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1.  Replication of type 1 human immunodeficiency viruses containing linker substitution mutations in the -201 to -130 region of the long terminal repeat. 
Journal of Virology  1993;67(3):1658-1662.
In previous transfection analyses using the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene system, we determined that linker substitution (LS) mutations between -201 and -130 (relative to the transcription start site) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat (LTR) caused moderate decreases in LTR transcriptional activity in a T-cell line (S. L. Zeichner, J. Y. H. Kim, and J. C. Alwine, J. Virol. 65:2436-2444, 1991). In order to confirm the significance of this region in the context of viral replication, we constructed several of these LS mutations (-201 to -184, -183 to -166, -165 to -148, and -148 to -130) in proviruses and prepared viral stocks by cocultivation of transfected RD cells with CEMx174 cells. In addition, two mutations between -93 and -76 and between -75 and -58 were utilized, since they affect the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B)- and Sp1-binding sites and were expected to diminish viral replication. Our results suggest that while transfection analyses offer an adequate approximation of the effects of the LS mutations, the analysis of viral replication using a mutant viral stock presents a more accurate picture, which is sometimes at variance with the transfection results. Three mutants (-201/-184 NXS, -165/-148 NXS, and -147/-130 NXS) had effects on viral replication that were much more severe than the effects predicted from their performance in transfection analyses, and the effects of two LS mutations (-201/-184 NXS and -183/-166 NXS) were not predicted by their effects in transfection. In addition, we observed cell type-specific permissiveness to replication of some mutant viruses. In the cell types tested, the LS mutations indicated an apparent requirement not only for the intact NF-kappa B and SP1-binding sites but also for several regions between -201 and -130 not previously associated with viral infectivity.
PMCID: PMC237538  PMID: 8437235
2.  Acute appendicitis: relationships between CT-determined severities and serum white blood cell counts and C-reactive protein levels 
The British Journal of Radiology  2011;84(1008):1115-1120.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the severity of appendicitis as depicted on CT and blood inflammatory markers of serum white blood cell (WBC) count and C-reactive protein (CRP).
CT images in 128 patients (109 surgically proven and 19 with clinically excluded appendicitis) were retrospectively reviewed. Two radiologists by consensus evaluated and scored (using a 0, 1 or 2 point scale) severities based on CT-determined appendiceal diameters, appendiceal wall changes, caecal changes, periappendiceal inflammatory stranding and phlegmon or abscess formation. We investigated whether CT findings were significantly related to elevated WBC counts or CRP levels and performed the correlations of WBC counts and CRP levels with CT severity scores. Patients were also subjectively classified using four grades from normal (Grade I) to perforated appendicitis (Grade IV) on the basis of CT findings to evaluate differences in WBC counts and CRP levels between grades.
Only appendiceal wall changes and the phlegmon or abscess formation were related to elevated WBC counts and CRP levels, respectively (p<0.05). CT severity scores were found to be more strongly correlated with CRP levels (r = 0.669) than with WBC counts (r = 0.222). On the basis of CT grades, the WBC counts in Grade I were significantly lower than in other grades (p<0.001), whereas CRP levels in Grade IV were significantly higher than in other grades (p<0.001).
CRP levels were found to correlate with CT-determined acute appendicitis severity and could be a useful predictor for perforated appendicitis, whereas WBC counts might be useful to detect early acute appendicitis.
PMCID: PMC3473821  PMID: 21123307
3.  Screening of Carnation Cultivars for Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4S):639-642.
A total of 33 carnation cultivars cultured in Korea were screened for resistance to the southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Carnations were tested by either inoculating with 5,000 eggs or by transplanting into a mixture of bedding medium and soil infested with an average of 435 second-stage juveniles/300 cm³ soil. Cultivars, Desio, Castelaro, Kappa, Rara, Izu Pink, Target, and Antalia were highly resistant to M. incognita. Twelve cultivars were moderately resistant, and the remaining 14 cultivars were susceptible. These results were similar to those obtained when the cultivars were subjected to field populations of the condition on a carnation farm.
