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1.  Cholesterol Removal from Whole Egg by Crosslinked β-Cyclodextrin 
This study was carried out to optimize cholesterol removal in whole egg using crosslinked β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and to recycle the β-CD. Various factors for optimizing conditions were concentration of the β-CD, mixing temperature, mixing time, mixing speed and centrifugal speed. In the result of this study, the optimum conditions of cholesterol removal were 25% crosslinked β-CD, 40°C mixing temperature, 30 min mixing time, 1,200 rpm mixing speed and 2,810×g centrifugal speed. The recycling was repeated five times. The cholesterol removal was 92.76% when treated with the optimum conditions. After determining the optimum conditions, the recyclable yields of the crosslinked β-CD ranged from 86.66% to 87.60% in the recycling and the percentage of cholesterol removal was over 80% until third recycling. However, the cholesterol removal efficiency was decreased when the number of repeated recycling was increased. Based on the result of this study, it was concluded that the crosslinked β-CD was efficient for cholesterol removal in whole egg, and recycling is possible for only limited repeating times due to the interaction of the β-CD and egg protein.
PMCID: PMC4093521  PMID: 25049985
Cholesterol Removal; Crosslinked β-Cyclodextrin; Whole Egg
2.  Properties of Milk Supplemented with Peanut Sprout Extract Microcapsules during Storage 
This study was carried out to investigate the physicochemical and sensory properties of milk with added powdered peanut sprout extract microcapsules (PPSEM) during the storage at 4°C for 16 d. The size of PPSEM varies from 3 to 10 μm as observed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pH values of all samples ranged from 6.8 to 6.6 during the storage. Release of resveratrol for 0.5 and 1% PPSEM addition was about 0.89 μl/ml and TBARS value found to lower during storage of 16 d. The a* and b* color values of high concentrations (1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0%) of PPSEM-added milk samples were significantly increased during the storage (p<0.05). The sensory test revealed that the overall acceptability of PPSEM (0.5 and 1%) added milk sample were quite similar to that of control. Based on the data, it was concluded that the low concentrations of the microcapsules (0.5 and 1.0%, w/v) could be suitable to produce the microcapsule-supplemented milk without significant adverse effects on the physicochemical and sensory properties of milk.
PMCID: PMC4093231  PMID: 25049901
Milk; Microencapsulation; Peanut Sprout Extract; Physicochemical Properties; Sensory Properties
3.  Balloon-Expandable Stent Placement in Patients with Immediate Reocclusion after Initial Successful Thrombolysis of Acute middle Cerebral Arterial Obstruction 
Interventional Neuroradiology  2012;18(1):80-88.
We present the results of our approach for treating 12 consecutive cases of acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke by performing balloon-expandable stent (BES) placement after immediate reocclusion due to the underlying stenosis after intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT).
We retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes of 12 patients with acute MCA stroke who underwent recanalization by BES placement in an underlying stenosis after IAT. The time to treatment, urokinase dose, duration of the procedure, recanalization rates and symptomatic hemorrhage were analyzed. Clinical outcome measures were assessed on admission and at discharge (the National Institutes of Health stroke scores [NIHSS]) as well as three months after treatment (modified Rankin scales [mRS]).
The median NIHSS score on admission was 8.6. Four patients received IV rtPA. The median time from symptom onset to IAT was 236 minutes and the median duration of IAT was 62 minutes. The median dose of urokinase was 140,000 units. Initial recanalization after stent deployment (thrombolysis in cerebral ischemia attack grade of II or III) was achieved in all patients. Two patients died in the hospital due to aspiration pneumonia during medical management. In two patients, in-stent reocclusion occurred within 48 hours after stent deployment. At discharge, the median NIHSS score in ten patients (including the patients with reobstruction) was 2.4. The three-month outcome was excellent (mRS, 0-1) in eight patients.
In this study, BES deployment was safe and effective in patients with an immediately reoccluded MCA after successful IAT.
PMCID: PMC3312094  PMID: 22440605
stroke, stent, atherosclerosis, thrombolysis, middle cerebral artery
4.  Endovascular Management in Patients with Acute Basilar Artery Obstruction: Low-dose Intra-Arterial Urokinase and Mechanical Clot Disruption 
Interventional Neuroradiology  2011;17(4):435-441.
Mechanical clot disruption for the treatment of acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO) is known to provide a benefit. We aimed to determine the safety, recanalization rate and time-to-flow restoration of mechanical clot disruption and low dose urokinase (UK) infusions for the treatment of patients with acute BAO.
Between June 2006 and June 2010, 21 patients with acute BAO underwent endovascular treatment that included angioplasty or stent placement. The time to treatment, duration of the procedure, dose of urokinase (UK), recanalization rates and symptomatic hemorrhages were analyzed. Clinical outcome measures were assessed at admission and at the time of discharge using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score and at three months after treatment using the modified Rankin Score (mRS).
