PICH and BLM limit histone association with anaphase centromeric DNA threads and promote their resolution
The helicase proteins PICH and BLM localize to ultrafine DNA threads between separating sister chromatids. It now appears they cooperate to remove histones from these anaphase DNA bridges, to allow their stretching and unravelling without breakage.
Centromeres nucleate the formation of kinetochores and are vital for chromosome segregation during mitosis. The SNF2 family helicase PICH (Plk1-interacting checkpoint helicase) and the BLM (the Bloom's syndrome protein) helicase decorate ultrafine histone-negative DNA threads that link the segregating sister centromeres during anaphase. The functions of PICH and BLM at these threads are not understood, however. Here, we show that PICH binds to BLM and enables BLM localization to anaphase centromeric threads. PICH- or BLM-RNAi cells fail to resolve these threads in anaphase. The fragmented threads form centromeric-chromatin-containing micronuclei in daughter cells. Anaphase threads in PICH- and BLM-RNAi cells contain histones and centromere markers. Recombinant purified PICH has nucleosome remodelling activities in vitro. We propose that PICH and BLM unravel centromeric chromatin and keep anaphase DNA threads mostly free of nucleosomes, thus allowing these threads to span long distances between rapidly segregating centromeres without breakage and providing a spatiotemporal window for their resolution.
centromere; chromatin remodelling; DNA repair; mitosis
Numerosity perception is a process involving several stages of visual processing. This study investigated whether distinct mechanisms exist in numerosity adaptation under different awareness conditions to characterize how numerosity perception occurs at each stage. The status of awareness was controlled by masking conditions, in which monoptic and dichoptic masking were proposed to influence different levels of processing. Numerosity adaptation showed significant aftereffects when the participants were aware (monoptic masking) and unaware (dichoptic masking) of adaptors. The interocular transfer for numerosity adaptation was distinct under the different awareness conditions. Adaptation was primarily binocular when participants were aware of stimuli and was purely monocular when participants were unaware of adaptors. Moreover, numerosity adaptation was significantly reduced when the adaptor dots were clustered into chunks with awareness, whereas clustering had no effect on unaware adaptation. These results show that distinct mechanisms exist in numerosity processing under different awareness conditions. It is suggested that awareness is crucial to numerosity cognition. With awareness, grouping (by clustering) influences numerosity coding through altered object representations, which involves higher-level cognitive processing.
Intestinal duplication is an uncommon congenital condition in young adults. A 25-year-old man complained of chronic, intermittent abdominal pain for 3 years following previous appendectomy for the treatment of suspected appendicitis. Abdominal discomfort and pain, suggestive of intestinal obstruction, recurred after operation. A tubular mass was palpable in the right lower quadrant. Computed tomography enterography scan identified suspicious intestinal intussusception, while Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy revealed a cluster of strip-like abnormal radioactivity in the right lower quadrant. On exploratory laparotomy, a tubular-shaped ileal duplication cyst was found arising from the mesenteric margin of the native ileal segment located 15 cm proximal to the ileocecal valve. Ileectomy was performed along with the removal of the duplication disease, and the end-to-end anastomosis was done to restore the gastrointestinal tract continuity. Pathological examination showed ileal duplication with ectopic gastric mucosa. The patient experienced an eventless postoperative recovery and remained asymptomatic within 2 years of postoperative follow-up.
Ileal duplication cyst; Adulthood; Computed tomography enterography; Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy
Recent clinical trials raised concerns regarding the cardiovascular toxicity of selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors. Many active dietary factors are reported to suppress carcinogenesis by targeting COX-2. A major question was accordingly raised: why has the lifelong use of phytochemicals that likely inhibit COX-2 presumably not been associated with adverse cardiovascular side effects. To answer this question, we selected a library of dietary-derived phytochemicals and evaluated their potential cardiovascular toxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Our data indicated that the possibility of cardiovascular toxicity of these dietary phytochemicals was low. Further mechanistic studies revealed that the actions of these phytochemicals were similar to aspirin in that they mainly inhibited COX-1 rather than COX-2, especially at low doses.