PMCID: PMC2619746  PMID: 19277188
carnation; Dianthus caryophyllus; Korea; Meloidogyne incognita; resistance; root-knot nematode
4.  Nucleolar protein GLTSCR2 stabilizes p53 in response to ribosomal stresses 
Cell Death and Differentiation  2012;19(10):1613-1622.
p53 is a key regulator of cell growth and death by controlling cell cycle progression and apoptosis under conditions of stress such as DNA damage or oncogenic stimulation. As these processes are critical for cell function and inhibition of tumor development, p53 regulatory pathways are strictly monitored in cells. Recently, it was recognized that nucleolar proteins, including nucleophosmin/B23, ribosomal protein L11, and alternate reading frame (ARF), form the nucleolus-ARF-murine double minute 2 (MDM2) axis in p53 regulatory pathways, which increases p53 stability by suppressing the activity of MDM2. In this work, we show that nucleolar protein glioma tumor-suppressor candidate region gene 2 (GLTSCR2) translocates to the nucleoplasm under ribosomal stress, where it interacts with and stabilizes p53 and inhibits cell cycle progression without the involvement of the major upstream p53 regulator, ARF. Furthermore, ectopic expression of GLTSCR2 significantly suppressed growth of cancer cells in a xenograft animal model via p53-dependent pathway. Our data identify GLTSCR2 as a new member of the nucleolus–nucleoplasmic axis for p53 regulation. ARF-independent direct regulation of p53 by GLTSCR2 may be a key mechanism and therapeutic target for cell death or growth inhibition when nucleolus-ARF-p53 pathways are inactivated by genetic or epigenetic modifications of ARF, which are the second most common types of genetic change observed in human cancers.
PMCID: PMC3438492  PMID: 22522597
GLTSCR2; p53; tumor suppressor; nucleolus
5.  Treatment results of post-operative radiotherapy in patients with salivary duct carcinoma of the major salivary glands 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1018):e947-e952.
Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is a rare malignancy of high-grade pathological type. We evaluated clinical outcomes and prognostic factors in 35 patients with SDC treated post-operatively with adjuvant radiation.
We retrospectively assessed overall survival, locoregional control and disease-free survival in 35 patients with SDC of the major salivary glands who underwent surgery and were subsequently treated with radiotherapy. The evaluated prognostic factors included gender, age, symptom duration, tumour site, tumour size, TNM classification, and the following pathological features: perineural invasion, lymphovascular invasion, extraparenchymal invasion and resection-margin status.
Of the 35 patients, 30 (85.7%) were male. Median age at initial diagnosis was 62 years (range 38–75 years). The parotid gland was the main site affected in 22 patients (62.9%). 18 patients (51.5%) had pathological T3/T4 tumours, and 26 (74.3%) showed pathological nodal involvement. Actuarial 5-year locoregional control, disease-free survival and overall survival rates were 63.3%, 47.4% and 55.1%, respectively. The cause-specific death rate was 31.4% (n=11). Pathological nodal involvement was correlated with distant metastasis (p=0.011). Lymphovascular invasion was significantly prognostic for distant metastasis-free survival (p=0.049), locoregional control (p=0.012) and overall survival (p=0.003) in a Cox proportional hazard model, whereas perineural invasion was only significantly prognostic for overall survival (p=0.005).
Surgery and post-operative radiotherapy were effective for locoregional control. Lymphovascular invasion and perineural invasion were significant prognostic factors in patients with SDC.
PMCID: PMC3474035  PMID: 22573301
8.  Increased intraocular pressure on the first postoperative day following resident-performed cataract surgery 
Eye  2011;25(7):929-936.
The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation after resident-performed cataract surgery and to determine variables, which influence postoperative day 1 (POD1) IOP.
In all, 1111 consecutive cataract surgeries performed only by training residents between 1 July 2001 and 30 June 2006 were included. Elevated IOP was defined as ≥23 mm Hg. Surgeries were classified according to the presence of POD1-IOP elevation. Fisher's exact test and Student t-test were used to compare both groups. Multivariate analyses using generalized estimating equations were performed to investigate predictor variables associated with POD1-IOP elevation.
