To introduce a robot-assisted surgical system for spinal posterior fixation that can automatically recognize the drilling state and stop potential cortical penetration with force and image information and to further evaluate the accuracy and safety of the robot for sheep vertebra pedicle screw placement.
The Robotic Spinal Surgery System (RSSS) was composed of an optical tracking system, a navigation and planning system, and a surgical robot equipped with a 6-DOF force/torque sensor. The robot used the image message and force signals to sense the different operation states and to prevent potential cortical penetration in the pedicle screw insertion operation. To evaluate the accuracy and safety of the RSSS, 32 screw insertions were conducted. Furthermore, six trajectories were deliberately planned incorrectly to explore whether the robot could recognize the different drilling states and immediately prevent cortical penetration.
All 32 pedicle screws were placed in the pedicle without any broken pedicle walls. Compared with the preoperative planning, the average deviations of the entry points in the axial and sagittal views were 0.50±0.33 and 0.65±0.40 mm, and the average deviations of the angles in the axial and sagittal views were 1.9±0.82° and 1.48±1.2°. The robot successfully recognized the different drilling states and prevented potential cortical penetration. In the deliberately incorrectly planned trajectory experiments, the robot successfully prevented the cortical penetration.
These results verified the RSSS’s accuracy and safety, which supported its potential use for the spinal surgery.
OmicCircos is an R software package used to generate high-quality circular plots for visualizing genomic variations, including mutation patterns, copy number variations (CNVs), expression patterns, and methylation patterns. Such variations can be displayed as scatterplot, line, or text-label figures. Relationships among genomic features in different chromosome positions can be represented in the forms of polygons or curves. Utilizing the statistical and graphic functions in an R/Bioconductor environment, OmicCircos performs statistical analyses and displays results using cluster, boxplot, histogram, and heatmap formats. In addition, OmicCircos offers a number of unique capabilities, including independent track drawing for easy modification and integration, zoom functions, link-polygons, and position-independent heatmaps supporting detailed visualization.
AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION
OmicCircos is available through Bioconductor at http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/devel/bioc/html/OmicCircos.html. An extensive vignette in the package describes installation, data formatting, and workflow procedures. The software is open source under the Artistic–2.0 license.
R package; circular plot; genomic variation
Natural proteins often rely on the disulfide bond to covalently link side chains. Here we genetically introduce a new type of covalent bond into proteins by enabling an unnatural amino acid to react with a proximal cysteine. We demonstrate the utility of this bond for enabling irreversible binding between an affibody and its protein substrate, capturing peptide-protein interactions in mammalian cells, and improving the photon output of fluorescent proteins.
Community-acquired pneumonia in children is common in China. To understand current clinical characteristics and practice, we conducted a cross-sectional study to analyze quality of care on childhood pneumonia in eight eastern cities in China.
Consecutive hospital records between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2010 were collected from 13 traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine (WM) hospitals in February, May, August, and November (25 cases per season, 100 cases over the year), respectively. A predesigned case report form was used to extract data from the hospital medical records.
A total of 1298 cases were collected and analyzed. Symptoms and signs upon admission at TCM and WM hospitals were cough (99.3% vs. 98.6%), rales (84.8% vs. 75.0%), phlegm (83.3% vs. 49.1%), and fever (74.9% vs. 84.0%) in frequency. Patients admitted to WM hospitals had symptoms and signs for a longer period prior to admission than patients admitted to TCM hospitals. Testing to identify etiologic agents was performed in 1140 cases (88.4%). Intravenous antibiotics were administered in 99.3% (595/598) of cases in TCM hospitals and in 98.6% (699/700) of cases in WM hospitals. Besides, Chinese herbal extract injection was used more frequently in TCM hospitals (491 cases, 82.1%) than in WM hospitals (212 cases, 30.3%) (p < 0.01). At discharge, 818 cases (63.0%) were clinically cured, with a significant difference between the cure rates in TCM (87.6%) and WM hospitals (42.0%) (OR = 9.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 7.3 ~ 12.9, p < 0.01). Pathogen and previous medical history were more likely associated with the disappearance of rales (OR = 7.2, 95% CI: 4.8 ~ 10.9). Adverse effects were not reported from the medical records.
Intravenous use of antibiotics is highly prevalent in children with community-acquired pneumonia regardless of aetiology. There was difference between TCM and WM hospitals with regard to symptom profile and the use of antibiotics. Intravenous use of herbal injection was higher in TCM hospitals than in WM hospitals. Most of the cases were diagnosed based on clinical signs and symptoms without sufficient confirmation of aetiology. Audit of current practice is urgently needed to improve care.
