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1.  ZnFe2O4-TiO2 Nanoparticles within Mesoporous MCM-41 
The Scientific World Journal  2012;2012:480527.
A novel nanocomposite ZnFe2O4-TiO2/MCM-41 (ZTM) was synthesized by a sol-gel method and characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), N2 adsorption-desorption, Raman spectroscopy, and ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry. The results confirmed the incorporation of ZnFe2O4-TiO2 nanoparticles inside the pores of the mesoporous MCM-41 host without destroying its integrity. ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles can inhibit the transformation of anatase into rutile phase of TiO2. Incorporation of ZnFe2O4-TiO2 within MCM-41 avoided the agglomeration of nanoparticles and reduced the band gap energy of TiO2 to enhance its visible light photocatalytic activity. UV-vis absorption edges of ZTM nanocomposites redshifted with the increase of Zn/Ti molar ratio. The nanocomposite approach could be a potential choice for enhancing the photoactivity of TiO2, indicating an interesting application in the photodegradation and photoelectric fields.
doi:10.1100/2012/480527
PMCID: PMC3419409  PMID: 22919325
2.  Effects of high-volume hemofiltration on alveolar-arterial oxygen exchange in patients with refractory septic shock 
BACKGROUND:
High-volume hemofiltration (HVHF) is technically possible in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) patients complicated with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Continuous HVHF is expected to become a beneficial adjunct therapy for SAP complicated with MODS. In this study, we aimed to explore the effects of fluid resuscitation and HVHF on alveolar-arterial oxygen exchange, the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score in patients with refractory septic shock.
METHODS:
A total of 89 refractory septic shock patients, who were admitted to ICU, the Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong University from August 2006 to December 2009, were enrolled in this retrospective study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: fluid resuscitation (group A, n=41), and fluid resuscitation plus high-volume hemofiltration (group B, n=48). The levels of O2 content of central venous blood (CcvO2), arterial oxygen content (CaO2), alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference P(A-a)DO2, ratio of arterial oxygen pressure/alveolar oxygen pressure (PaO2/PaO2), respiratory index (RI) and oxygenation index (OI) were determined. The oxygen exchange levels of the two groups were examined based on the arterial blood gas analysis at different times (0, 24, 72 hours and 7 days of treatment) in the two groups. The APACHE II score was calculated before and after 7-day treatment in the two groups.
RESULTS:
The levels of CcvO2, CaO2 on day 7 in group A were significantly lower than those in group B (CcvO2: 0.60±0.24 vs. 0.72±0.28, P<0.05; CaO2: 0.84±0.43 vs. 0.94±0.46, P<0.05). The level of oxygen extraction rate (O2ER) in group A on the 7th day was significantly higher than that in group B (28.7±2.4 vs. 21.7±3.4, P<0.01). The levels of P(A-a)DO2 and RI in group B on the 7th day were significantly lower than those in group A. The levels of PaO2/PaO2 and OI in group B on 7th day were significantly higher than those in group A (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The APACHE II score in the two groups reduced gradually after 7-day treatment, and the APACHE II score on the 7th day in group B was significantly lower than that in group A (8.2±3.8 vs. 17.2±6.8, P<0.01).
CONCLUSION:
HVHF combined with fluid resuscitation can improve alveolar-arterial-oxygen exchange, decrease the APACHE II score in patients with refractory septic shock, and thus it increases the survival rate of patients.
PMCID: PMC4129696  PMID: 25214997
Fluid resuscitation; High-volume hemofiltration; Septic shock; Oxygen extraction rate; Alveolar-arterial oxygen exchange; PaO2/PaO2 ratio; Respiratory index; Oxygenation index; Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II)
3.  Incidence and risk factors of gastrointestinal bleeding in mechanically ventilated patients 
BACKGROUND:
The widespread use of gastrointestinal bleeding prophylaxis in critically ill patients was one of the most controversial issues. Since few studies reported the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding in mechanically ventilated patients, this study aimed to identify the incidence and risk factors related to gastrointestinal bleeding in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours.
METHODS:
A total of 283 ICU patients who had received mechanical ventilation for longer than 48 hours at a provincial hospital affiliated to Shandong University from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009 were analyzed retrospectively. Those were excluded from the study if they had a history of gastrointestinal bleeding or ulceration, recent gastrointestinal surgery, brain death and active bleeding from the nose or throat. Demographic data of the patients included patient age, diagnosis on admission, duration of ICU stay, duration of ventilation, patterns and parameters of ventilation, ICU mortality, APACHE II score, multiple organ dysfunction, and indexes of biochemistry, kidney function, liver function and coagulation function. Risk factors of gastrointestinal bleeding were analyzed by univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS:
In the 242 patients who were given mechanical ventilation longer than 48 hours, the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding was 46.7%. The bleeding in 3.3% of the patients was clinically significant. Significant risk factors were peak inspiratory pressure ≥30cmH2O, renal failure, liver failure, PLT count<50×109/L and prolonged APTT. Enteral nutrition had a beneficial effect on gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the independent risk factors of gastrointestinal bleeding were as follows: high pressure ventilator setting ≥ 30cmH2O(RR=3.478, 95%CI=2.208-10.733), renal failure(RR=1.687, 95%CI = 1.098-3.482), PLT count<50×1 09/L (RR=3.762, 95%CI=2.346-14.685), and prolonged APTT(RR=5.368, 95%CI=2.487-11.266). Enteral nutrition(RR=0.436, 95%CI= 0.346-0.764) was the independent protective factor.