The average preoperative IOP was 16.0±3.2 mm Hg and the average POD1-IOP was 19.3±7.1 mm Hg, reflecting a significant increase in IOP (P<0.001, paired t-test). The incidence of POD1-IOP elevation ≥23 mm Hg was 22.0% (244/1111). Presence of glaucoma and ocular hypertension, higher preoperative IOP, and longer axial length were frequently encountered variables in the POD1-IOP elevation group (all P<0.05). Using a multivariate analysis, presence of glaucoma (P=0.004, OR=2.38; 95% confidence interval (95% CI)=1.31–4.30), presence of ocular hypertension (P=0.003, OR=6.09; 95% CI=1.81–20.47), higher preoperative IOP (P<0.001, OR=3.73; 95% CI=1.92–7.25), and longer axial length (P=0.01, OR=1.15; 95% CI=1.03–1.29) were significant predictive factors for POD1-IOP elevation.
IOP elevation on the first postoperative day following resident-performed cataract surgery occurred frequently (22.0%). Increased early postoperative IOP was associated with presence of glaucoma and ocular hypertension, higher preoperative IOP, and longer axial length.
PMCID: PMC3178167  PMID: 21527959
intraocular pressure; postoperative day 1; cataract surgery; resident-performed cataract surgery
9.  Soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 secreted by human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell reduces amyloid-β plaques 
Cell Death and Differentiation  2011;19(4):680-691.
Presently, co-culture of human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) with BV2 microglia under amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) exposure induced a reduction of Aβ42 in the medium as well as an overexpression of the Aβ-degrading enzyme neprilysin (NEP) in microglia. Cytokine array examinations of co-cultured media revealed elevated release of soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) from hUCB-MSCs. Administration of human recombinant ICAM-1 in BV2 cells and wild-type mice brains induced NEP expression in time- and dose-dependent manners. In co-culturing with BV2 cells under Aβ42 exposure, knockdown of ICAM-1 expression on hUCB-MSCs by small interfering RNA (siRNA) abolished the induction of NEP in BV2 cells as well as reduction of added Aβ42 in the co-cultured media. By contrast, siRNA-mediated inhibition of the sICAM-1 receptor, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), on BV2 cells reduced NEP expression by ICAM-1 exposure. When hUCB-MSCs were transplanted into the hippocampus of a 10-month-old transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease for 10, 20, or 40 days, NEP expression was increased in the mice brains. Moreover, Aβ42 plaques in the hippocampus and other regions were decreased by active migration of hUCB-MSCs toward Aβ deposits. These data suggest that hUCB-MSC-derived sICAM-1 decreases Aβ plaques by inducing NEP expression in microglia through the sICAM-1/LFA-1 signaling pathway.
PMCID: PMC3307982  PMID: 22015609
hUCB-MSC; amyloid-β; Alzheimer's disease; intracellular adhesion molecule-1; paracrine and neprilysin
10.  Intimal angiosarcoma of the descending aorta as an unusual cause of severe upper extremity hypertension 
Heart  2006;92(3):306.
PMCID: PMC1860795  PMID: 16501190
Images in cardiology
11.  Miliary tuberculosis: a comparison of CT findings in HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative patients 
The British Journal of Radiology  2010;83(987):206-211.
The aim of this study was to determine the differences in CT findings of miliary tuberculosis in patients with and without HIV infection. Two radiologists reviewed retrospectively the CT findings of 15 HIV-seropositive and 14 HIV-seronegative patients with miliary tuberculosis. The decisions on the findings were reached by consensus. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ2 test, Mann–Whitney U-test and Fisher's exact test. All of the HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients had small nodules and micronodules distributed randomly throughout both lungs. HIV-seropositive patients had a higher prevalence of interlobular septal thickening (p = 0.017), necrotic lymph nodes (p = 0.005) and extrathoracic involvement (p = 0.040). The seropositive patients had a lower prevalence of large nodules (p = 0.031). In conclusion, recognition of the differences in the radiological findings between HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients may help in the establishment of an earlier diagnosis of immune status in patients with miliary tuberculosis.