On admission, the median NIHSS score was 13.2. Median time from symptom onset to arrival at hospital was 356 minutes, and median time from symptom onset to intraarterial thrombolysis (IAT) was 49 minutes. We used the following interventional treatment regimens: Intra-arterial (IA) UK and a minimal mechanical procedure (n=14), IA UK with angioplasty (n=1), IA UK with angioplasty and stent placement (n=3) and IA UK with HyperForm (n=3). The recanalization (thrombolysis in cerebral ischemia grade II or III) rate was 90.5% (19/21). There was symptomatic hemorrhage in one patient (4.8%). The median NIHSS score at discharge was 6.3. The three-month outcome was favorable (mRS: 0-2) for 14 patients (66.7%) and poor (mRS: 3-6) for seven patients (33.3%). The overall mortality at three months was 14.3% (three patients died).
Low-dose IAT with mechanical clot disruption is a safe and effective treatment for treatment for acute BAO.
PMCID: PMC3296503  PMID: 22192547
acute stroke, endovascular treatment, thrombolysis
5.  Association of genetic variation in FTO with risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes with data from 96,551 East and South Asians 
Diabetologia  2011;55(4):981-995.
FTO harbours the strongest known obesity-susceptibility locus in Europeans. While there is growing evidence for a role for FTO in obesity risk in Asians, its association with type 2 diabetes, independently of BMI, remains inconsistent. To test whether there is an association of the FTO locus with obesity and type 2 diabetes, we conducted a meta-analysis of 32 populations including 96,551 East and South Asians.
All studies published on the association between FTO-rs9939609 (or proxy [r2 > 0.98]) and BMI, obesity or type 2 diabetes in East or South Asians were invited. Each study group analysed their data according to a standardised analysis plan. Association with type 2 diabetes was also adjusted for BMI. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to pool all effect sizes.
The FTO-rs9939609 minor allele increased risk of obesity by 1.25-fold/allele (p = 9.0 × 10−19), overweight by 1.13-fold/allele (p = 1.0 × 10−11) and type 2 diabetes by 1.15-fold/allele (p = 5.5 × 10−8). The association with type 2 diabetes was attenuated after adjustment for BMI (OR 1.10-fold/allele, p = 6.6 × 10−5). The FTO-rs9939609 minor allele increased BMI by 0.26 kg/m2 per allele (p = 2.8 × 10−17), WHR by 0.003/allele (p = 1.2 × 10−6), and body fat percentage by 0.31%/allele (p = 0.0005). Associations were similar using dominant models. While the minor allele is less common in East Asians (12–20%) than South Asians (30–33%), the effect of FTO variation on obesity-related traits and type 2 diabetes was similar in the two populations.
FTO is associated with increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes, with effect sizes similar in East and South Asians and similar to those observed in Europeans. Furthermore, FTO is also associated with type 2 diabetes independently of BMI.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-011-2370-7) contains peer-reviewed but unedited supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
PMCID: PMC3296006  PMID: 22109280
Asians; FTO; Meta-analysis; Obesity; Type 2 diabetes
6.  Duodenal Polypectomy is a Rare Cause of Acute Pancreatitis 
Endoscopic duodenal polypectomy is a routine procedure particularly useful for obtaining histological diagnosis but it is not without serious complications. This is a case report of severe necrotising pancreatitis after duodenal polypectomy. We suggest that experienced endoscopists should carry out polypectomies and that clear guidelines for the management of duodenal polyps are required. Patients undergoing endoscopic duodenal polypectomies should be placed at the beginning of the endoscopy list and observed for at least 4 h.
PMCID: PMC2758437  PMID: 19622253
Acute pancreatitis; Duodenal polypectomy
7.  Technetium-99m MDP bone scintigraphic findings of hypercalcemia in accelerated phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2000;15(5):598-600.
Hypercalcemia in accelerated phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is very rare. Its pathogenesis is considered humoral hypercalcemia of malignancies mediated by parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). In severe hypercalcemia, calcifications in kidneys, skin, vessels, heart, and stomach may occur. Our two cases were admitted because of severe hypercalcemia in accelerated phase of CML. On Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scintigraphies, a marked tracer accumulation was seen in the lung, heart, stomach and kidney. We report increased tracer accumulation of multiple organs on Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy in two rare hypercalcemic patients with CML.
PMCID: PMC3054685  PMID: 11069001
8.  CT findings of extramedullary hematopoiesis in the thorax, liver and kidneys, in a patient with idiopathic myelofibrosis. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2000;15(4):460-462.
Extramedullary hematopoiesis occurring in multiple organs such as thorax, liver and both kidneys is an unusual condition. We report the CT findings of this condition with review of literature. The lesions consisted of intrathoracic paravertebral masses, focal intrahepatic mass and masses of both pelvocalyceal systems on CT scans.
PMCID: PMC3054659  PMID: 10983698

Results 1-8 (8)