G59 spores with a high concentration of gentamicin in aqueous DMSO, a total of 181 mutants were obtained by single colony isolation. In contrast to the strain G59, the EtOAc extracts of nine mutant cultures showed inhibitory effects on K562 cells, indicating that the nine mutants had acquired capability to produce antitumor metabolites. This was evidenced by TLC and HPLC analysis of EtOAc extracts of G59 and the nine mutants. Further isolation and characterization demonstrated that four antitumor secondary metabolites, janthinone (1), fructigenine A (2), aspterric acid methyl ester (3) and citrinin (4), were newly produced by mutant 5-1-4 compared to the parent strain G59, and which were also not found in the secondary metabolites of other Penicillium purpurogenum strains. However, Compounds 1–4 inhibited the proliferation of K562 cells with inhibition rates of 34.6% (1), 60.8% (2), 31.7% (3) and 67.1% (4) at 100 μg/mL, respectively. The present study demonstrated the effectiveness of a simple, yet practical approach to activate the production of dormant fungal secondary metabolites by introducing acquired resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics, which could be applied to the studies for eliciting dormant metabolic potential of fungi to obtain cryptic secondary metabolites.
Penicillium purpurogenum G59; marine-derived fungus; gentamicin resistance; DMSO; antitumor activity; secondary metabolite production
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly malignant and metastatic. Currently, there is no effective chemotherapy for patients with advanced HCC leading to an urgent need to seek for novel therapeutic options. We aimed to investigate the effect of a garlic derivative, S-allylcysteine (SAC), on the proliferation and metastasis of HCC.
A series of in vitro experiments including MTT, colony-forming, wound-healing, invasion, apoptosis and cell cycle assays were performed to examine the anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic effects of SAC on a metastatic HCC cell line MHCC97L. The therapeutic values of SAC single and combined with cisplatin treatments were examined in an in vivo orthotopic xenograft liver tumor model. The result showed that the proliferation rate and colony-forming abilities of MHCC97L cells were suppressed by SAC together with significant suppression of the expressions of proliferation markers, Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Moreover, SAC hindered the migration and invasion of MHCC97L cells corresponding with up-regulation of E-cadherin and down-regulation of VEGF. Furthermore, SAC significantly induced apoptosis and necrosis of MHCC97L cells through suppressing Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 as well as activating caspase-3 and caspase-9. In addition, SAC could significantly induce the S phase arrest of MHCC97L cells together with down-regulation of cdc25c, cdc2 and cyclin B1. In vivo xenograft liver tumor model demonstrated that SAC single or combined with cisplatin treatment inhibited the progression and metastasis of HCC tumor.
Our data demonstrate the anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic effects of SAC on HCC cells and suggest that SAC may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of HCC patients.
Surgical procedures such as liver resection and liver transplantation are the first-line treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, the high incidence of tumor recurrence and metastasis after liver surgery remains a major problem. Recent studies have shown that hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to tumor growth and metastasis. We aim to investigate the mechanism of FTY720, which was originally applied as an immunomodulator, on suppression of liver tumor metastasis after liver resection and partial hepatic I/R injury.
An orthotopic liver tumor model in Buffalo rat was established using the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line McA-RH7777. Two weeks after orthotopic liver tumor implantation, the rats underwent liver resection for tumor-bearing lobe and partial hepatic I/R injury. FTY720 (2 mg/kg) was administered through the inferior caval vein before and after I/R injury. Blood samples were taken at days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 for detection of circulating EPCs (CD133+CD34+). Our results showed that intrahepatic and lung metastases were significantly inhibited together with less tumor angiogenesis by FTY720 treatment. The number of circulating EPCs was also significantly decreased by FTY720 treatment from day 7 to day 28. Hepatic gene expressions of CXCL10, VEGF, CXCR3, CXCR4 induced by hepatic I/R injury were down-regulated in the treatment group.
FTY720 suppressed liver tumor metastasis after liver resection marred by hepatic I/R injury in a rat liver tumor model by attenuating hepatic I/R injury and reducing circulating EPCs.
Developing an effective vaccine against HIV infection remains an urgent goal. We used a DNA prime/fowlpox virus boost regimen to immunize Chinese rhesus macaques. The animals were challenged intramuscularly with pathogenic molecularly cloned SHIV-KB9. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of vaccines were investigated by measuring IFN-γ levels, monitoring HIV-specific binding antibodies, examining viral load, and analyzing CD4/CD8 ratio. Results show that, upon challenge, the vaccine group can induce a strong immune response in the body, represented by increased expression of IFN-γ, slow and steady elevated antibody production, reduced peak value of acute viral load, and increase in the average CD4/CD8 ratio. The current research suggests that rapid reaction speed, appropriate response strength, and long-lasting immune response time may be key protection factors for AIDS vaccine. The present study contributes significantly to AIDS vaccine and preclinical research.