PMCID: PMC3473551  PMID: 20197435
12.  Overexpression of stathmin1 in the diffuse type of gastric cancer and its roles in proliferation and migration of gastric cancer cells 
British Journal of Cancer  2010;102(4):710-718.
Stathmin1 is a microtubule-regulating protein that has an important role in the assembly and disassembly of the mitotic spindle. The roles of stathmin1 in carcinogenesis of various cancers, including prostate and breast cancer, have been explored. However, its expression and roles in gastric cancer have not yet been described.
Stathmin1 expression in paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 226 patients was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Roles of stathmin1 were studied using a specific small interfering RNA (siRNA).
The expression of stathmin1 was positively correlated with lymph node metastasis, TNM stages and vascular invasion, and negatively with recurrence-free survival, in the diffuse type of gastric cancer. The median recurrence-free survival in patients with a negative and positive expression of stathmin1 was 17.0 and 7.0 months, respectively (P=0.009). When the expression of stathmin1 was knocked down using siRNA, the proliferation, migration and invasion of poorly differentiated gastric cancer cells in vitro were significantly inhibited. Moreover, stathmin1 siRNA transfection significantly slowed the growth of xenografts in nude mice.
These results suggest that stathmin1 can be a good prognostic factor for recurrence-free survival rate and is a therapeutic target in diffuse-type gastric cancer.
PMCID: PMC2837578  PMID: 20087351
stathmin1; gastric cancer; proliferation; migration
13.  Change in activity of the sympathetic nervous system in diet-induced obese rats. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2000;15(6):635-640.
We investigated the change in activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in high-sucrose diet (HSD)-induced obese rats compared with controls. Power spectral analyses of R-R interval variability were performed to obtain the low frequency (LF, 0.04-0.699 Hz) and high frequency (HF, 0.7-3.0 Hz) powers. The percents of fat mass to body weight (%F/BW) and fat to muscle ratios (F/M) were significantly increased in HSD-fed rats. Plasma glucose, leptin, and triglyceride concentrations in rats fed with HSD were significantly increased. LF in normalized units (LFn), which represents both sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, was significantly increased whereas HF in normalized unit (HFn), which represents parasympathetic activity, was significantly decreased in HSD-fed rats. LF/HF, which represents sympathetic activity, was significantly increased in HSD-fed rats and was correlated with leptin (r=0.549, p<0.023), %F/BW (r=0.513, p<0.035), F/M (r=0.536, p<0.038), and triglyceride (r=0.497, p<0.042). When adjusted for leptin concentrations, however, LF/HF of HSD-fed rats was significantly decreased. In conclusion, HSD-induced obese rats showed increased LF/HF, which was significantly decreased by adjustment for leptin concentrations. We suggest that stimulating effect of leptin on SNS is reduced, which might play a role in induction of obesity by HSD.
PMCID: PMC3054699  PMID: 11194189
14.  Inhibition of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice by nicotinamide treatment for 5 weeks at the early age. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  1997;12(4):293-297.
To know the effects of nicotinamide (NCT) treatment for 5 weeks at the early age on insulitis and development of diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, this experiment was performed. Ten ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) and 15 female NOD mice at 4 weeks of age were used. Mice were assigned to ICR and NOD groups, and NOD mice were randomly divided to control and NCT-treated groups. NCT was administered to mice orally as a solution and in a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight a day from the age of 4 to 8 weeks. Diabetes onset was 18 weeks of age in control group, and 22 weeks of age in NCT-treated group. Cumulative incidences of diabetes at 25 weeks of age in control and NCT-treated NOD mice were 63 and 29%, respectively. Insulitis occurred in all NOD mice. Incidence of insulitis in total islets was decreased by NCT treatment in diabetic NOD mice, but intensity of insulitis was not improved by NCT treatment. Blood glucose level was increased markedly, and plasma insulin level was decreased by diabetes development in NOD mice. Plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol levels were increased in diabetic mice than in non-diabetic mice. In conclusion, these results suggest that NCT treatment for 5 weeks at the early age in NOD mice inhibits development of diabetes and insulitis in diabetic NOD mice.