“For-cause” inspections are initiated during the review of bioequivalence (BE) data submitted to Abbreviated New Drug Applications when possible scientific misconduct and study irregularities are discovered. We investigated the common reasons for initiating “for-cause” inspections related to the clinical, analytical, and dissolution study sites associated with BE studies. This information may help the pharmaceutical industry to understand the root causes of compliance failures in BE studies and help them to improve compliance with FDA’s regulations, thereby facilitating more rapid approval of safe and effective generic drugs.
bioequivalence; FDA; inspection
Demonstration of equivalence in aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD; e.g., by comparing cascade impactor (CI) profiles) constitutes one of key in vitro tests for supporting bioequivalence between test (T) and reference (R) orally inhaled drug products (OIDPs). A chi-square ratio statistic (CSRS) was previously proposed for equivalence testing of CI profiles. However, it was reported that the CSRS could not consistently discriminate between equivalent and inequivalent CI profiles. The objective of the overall project was to develop a robust and sensitive methodology for assessing equivalence of APSD profiles of T and R OIDPs. We propose here a modified version of the CSRS (mCSRS) and evaluated systematically its behavior when T and R CI profiles were identical. Different scenarios comprising CI profiles with different number of deposition sites and shapes were generated by Monte-Carlo simulation. For each scenario, the mCSRS was applied to 20,000 independent sets of 30 T and 30 R CI profiles that were identical. Different metrics (including mean and median) of the distribution of 900 mCSRSs (30 T × 30 R) were then evaluated for their suitability as a test statistic (i.e., independent of the number of sites and shape of the CI profile) for APSD equivalence testing. The median of the distribution of 900 mCSRSs (MmCSRS) was one regardless of the number of sites and shape of the CI profile. Hence, the MmCSRS is a robust metric for CI profile equivalence testing when T and R CI profiles are identical and potentially useful for APSD equivalence testing.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1208/s12248-012-9410-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
aerodynamic particle size distribution; bioequivalence; cascade impactor; chi-square ratio statistic; orally inhaled drug products
The essential function of eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) in translation initiation has been well established; however, the role of 4E-BP1 in normal cell cycle progression is coming to attention. Here, we revealed the role of 4E-BP1 on mitotic regulation and chromosomal DNA dynamics during mitosis. First, we have observed the co-localization of the phosphorylated 4E-BP1 at T37/46 with Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) at the centrosomes during. Depression of 4E-BP1 by small interfering RNA in HepG2 or HeLa cells resulted in an increased outcome of polyploidy and aberrant mitosis, including chromosomal DNA misaligned and multi-polar spindles or multiple centrosomes. We observed that 4E-BP1 interacted with PLK1 directly in vitro and in vivo in mitotic cells, and the C-terminal aa 77–118 of 4E-BP1 mediates its interaction with PLK1. PLK1 can phosphorylate 4E-BP1 in vitro. Furthermore, the depletion of 4E-BP1 sensitized HepG2 and HeLa cells to the microtubule disruption agent paclitaxel. These results demonstrate that 4E-BP1, beyond its role in translation regulation, can function as a regulator of mitosis via interacting with PLK1, and possibly plays a role in genomic stability maintaining.
4E-BP1; PLK1; cell cycle; centrosome; genomic stability; spindle
Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a member of the IL-10 cytokine family and plays critical roles in inflammation, immune surveillance, and tissue homeostasis. However, whether IL-22 regulates the growth of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), and participates in the pathogenesis of endometriosis remain unclear. In this study, we found that the expression of IL-22 and it receptors (IL-22R1 and IL-10R2) in eutopic endometrium and ectopic lesion of women with endometriosis was higher than that from healthy control. Recombinant human IL-22 (rhIL-22) stimulated the proliferation of ESCs in a dosage-dependent manner. On the contrary, anti-human IL-22 neutralizing antibody inhibited the proliferation of ESCs in vitro. The stimulatory effect of IL-22 on the proliferation of ESCs could be reversed by inhibitor of STAT5, ERK1/2 or AKT signal pathway. However, blocking STAT3, JNK or P38 signal pathway had no these effects. By Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and flow cytometry assay, we demonstrated the rhIL-22 not only stimulate the secretion of CCL2 and IL-8, but also significantly up-regulate the expression of IL-8 receptor CXCR1 on ESCs. Meanwhile, STAT5, ERK1/2 and or AKT signal inhibitors could abrogate the increase of CCL2, IL-8 and CXCR1 levels induced by rhIL-22. However, rhIL-22 had not similar influence on CCL2 receptor CCR2. Our current results suggested that the higher level of IL-22 and it receptors in eutopic endometrium may stimulate the expression of CCL2, IL-8/CXCR1, and further promote the growth of ESCs possibly through activating STAT5, MAPK/ERK1/2 and or AKT signal pathways, which may be involved in the occurrence and development of endometriosis.