Childhood pneumonia; Community-acquired; Clinical characteristics; Treatment; Cross-sectional study; Chinese population
PRL-3 is a member of phosphatases of regenerating liver family, characterized by phosphatase active domain and C-terminal prenylation motif. Overexpression of PRL-3 has been implicated in multiple cancers. Here we examined the clinical significance of PRL-3 in gastric cancer together with its metastatic biological functions utilizing different structural mutants.
PRL-3 expression was analyzed immunohistochemically in 196 gastric cancer patients and 21 cases of liver metastasis. A series of wild type PRL-3 or its mutant plasmids were expressed in BGC823 cells to investigate the relationship between its catalytic activity, cellular localization and metastatic potential in vitro.
Positive staining of PRL-3 was observed in 19.4% (38/196) gastric cancer tissues compared with 76.2% (16/21) in liver metastasis. Statistical analysis revealed that PRL-3 expression correlated with lymph node metastasis and vascular invasion (P < 0.05). Patients with high PRL-3 expression showed poorer 5-year overall survival (P = 0.011). Wild type PRL-3 expressing cells resulted in enhanced migration and invasion ability, which were greatly crippled in form of PRL-3(C104S) or PRL-3(ΔCAAX) mutants accompanied with its alteration in subcellular localization.
Metastasis associated protein PRL-3 may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker in human gastric cancer. Both the phosphatase catalytic activity and cellular localization are critical for its function.
PRL-3; Gastric cancer; Prognosis; Metastasis
Cytochrome c unfolds locally and reversibly upon heating at pH 3. UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectra reveal that instead of producing unordered structure, unfolding converts turns and some helical elements to β-sheet. It also disrupts the Met80-heme bond, and was earlier shown to induce peroxidase activity. Aromatic residues that are H-bonded to a heme propionate (Trp59 and Tyr48) alter their orientation, indicating heme displacement. T-jump/UVRR measurements give time constants of 0.2, 3.9 and 67 µs for successive phases of β-sheet formation and concomitant reorientation of Trp59. UVRR spectra reveal protonation of histidines, and specifically of His26, whose H-bond to Pro44 anchors the 40s Ω loop; this loop is known to be the least stable ‘foldon’ in the protein. His26 protonation is proposed to disrupt its H-bond with Pro44, triggering the extension of a short β-sheet segment at the ‘neck’ of the 40s Ω loop into the loop itself and back into the 60’s and 70’s helices. The secondary structure change displaces the heme via H-bonds from residues in the growing β-sheet, thereby exposing it to exogenous ligands, and inducing peroxidase activity. This unfolding mechanism may play a role in cardiolipin peroxidation by cyt c during apoptosis.
Ultra-thin solid-state nanopore with good wetting property is strongly desired to achieve high spatial resolution for DNA sequencing applications. Atomic thick hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layer provides a promising two-dimensional material for fabricating solid-state nanopores. Due to its good oxidation resistance, the hydrophilicity of h-BN nanopore device can be significantly improved by UV-Ozone treatment. The contact angle of a KCl-TE droplet on h-BN layer can be reduced from 57° to 26° after the treatment. Abundant DNA translocation events have been observed in such devices, and strong DNA-nanopore interaction has been revealed in pores smaller than 10 nm in diameter. The 1/f noise level is closely related to the area of suspended h-BN layer, and it is significantly reduced in smaller supporting window. The demonstrated performance in h-BN nanopore paves the way towards base discrimination in a single DNA molecule.
Glaucoma is a common eye disease in the aged population and has severe consequences. The present study examined the therapeutic effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation in preventing loss of visual function in aged rats with glaucoma caused by laser-induced ocular hypertension. We found that BMSCs promoted survival of retinal ganglion cells in the transplanted eye as compared with the control eye. Further, in swimming tests guided by visual cues, the rats with a BMSC transplant performed significantly better. We believe that BMSC transplantation therapy is effective in treating aged rats with glaucoma.
glaucoma; stem cell; transplantation; cell therapy; aging
Recent advances in genome wide transcriptional analysis have provided greater insights into the etiology and heterogeneity of breast cancer. Molecular signatures have been developed that stratify the conventional estrogen receptor positive or negative categories into subtypes that are associated with differing clinical outcomes. It is thought that the expression patterns of the molecular subtypes primarily reflect cell-of-origin or tumor driver mutations. In this study however, using a genetically engineered mouse mammary tumor model we demonstrate that the PAM50 subtype signature of tumors driven by a common oncogenic event can be significantly influenced by the genetic background on which the tumor arises. These results have important implications for interpretation of “snapshot” expression profiles, as well as suggesting that incorporation of genetic background effects may allow investigation into phenotypes not initially anticipated in individual mouse models of cancer.