PMCID: PMC3054206  PMID: 9288627
15.  Tackling HIV in resource poor countries 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2003;327(7423):1104-1106.
Focusing on prevention of HIV will not prevent the deaths of the millions already infected. The international community must adopt a strategy that links treatment and prevention
PMCID: PMC261754  PMID: 14604937
16.  Hepatitis B and C virus prevalence in a rural area of South Korea: the role of acupuncture 
British Journal of Cancer  2002;87(3):314-318.
A cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of and the risk factors for hepatitis C and B viruses among 700 adults above the age of 40 years in a rural area of South Korea. Seropositivity for hepatitis C virus antibody (11.0%, 95% confidence interval: 8.7–13.6) was higher than that for hepatitis B surface antigen (4.4%, 95% confidence interval: 3.0–6.2). Anti-hepatitis C virus seropositivity was associated with a history of repeated acupuncture (odds ratio=2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.1–4.0), and blood transfusion (odds ratio=5.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.6–19.3) before 1992 when hepatitis C virus screening in blood donors became mandatory. Hepatitis C virus 2a was the most prevalent genotype, followed by 1b. Hepatitis C virus risk attributable to acupuncture was 38% (9% for men and 55% for women). Safer acupuncture practice has become a priority for hepatitis C virus prevention in South Korea.
British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 314–318. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600436
© 2002 Cancer Research UK
PMCID: PMC2364222  PMID: 12177801
hepatitis C virus; hepatitis B virus; acupuncture; blood transfusion; South Korea
17.  Effect of high fat diet on insulin resistance: dietary fat versus visceral fat mass. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2001;16(4):386-390.
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether chronic high-fat diet (HF) induces insulin resistance independently of obesity. We randomly divided 40 rats into two groups and fed them either with a HF or with a high-carbohydrate diet (HC) for 8 weeks. Whole body glucose disappearance rate (Rd) was measured using a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Firstly, we defined whether insulin resistance by HF was associated with obesity. Plasma glucose and triglyceride concentrations were significantly increased in HF. Rd was decreased (10.6+/-0.2 vs. 9.1+/-0.2 mg/kg/min in HC and HF, respectively) and the hepatic glucose output rate (HGO) was increased in HF (2.2+/-0.3 vs. 4.5+/-0.2 mg/kg/min in HC and HF, respectively). Rd was significantly correlated with %VF (p<0.01). These results implicate that visceral obesity is associated with insulin resistance induced by HF. In addition, to define whether dietary fat induces insulin resistance regardless of visceral obesity, we compared Rd and HGO between groups 1) after matching %VF in both groups and 2) using an ANCOVA to adjust for %VF. After matching %VF, Rd in HF was significantly decreased by 14% (p<0.001) and HGO was significantly increased by 110% (p<0.001). Furthermore, statistical analyses using an ANCOVA also showed Rd for HF was significantly decreased even after adjusting %VF. In conclusion, we suggest that dietary fat per se could induce insulin resistance in rats fed with chronic HF independently of obesity.
PMCID: PMC3054769  PMID: 11511781
18.  DNA ploidy patterns in gastric adenocarcinoma. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2000;15(2):159-166.
To assess the value of DNA ploidy, flow cytometric analysis was performed on unfixed fresh materials obtained from 86 patients with gastric cancer who underwent stomach resection. We evaluated the DNA content of gastric carcinoma cells from four different sites and compared it with Ki-67 proliferating activity, and other pathologic parameters. The incidence of aneuploid and diploid was similar (48.8% vs. 51.1%). Early gastric carcinoma showed a higher rate of the diploid pattern (75%) compared to that of advanced gastric carcinoma (47.3%). DNA diploidy was noted increasingly in diffuse-type tumors according to Lauren, in signet ring cell type tumor according to WHO classification and in poorly differentiated tumors (p<0.05). Well and moderately differentiated carcinomas revealed the aneuploid pattern more frequently than poorly differentiated tumors. The aneuploidy was associated with high S phase fraction and high proliferative index. Aneuploidy was noted in the mucosa adjacent to the tumor (26%), in the close normal-looking mucosa (7%) and in the remote normal-looking mucosa (3%). This result suggest the possible role of field cancerization in the development of gastric adenocarcinoma.