CONCLUSIONS:
The incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding was high in the patients who received mechanical ventilation, and bleeding usually occurred within the first 48 hours. High pressure ventilator setting, renal failure, decreased PLT count and prolonged APTT were the significant risk factors of gastrointestinal bleeding. However, enteral nutrition was the independent protective factor.
PMCID: PMC4129768  PMID: 25214937
Mechanical ventilation; Gastrointestinal bleeding; Risk factors
4.  The Genomes of Oryza sativa: A History of Duplications 
Yu, Jun | Wang, Jun | Lin, Wei | Li, Songgang | Li, Heng | Zhou, Jun | Ni, Peixiang | Dong, Wei | Hu, Songnian | Zeng, Changqing | Zhang, Jianguo | Zhang, Yong | Li, Ruiqiang | Xu, Zuyuan | Li, Shengting | Li, Xianran | Zheng, Hongkun | Cong, Lijuan | Lin, Liang | Yin, Jianning | Geng, Jianing | Li, Guangyuan | Shi, Jianping | Liu, Juan | Lv, Hong | Li, Jun | Wang, Jing | Deng, Yajun | Ran, Longhua | Shi, Xiaoli | Wang, Xiyin | Wu, Qingfa | Li, Changfeng | Ren, Xiaoyu | Wang, Jingqiang | Wang, Xiaoling | Li, Dawei | Liu, Dongyuan | Zhang, Xiaowei | Ji, Zhendong | Zhao, Wenming | Sun, Yongqiao | Zhang, Zhenpeng | Bao, Jingyue | Han, Yujun | Dong, Lingli | Ji, Jia | Chen, Peng | Wu, Shuming | Liu, Jinsong | Xiao, Ying | Bu, Dongbo | Tan, Jianlong | Yang, Li | Ye, Chen | Zhang, Jingfen | Xu, Jingyi | Zhou, Yan | Yu, Yingpu | Zhang, Bing | Zhuang, Shulin | Wei, Haibin | Liu, Bin | Lei, Meng | Yu, Hong | Li, Yuanzhe | Xu, Hao | Wei, Shulin | He, Ximiao | Fang, Lijun | Zhang, Zengjin | Zhang, Yunze | Huang, Xiangang | Su, Zhixi | Tong, Wei | Li, Jinhong | Tong, Zongzhong | Li, Shuangli | Ye, Jia | Wang, Lishun | Fang, Lin | Lei, Tingting | Chen, Chen | Chen, Huan | Xu, Zhao | Li, Haihong | Huang, Haiyan | Zhang, Feng | Xu, Huayong | Li, Na | Zhao, Caifeng | Li, Shuting | Dong, Lijun | Huang, Yanqing | Li, Long | Xi, Yan | Qi, Qiuhui | Li, Wenjie | Zhang, Bo | Hu, Wei | Zhang, Yanling | Tian, Xiangjun | Jiao, Yongzhi | Liang, Xiaohu | Jin, Jiao | Gao, Lei | Zheng, Weimou | Hao, Bailin | Liu, Siqi | Wang, Wen | Yuan, Longping | Cao, Mengliang | McDermott, Jason | Samudrala, Ram | Wang, Jian | Wong, Gane Ka-Shu | Yang, Huanming
PLoS Biology  2005;3(2):e38.
We report improved whole-genome shotgun sequences for the genomes of indica and japonica rice, both with multimegabase contiguity, or almost 1,000-fold improvement over the drafts of 2002. Tested against a nonredundant collection of 19,079 full-length cDNAs, 97.7% of the genes are aligned, without fragmentation, to the mapped super-scaffolds of one or the other genome. We introduce a gene identification procedure for plants that does not rely on similarity to known genes to remove erroneous predictions resulting from transposable elements. Using the available EST data to adjust for residual errors in the predictions, the estimated gene count is at least 38,000–40,000. Only 2%–3% of the genes are unique to any one subspecies, comparable to the amount of sequence that might still be missing. Despite this lack of variation in gene content, there is enormous variation in the intergenic regions. At least a quarter of the two sequences could not be aligned, and where they could be aligned, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rates varied from as little as 3.0 SNP/kb in the coding regions to 27.6 SNP/kb in the transposable elements. A more inclusive new approach for analyzing duplication history is introduced here. It reveals an ancient whole-genome duplication, a recent segmental duplication on Chromosomes 11 and 12, and massive ongoing individual gene duplications. We find 18 distinct pairs of duplicated segments that cover 65.7% of the genome; 17 of these pairs date back to a common time before the divergence of the grasses. More important, ongoing individual gene duplications provide a never-ending source of raw material for gene genesis and are major contributors to the differences between members of the grass family.
Comparative genome sequencing of indica and japonica rice reveals that duplication of genes and genomic regions has played a major part in the evolution of grass genomes
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030038
PMCID: PMC546038  PMID: 15685292

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