IL-22; endometrial stromal cells; proliferation; CCL2; IL-8; endometriosis
Nonmetastatic gene 23-H1 (NME1, also known as nm23-H1) is a wide-spectrum tumor metastasis suppressor gene that plays an important role in suppressing the proliferation, adhesion and invasion of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs). The present study is undertaken to explore the mechanism by which NME1 in ESCs from endometriosis modulates the angiogenesis and herein participates in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. The expression of NME1 in the primary ESCs from normal endometrium without endometriosis was higher than that from eutopic endometrium and ectopic lesion with endometriosis. Silencing NME1 stimulated the secretion of angiogenic factors interleukin-8 (IL-8) and vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of the eutopic ESCs from women with endometriosis, and these effects could be abrogated by MAPK/ERK1/2 or AKT inhibitor. In addition, the supernatant of NME1-silenced ESCs increased the expression of angiogenesis-relative molecules CD62E and CD105, and promoted angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Anti-human IL-8 or VEGF neutralizing antibody reversed the effect on angiogenesis of HUVECs induced by NME1-silenced ESCs. Our current results suggest that the abnormal lower expression of NME1 in ESCs secrete more IL-8 and VEGF through activation of MAPK/ERK1/2 and AKT signal pathways, up-regulate the level of CD62E and CD105, and finally lead to numerous angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells in the endometriotic milieu, which is beneficial to the origin and development of endometriosis.
NME1; ESCs; HUVECs; angiogenesis; endometriosis
The S. cerevisiae Rpd3 large (Rpd3L) and small (Rpd3S) histone deacetylase (HDAC) complexes are prototypes for understanding transcriptional repression in eukaryotes . The current view is that they function by deacetylating chromatin, thereby limiting accessibility of the transcriptional machinery to the underlying DNA. However, one study showed that an Rpd3 catalytic mutant retains substantial repression capability when targeted to a promoter as a LexA fusion protein . We investigated the HDAC-independent properties of the Rpd3 complexes biochemically and discovered a chaperone function, which promotes histone deposition onto DNA in vitro, and a novel activity, which prevents nucleosome eviction but not remodeling mediated by the ATP-dependent RSC complex. These HDAC-independent activities inhibit Pol II transcription on a nucleosomal template in vitro. Importantly, the functions of the endogenous Rpd3 complexes can be recapitulated with recombinant Rpd3 core complex comprising Sin3, Rpd3 and Ume1, but not with the individual subunits. To test the hypothesis that Rpd3 contributes to chromatin stabilization in vivo, we measured histone H3 density genomewide and found it was reduced at promoters in an Rpd3 deletion mutant but partially restored in a catalytic mutant. Importantly, the effects on H3 density are most apparent on RSC-enriched genes . Our data suggest that the Rpd3 core complex could contribute to repression via a novel nucleosome stabilization function.
It is generally accepted that high osmotic pressure (HOP) of lacrimal fluid is the core mechanism causing ocular inflammation and injury. However, the association between HOP and the regulation of cell inflammatory response and apoptotic pathways remains unclear. In the present study, we used HOP to interfere with in vitro cultured rabbit corneal epithelial cells, and found that HOP increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rabbit corneal epithelial cells, and increased ROS in turn induced the activation of JNK inflammatory signaling pathway, which further promoted the expression of pro-inflammatory factor NF-κβ and induced the generation of inflammatory factor IL-1β and TNF-α. In addition, HOP-induced ROS in rabbit corneal epithelial cells regulated the CD95/CD95L-mediated cell apoptotic signaling pathway by activating JNK inflammatory signaling pathway. These findings may serve as new theoretical basis and a new way of thinking about the treatment of ocular diseases, especially dry eye.