PMCID: PMC3054610  PMID: 10803691
19.  Effects of BCG, lymphotoxin and bee venom on insulitis and development of IDDM in non-obese diabetic mice. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  1999;14(6):648-652.
To investigate whether BCG, lymphtoxin (LT) or bee venom (BV) can prevent insulitis and development of diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, we measured the degree of insulitis and incidence of diabetes in 24 ICR and 96 female NOD mice. NOD mice were randomly assigned to control, BCG-, LT-, and BV-treated groups. The BCG was given once at 6 weeks of age, and LT was given in 3 weekly doses from the age of 4 to 10 weeks. The BV was injected in 2 weekly doses from the age of 4 to 10 weeks. Diabetes started in control group at 18 weeks of age, in BCG group at 24 weeks of age, and in LT- or BV-treated group at 23 weeks of age. Cumulative incidences of diabetes at 25 weeks of age in control, BCG-, LT-, and BV-treated NOD mice are 58, 17, 25, and 21%, respectively. Incidence and severity of insulitis were reduced by BCG, LT and BV treatment. In conclusion, these results suggest that BCG, LT or BV treatment in NOD mice at early age inhibit insulitis, onset and cumulative incidence of diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3054436  PMID: 10642943
20.  Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 in seven Korean families: CAG trinucleotide expansion and clinical characteristics. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  1999;14(6):659-664.
Studies on spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) have been hampered by a lack of disease markers. Clinical and pathological heterogeneity also made the classification unreliable. Linkage studies established that there are multiple subtypes of SCA. Five types are found to have unstable CAG expansion; the diagnosis can be established by molecular genetic study. Therefore, we systemically screened degenerative ataxia patients for these five SCA types, and identified eight patients with SCA2 (seven from six families and one sporadic case). This paper presents the clinical information on the seven patients, whose clinical information was available in detail. CAG repeat expansion in the patients ranged from 38 to 47 (normal control, 19 to 27). The onset ages ranged from 16 to 41 with 27.1 years as the mean, which correlated inversely with repeat lengths. All patients presented dysarthria and gait ataxia. Upper limb dysmetria or dysdiadochokinesia appeared later but progressed, causing severe disability. Slow saccade (4 patients in 7) and decreased DTR (4 in 7) were common. MRIs showed severe atrophy of the brainstem and cerebellum in all patients. We conclude that SCA2 is the most frequent type in Korea and carries rather pure cerebellar syndrome, slow saccade, and hyporeflexia.
PMCID: PMC3054439  PMID: 10642945
21.  Surgical removal of visceral fat decreases plasma free fatty acid and increases insulin sensitivity on liver and peripheral tissue in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese rats. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  1999;14(5):539-545.
In order to evaluate the role of visceral and subcutaneous fat tissue in insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism, we measured the fasting levels of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) and insulin, glucose disappearance rate (Rd), and hepatic glucose production rate (HGP) after surgical removal of visceral (VF) or subcutaneous (SF) fat tissue in monosodium glutamate-obese (MSG-Ob) rats. Monosodium glutamate obesity was induced in rats by neonatal injection of MSG. Surgery to remove fat was done at 15 weeks of age. The experiments were done four weeks after the surgery. MSG-Ob rats showed increased levels of FFA, insulin, and HGP and decreased Rd compared to normal rats. In the VF group, the FFA level and HGP were decreased to normal values, Rd was partially normalized, but the level of insulin did not change significantly compared to MSG-Ob. In the SF group, FFA and Rd were partially normalized, but HGP was not suppressed significantly compared to MSG-Ob. These results suggest that visceral fat affects the insulin sensitivity of liver and FFA concentration more than subcutaneous fat; however, no significant difference was shown on whole body insulin sensitivity and fasting insulin concentration.
