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1.  Evaluation of the combined use of adiponectin and C-reactive protein levels as biomarkers for predicting the deterioration in glycaemia after a median of 5.4 years 
Diabetologia  2011;54(10):2552-2560.
Hypoadiponectinaemia and raised C-reactive protein (CRP) level are obesity-related biomarkers associated with glucose dysregulation. We evaluated the combined use of these two biomarkers in predicting the deterioration of glycaemia in a prospective study after a median of 5.4 years.
In total 1,288 non-diabetic participants from the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study-2, with high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) and total adiponectin levels measured were included. OGTT was performed in all participants. Two hundred and six participants had deterioration of glycaemia at follow-up, whereas 1,082 participants did not.
Baseline age, hsCRP and adiponectin levels were significant independent predictors of the deterioration of glycaemia in a Cox regression analysis after adjusting for baseline age, sex, BMI, hypertension, triacylglycerols, 2 h post-OGTT glucose and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (all p < 0.01). The introduction of hsCRP or adiponectin level to a regression model including the other biomarker improved the prediction of glycaemic progression significantly in all participants, especially in women (all p < 0.01). The combined inclusion of the two biomarkers resulted in a modest improvement in model discrimination, compared with the inclusion of either one alone. Among participants with impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance (IFG/IGT) at baseline, hsCRP and adiponectin levels were not predictive of progression or improvement of glycaemic status.
Adiponectin and hsCRP levels are independent factors in predicting the deterioration of glycaemia, supporting the role of adiposity-related inflammation in the development of type 2 diabetes. Their combined use as predictive biomarkers is especially useful in women, but not in participants with IFG/IGT.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-011-2227-0) contains peer-reviewed but unedited supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
PMCID: PMC3168746  PMID: 21727999
Adiponectin; Biomarker; C-reactive protein; Glycaemia
2.  Skeletal muscle-specific overproduction of constitutively activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) induces insulin resistance in mice 
Diabetologia  2012;55(10):2769-2778.
Although skeletal muscle insulin resistance has been associated with activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), whether increased JNK activity causes insulin resistance in this organ is not clear. In this study we examined the metabolic consequences of isolated JNK phosphorylation in muscle tissue.
Plasmids containing genes encoding a wild-type JNK1 (WT-JNK) or a JNK1/JNKK2 fusion protein (rendering JNK constitutively active; CA-Jnk) were electroporated into one tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of C57Bl/6 mice, with the contralateral TA injected with an empty vector (CON) to serve as a within-animal control.
Overproduction of WT-JNK resulted in a modest (~25%) increase in phosphorylation (Thr183/Tyr185) of JNK, but no differences were observed in Ser307 phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) or total IRS-1 protein, nor in insulin-stimulated glucose clearance into the TA muscle when comparing WT-JNK with CON. By contrast, overexpression of CA-Jnk, which markedly increased the phosphorylation of CA-JNK, also increased serine phosphorylation of IRS-1, markedly decreased total IRS-1 protein, and decreased insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (Tyr1361) and phosphorylation of Akt at (Ser473 and Thr308) compared with CON. Moreover, overexpression of CA-Jnk decreased insulin-stimulated glucose clearance into the TA muscle compared with CON and these effects were observed without changes in intramuscular lipid species.
Constitutive activation of JNK in skeletal muscle impairs insulin signalling at the level of IRS-1 and Akt, a process which results in the disruption of normal glucose clearance into the muscle.
PMCID: PMC3590919  PMID: 22832498
Inflammation; Insulin resistance; JNK; Obesity; Serine threonine kinases; Skeletal muscle
3.  Association of genetic variation in FTO with risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes with data from 96,551 East and South Asians 
Diabetologia  2011;55(4):981-995.
FTO harbours the strongest known obesity-susceptibility locus in Europeans. While there is growing evidence for a role for FTO in obesity risk in Asians, its association with type 2 diabetes, independently of BMI, remains inconsistent. To test whether there is an association of the FTO locus with obesity and type 2 diabetes, we conducted a meta-analysis of 32 populations including 96,551 East and South Asians.
All studies published on the association between FTO-rs9939609 (or proxy [r2 > 0.98]) and BMI, obesity or type 2 diabetes in East or South Asians were invited. Each study group analysed their data according to a standardised analysis plan. Association with type 2 diabetes was also adjusted for BMI. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to pool all effect sizes.
The FTO-rs9939609 minor allele increased risk of obesity by 1.25-fold/allele (p = 9.0 × 10−19), overweight by 1.13-fold/allele (p = 1.0 × 10−11) and type 2 diabetes by 1.15-fold/allele (p = 5.5 × 10−8). The association with type 2 diabetes was attenuated after adjustment for BMI (OR 1.10-fold/allele, p = 6.6 × 10−5). The FTO-rs9939609 minor allele increased BMI by 0.26 kg/m2 per allele (p = 2.8 × 10−17), WHR by 0.003/allele (p = 1.2 × 10−6), and body fat percentage by 0.31%/allele (p = 0.0005). Associations were similar using dominant models. While the minor allele is less common in East Asians (12–20%) than South Asians (30–33%), the effect of FTO variation on obesity-related traits and type 2 diabetes was similar in the two populations.
FTO is associated with increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes, with effect sizes similar in East and South Asians and similar to those observed in Europeans. Furthermore, FTO is also associated with type 2 diabetes independently of BMI.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-011-2370-7) contains peer-reviewed but unedited supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
PMCID: PMC3296006  PMID: 22109280
Asians; FTO; Meta-analysis; Obesity; Type 2 diabetes
6.  Effect of continued feeding of cows' milk on asymptomatic infants with milk protein sensitive enteropathy. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1988;63(8):911-915.
The clinical response and the histological changes in the mucosa of the small bowel in response to continued feeding with cows' milk protein were assessed over a period of 2-6 weeks in 24 infants who had shown histological changes without immediate clinical symptoms after challenge with a diet containing cows' milk protein. Twenty of the 24 infants (83%) thrived well on cows' milk protein. Jejunal biopsy specimens taken six to eight weeks after the initial biopsy showed histological improvement in all 20 infants compared with biopsy specimens taken soon after the challenge, which had shown mucosal damage. The mucosa had returned to normal in 12, was mildly abnormal in seven, and moderately abnormal in one. Corresponding improvements in the activities of mucosal enzymes were seen. In four of the 24 infants (17%) symptoms developed between three and six weeks. Histological examination of the jejunal biopsy specimens showed that mucosal damage had progressed in two, and remained the same in two; moreover, the disaccharidase activities remained depressed. The present study shows that most infants with enteropathy caused by sensitivity to cows' milk protein but without clinical symptoms develop tolerance to the protein and the mucosa returns to normal despite continued feeding with cows' milk protein.
PMCID: PMC1778986  PMID: 3415326
7.  Neonatal tetanus treated with high dosage diazepam. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1978;53(9):737-739.
The combination of continuous intravenous infusion of diazepam (20--40 mg/kg per day) and intragastric phenobarbitone (10--15 mg/kg per day in 4 divided doses) was used to treat 19 cases of neonatal tetanus. Mortality was 2/19 (11%). This regimen was considered to have reduced the mortality and the need for artificial ventilation. The main side effects encountered were severe drowsiness, coma, and apnoeic episodes which were reversible when the level of diazepam was reduced.
PMCID: PMC1545108  PMID: 363064
8.  Bleeding peptic ulcer. 
British Medical Journal  1965;2(5465):781-784.
PMCID: PMC1846213  PMID: 5889795

Results 1-8 (8)