Flotillin-2 (FLOT2) has been implicated in several signaling pathways in tumor cells. Our study aimed to investigate the expression pattern and clinicopathological significance of FLOT2 in patients with breast cancer.
The expression level of FLOT2 in normal breast epithelial cells, breast cancer cell lines, and four breast cancer biopsies paired with adjacent noncancerous tissues were quantified using real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. FLOT2 protein expression was analyzed in 171 archived paraffin-embedded breast cancer samples using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of FLOT2 expression.
FLOT2 was significantly upregulated in breast cancer cell lines and tissue samples compared with normal cells and adjacent noncancerous breast tissues, respectively. IHC analysis revealed high expression levels of FLOT2 in 82 of 171 (48.0%) breast cancer specimens. Statistical analysis revealed that FLOT2 expression was significantly correlated with clinical stage (P < 0.001), T classification (P < 0.001), M classification (P < 0.001), histological differentiation (P = 0.005) and ErbB2 expression (P = 0.003). Patients with higher levels of FLOT2 expression had a shorter overall survival duration than patients with lower FLOT2 expression levels. Multivariate analysis suggested that FLOT2 expression was an independent prognostic marker for survival in patients with breast cancer.
The current results demonstrated that high FLOT2 protein expression was associated with poor outcomes in patients with breast cancer. FLOT2 could be used as a prognostic biomarker for breast cancer progression.
FLOT2; Breast cancer; Prognosis; Biomarker
Src-associated in mitosis (Sam68; 68 kDa) has been implicated in the oncogenesis and progression of several human cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic significance of Sam68 expression and its subcellular localization in colorectal cancer (CRC).
Sam68 expression was examined in CRC cell lines, nine matched CRC tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. Sam68 protein expression and localization were determined in 224 paraffin-embedded archived CRC samples using immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to evaluate the clinicopathologic significance.
Sam68 was upregulated in CRC cell lines and CRC, as compared with normal tissues; high Sam68 expression was detected in 120/224 (53.6%) of the CRC tissues. High Sam68 expression correlated significantly with poor differentiation (P = 0.033), advanced T stage (P < 0.001), N stage (P = 0.023) and distant metastasis (P = 0.033). Sam68 nuclear localization correlated significantly with poor differentiation (P = 0.002) and T stage (P =0.021). Patients with high Sam68 expression or Sam68 nuclear localization had poorer overall survival than patients with low Sam68 expression or Sam68 cytoplasmic localization. Patients with high Sam68 expression had a higher risk of recurrence than those with low Sam68 expression.
Overexpression of Sam68 correlated highly with cancer progression and poor differentiation in CRC. High Sam68 expression and Sam68 nuclear localization were associated with poorer overall survival.
Sam68; Biomarker; Prognosis; Colorectal cancer
The association between aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) C-344T gene polymorphism and ischemic stroke remains controversial and ambiguous. To better explain the association between CYP11B2 polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk, a meta-analysis was performed.
Based on comprehensive searches of Medline, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI and CBM databases, we identified and abstracted outcome data from all articles to evaluate the association between CYP11B2 polymorphism and ischemic stroke. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were performed in all genetic models. Fixed or random effects model was separately used depending on the heterogeneity between studies. Publication bias was tested by Begg's funnel plot and Egger's regression test.
A total of 12 studies including 3,620 ischemic stroke cases and 4,090 controls were identified. There was no statistical evidence of association between CYP11B2 C-344T polymorphism and ischemic stroke in all genetic models (allelic model: OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.95–1.49; additive model: OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 0.91–2.27; dominant model: OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 0.89–1.89; and recessive model: OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.96–1.60). On subgroup analysis by ethnicity, similarly results were found in both Asians and non-Asians. For Asians, the combined ORs and 95% CIs were (allelic model: OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.87–1.32; additive model: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.77–1.71; dominant model: OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.92–1.38; and recessive model: OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.84–1.40). For none-Asians, the combined ORs and 95% CIs were (allelic model: OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 0.90–2.76; additive model: OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 0.79–7.05; dominant model: OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 0.77–4.19; and recessive model: OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 0.96–3.36).
The present meta-analysis suggested that CYP11B2 C-344T polymorphism was unlikely contribute to ischemic stroke susceptibility.