PMCID: PMC3054455  PMID: 10576150
22.  Button battery impaction in nasal cavity. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  1999;14(2):210-212.
A button battery inserted in the nose of children is an unusual foreign body which is capable of causing extensive tissue damage, resulting from electrical and chemical burns. We report a case of button battery in the nose of a 4-year-old boy presenting with unilateral nasal discharge, and necrosis in the septum and turbinate of the right nasal cavity. Mercury level in concentrated urine was within normal limit. Microscopic examination disclosed extensive liquefaction necrosis with calcification and fibrosis. Numerous dark brown to black granules were noted in the elastic and collagen fibers and interstitium. Dark-field examination of the section revealed brilliantly refractile granules. Polarized microscopy failed to show the granules. Most brown pigments reacted to prussian blue. Tissue mercury analysis yielded a mercury content of 8.01 ppm. We report this case to emphasize the hazards of button battery impaction and to draw attention to the significance of the problem through histopathologic examination.
PMCID: PMC3054366  PMID: 10331570
23.  Clinicopathologic study of basaloid squamous carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  1998;13(3):269-274.
The clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of nine cases of basaloid squamous carcinoma (BSC) of the upper aerodigestive tract are reported, along with the results of an in situ hybridization for human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA. The cases were selected through a review of 237 head and neck carcinomas, and were located in the supraglottic larynx (5), hypopharynx (2), and the base of tongue (2). The patients were 7 males and 2 females with the mean age of 62. BSCs were histologically characterized by lobules and nests of basaloid cells with scanty cytoplasm, comedonecrosis and adenoid features, and by concomitant presence of squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, all BSCs showed positivity for high molecular weight cytokeratin (HMW CK) with heterogeneous or diffuse staining pattern, but lacked reactivity for neuroendocrine markers and bcl-2 oncoprotein. No HPV DNA was detected in BSCs. This study reaffirms that BSC is a rare carcinoma with a peculiar topographic distribution and distinct pathologic features.
PMCID: PMC3054508  PMID: 9681804
24.  Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary gland--a clinico-pathologic and immunohistochemical study for c-erbB-2 oncoprotein. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  1997;12(6):499-504.
Twenty-five cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands were studied with respect to clinico-pathologic features, prognostic factors, and c-erbB-2 oncoprotein expression. Fourteen cases were located in parotid glands, 2 in submandibular glands and 9 in minor salivary glands. Fourteen patients were confirmed to have local recurrences, 6 patients manifested systemic metastases, and 10 patients died of the disease. They were histologically graded as I in 5, II in 12 and III in 8 cases respectively, and the histologic grade was significantly correlated with disease-free interval and overall survival of the patients. c-erbB-2 overexpression was observed in 9 cases (36%), with a trend to be associated with the higher grade, but was not evaluated as a significant survival-related factor in this series. Larger size and major gland location of the tumors were correlated with more frequent regional lymph node metastases. The present study showed that c-erbB-2 overexpression was not uncommonly present in mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands, especially of higher grade, and the histologic grade was the most important and handy prognostic indicator.
PMCID: PMC3054320  PMID: 9443087
25.  Congenital quadrigeminal lipoma with osteocartilagenous element. A case report. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  1996;11(6):537-539.
A case of congenital tectal lipoma found incidentally at an autopsy is reported. This female fetus was a product of pregnancy termination at 24 weeks of gestational age after sonographic detection of hydrocephalus. Autopsy revealed a small mass in the periaqueductal portion. The mass was composed of adipose tissue, cartilage, and mature bony tissue with hematopoiesis. The resultant diagnosis was tectal lipoma with osteocartilagenous element. It is uncertain whether the lesion represents a teratoma or hamartoma or mesenchymal metaplasia. The osteocartilagenous component suggests the latter.
PMCID: PMC3054263  PMID: 9008105

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