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains are capable of suppressing soilborne pathogens through the secretion of an array of lipopeptides and root colonization, and biofilm formation ability is considered a prerequisite for efficient root colonization. In this study, we report that one of the lipopeptide compounds (bacillomycin D) produced by the rhizosphere strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 not only plays a vital role in the antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum but also affects the expression of the genes involved in biofilm formation. When the bacillomycin D and fengycin synthesis pathways were individually disrupted, mutant SQR9M1, which was deficient in the production of bacillomycin D, only showed minor antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum, but another mutant, SQR9M2, which was deficient in production of fengycin, showed antagonistic activity equivalent to that of the wild-type strain of B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9. The results from in vitro, root in situ, and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR studies demonstrated that bacillomycin D contributes to the establishment of biofilms. Interestingly, the addition of bacillomycin D could significantly increase the expression levels of kinC gene, but KinC activation is not triggered by leaking of potassium. These findings suggest that bacillomycin D contributes not only to biocontrol activity but also to biofilm formation in strain B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9.
Production of ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic hydrolysates is an alternative to the traditional production of ethanol in utilizing biomass. However, the conversion efficiency of xylose to xylitol is restricted by glucose repression, causing a low xylitol titer. To this end, we cloned genes CDT-1 (encoding a cellodextrin transporter) and gh1-1 (encoding an intracellular β-glucosidase) from Neurospora crassa and XYL1 (encoding a xylose reductase that converts xylose into xylitol) from Scheffersomyces stipitis into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, enabling simultaneous production of ethanol and xylitol from a mixture of cellobiose and xylose (main components of lignocellulosic hydrolysates). We further optimized the expression levels of CDT-1 and XYL1 by manipulating their promoters and copy-numbers, and constructed an engineered S. cerevisiae strain (carrying one copy of PGK1p-CDT1 and two copies of TDH3p-XYL1), which showed an 85.7% increase in xylitol production from the mixture of cellobiose and xylose than that from the mixture of glucose and xylose. Thus, we achieved a balanced co-fermentation of cellobiose (0.165 g/L/h) and xylose (0.162 g/L/h) at similar rates to co-produce ethanol (0.36 g/g) and xylitol (1.00 g/g).
A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for rapid detection of various Staphylococcus strains and associated antibiotic resistance determinant had been developed and evaluated in this study. Six primers, including outer primers, inner primers and loop primers, were specially designed for recognizing eight distinct sequences on three targets: 16SrRNA, femA and mecA.. Forty-one reference strains, including various species of gram-negative and -positive isolates, were included in this study to evaluate and optimize LAMP assays. The optimal reaction condition was found to be 65 °C for 45 min, with detection limits at 100 fg DNA/tube and 10 CFU/reaction for 16S rRNA, 100 fg DNA/tube and 10 CFU/reaction for femA, 1 pg DNA/tube and 100 CFU/reaction for mecA, respectively. Application of LAMP assays were performed on 118 various types of Staphylococcus isolates, the detection rate of LAMP assays for the 16SrRNA, femA and mecA was 100% (118/118), 98.5% (64/65) and 94.3% (66/70), and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 100%, 98.1% and 92.3% respectively; with a 100% positive predictive value (PPV) for all three targets. In conclusion, LAMP assays were demonstrated to be useful and powerful tools for rapid detection of various Staphylococcus strains, and undoubtedly, the rapidness, technical simplicity, and cost-effectiveness of LAMP assays will demonstrate broad application for bacteriological detection of food-borne Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRS) isolates.
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification; Rapid detection; Food-borne Staphylococci; MRSA; MRCNS
The flotillin family member flotillin-1 (FLOT1) encodes a caveolae-associated, integral membrane protein that belongs to lipid raft family and involves in vesicular trafficking and signal transduction. However, the role of FLOT1 in development and progression of cancer remains largely unknown. The present study was aimed to investigate the clinical and prognostic significance of FLOT1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Real-time PCR and western blot analyses were applied to examine FLOT1 expression in fourteen HCC cell lines and one normal hepatic cell line, ten pairs of primary HCC and matched adjacent noncancerous liver tissues from the same patient. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to examine FLOT1 protein expression in paraffin-embedded tissues from 196 HCC patients. Statistical analyses were applied to evaluate the diagnostic value and associations of FLOT1 expression with clinical parameters.
FLOT1 expression was evidently up-regulated in HCC tissues compared with that in the matched adjacent noncancerous liver tissues. In the 196 cases of tested HCC samples, FLOT1 protein level was positively correlated with Tumor size (P = 0.025), clinical stage (P<0.002), CLIP stage (P<0.001), vascular invasion (P<0.001), relapse (P<0.001), and serum AFP levels (P = 0.025). Patients with higher FLOT1 expression had shorter overall survival time, whereas those with lower FLOT1 expression had longer survival time.
Our study demonstrated FLOT1 is associated with aggressive characteristics of HCC, and suggested the possibility of its use as a prognostic marker in patients with HCC.
Much remains unknown of the microscopic origin of superconductivity in atomically disordered systems of amorphous alloys or in crystals riddled with defects. A manifestation of this conundrum is envisaged in the highly defective superconductor of KxFe2−ySe2. How can superconductivity survive under such crude conditions that call for strong electron localization? Here, we show that the Fe sublattice is locally distorted and accommodates two kinds of Fe valence environments giving rise to a bimodal bond-distribution, with short and long Fe bonds. The bimodal bonds are present even as the system becomes superconducting in the presence of antiferromagnetism, with the weight continuously shifting from the short to the long with increasing K content. Such a hybrid state is most likely found in cuprates as well while our results point to the importance of the local atomic symmetry by which exchange interactions between local moments materialize.
To achieve the goal of United Nations of elimination of new HIV infections, a program of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) was launched in Guangdong province. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the PMTCT program.
The retrospective cross-section analysis was conducted using the data of case reported cards of HIV positive mothers and their infants from 2007 to 2010 in Guangdong province, and 108 pairs of eligible subjects were obtained. We described the data and compared the rates of MTCT by various PMTCT interventions respectively.
The overall rate of HIV MTCT was 13.89% (15) among 108 pairs of HIV positive mothers and their infants; 60.19% (65) of the mothers ever received ARVs, 80.56% (87) of infants born to HIV positive mothers ever received ARVs, but 16.67% (18) of the mothers and infants neither received ARVs. Among all the mothers and infants, who both received ARVs, received triple ARVs, mother received ARVs during pregnancy, and both received ARVs and formula feeding showed the lower rates of HIV MTCT, and the rates were 8.06%, 2.50%, 5.77%, and 6.67% respectively. In infants born to HIV positive mother, who received mixed feeding had a higher HIV MTCT up to 60.00%. Delivery mode might not relative to HIV MTCT.
The interventions of PMTCT program in Guangdong could effectively reduce the rate of HIV MTCT, but the effectiveness of the PMTCT program were heavily cut down by the lower availability of the PMTCT interventions.
HIV/AIDS; Mother to children transmission (MTCT); Anti-retroviral (ARV); Effectiveness of PMTCT
Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between the GNB3 C825T polymorphism and hypertension or stroke. The results of these studies were inconsistent; therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to clarify these discrepancies.
We systematically searched the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI, and CBM databases, and manually searched reference lists of relevant papers, meeting abstracts, and relevant journals. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for dominant, recessive, and allelic models. A fixed or random effects model was separately adopted depending on study heterogeneity. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to detect study heterogeneity and examine result stability, respectively. Publication bias was tested using funnel plots, the Egger's regression test, and Begg's test.
We screened 66 studies regarding hypertension and eight concerning stroke. A combined analysis showed that only the allelic model found a marginal association with hypertension (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01–1.13) and female gender (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.99–1.24). However, no comparison models found an association with stroke (allelic model: OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.94–1.32; dominant model: OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.92–1.48; and recessive model: OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.97–1.14). Sensitivity analysis suggested that all models did not yield a relationship to hypertension or stroke among Asians. Besides, there was a lack of statistical association with hypertension in Caucasians, which maybe due to a small sample size. When we restricted the included studies to normal populations according to the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, no association was found.
There was no evidence indicating that the 825T allele or TT genotype was associated with hypertension or stroke in Asians or hypertension in Caucasians. However, further studies regarding Africans and other ethnicities are needed to identify further correlations.