Genomic profiling has identified a subtype of high-risk B-progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) with alteration of IKZF1, a gene expression profile similar to BCR-ABL1-positive ALL and poor outcome (Ph-like ALL). The genetic alterations that activate kinase signaling in Ph-like ALL are poorly understood. We performed transcriptome and whole genome sequencing on 15 cases of Ph-like ALL, and identified rearrangements involving ABL1, JAK2, PDGFRB, CRLF2 and EPOR, activating mutations of IL7R and FLT3, and deletion of SH2B3, which encodes the JAK2 negative regulator LNK. Importantly, several of these alterations induce transformation that is attenuated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, suggesting the treatment outcome of these patients may be improved with targeted therapy.
Craniometaphyseal dysplasia (CMD) is a rare sclerosing skeletal disorder with progressive hyperostosis of craniofacial bones. CMD can be inherited in an autosomal dominant (AD) trait or occur after de novo mutations in the pyrophosphate transporter ANKH. Although the autosomal recessive (AR) form of CMD had been mapped to 6q21-22 the mutation has been elusive. In this study, we performed whole-exome sequencing for one subject with AR CMD and identified a novel missense mutation (c.716G>A, p.Arg239Gln) in the C-terminus of the gap junction protein alpha-1 (GJA1) coding for connexin 43 (Cx43). We confirmed this mutation in 6 individuals from 3 additional families. The homozygous mutation cosegregated only with affected family members. Connexin 43 is a major component of gap junctions in osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts and chondrocytes. Gap junctions are responsible for the diffusion of low molecular weight molecules between cells. Mutations in Cx43 cause several dominant and recessive disorders involving developmental abnormalities of bone such as dominant and recessive oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD; MIM #164200, 257850) and isolated syndactyly type III (MIM #186100), the characteristic digital anomaly in ODDD. However, characteristic ocular and dental features of ODDD as well as syndactyly are absent in patients with the recessive Arg239Gln Cx43 mutation. Bone remodeling mechanisms disrupted by this novel Cx43 mutation remain to be elucidated.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease; the histological spectrum of which ranges from steatosis to steatohepatitis. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) often leads to cirrhosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. To better understand pathogenesis of NAFLD, we performed the pathway of distinction analysis (PoDA) on a genome-wide association study dataset of 250 non-Hispanic white female adult patients with NAFLD, who were enrolled in the NASH Clinical Research Network (CRN) Database Study, to investigate whether biologic process variation measured through genomic variation of genes within these pathways was related to the development of steatohepatitis or cirrhosis. Pathways such as Recycling of eIF2:GDP, biosynthesis of steroids, Terpenoid biosynthesis and Cholesterol biosynthesis were found to be significantly associated with NASH. SNP variants in Terpenoid synthesis, Cholesterol biosynthesis and biosynthesis of steroids were associated with lobular inflammation and cytologic ballooning while those in Terpenoid synthesis were also associated with fibrosis and cirrhosis. These were also related to the NAFLD activity score (NAS) which is derived from the histological severity of steatosis, inflammation and ballooning degeneration. Eukaryotic protein translation and recycling of eIF2:GDP related SNP variants were associated with ballooning, steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Il2 signaling events mediated by PI3K, Mitotic metaphase/anaphase transition, and Prostanoid ligand receptors were also significantly associated with cirrhosis. Taken together, the results provide evidence for additional ways, beyond the effects of single SNPs, by which genetic factors might contribute to the susceptibility to develop a particular phenotype of NAFLD and then progress to cirrhosis. Further studies are warranted to explain potential important genetic roles of these biological processes in NAFLD.
Changes in the epidemiological characteristics of measles since 2007 appeared in the Jiangsu province. Although the reported coverage with two doses of measles vaccine was greater than 95% in most regions of the province, measles incidence remained high across the whole province. Cross-sectional serological surveys of measles antibodies in the Jiangsu province of China were conducted from 2008 to 2010 to assess and track population immunity.
Measles-specific IgG levels were measured in serum samples using ELISA. GMTs and seroprevalence with 95% CIs were calculated by region, gender, and age. ANOVA and χ2 tests were used to test for statistically significant differences between groups for GMT levels and seroprevalence, respectively.
Seroprevalence showed a significantly increasing trend annually (CMH χ2 = 40.32, p<0.0001). Although the seroprevalence among children aged 2–15 years was consistently over 95%, vaccine-induced measles antibodies may wane over time. Measles seropositivity in the Jiangsu province was 91.7% (95% CI: 90.1–93.2%) in 2010. Among adults aged 15 to 29-year-olds, the seropositivity rate was 88.4% (95% CI: 82.7–92.8%).
Vaccination strategies may need to be adjusted depending on the individual age and regions, particularly individuals between the ages of 8 months-14 years old and 20–29 years old. Additional SIAs are likely required to eliminate measles in China.
The current study tests the hypothesis that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β (PPARβ) has a role in liver regeneration due to its effect in regulating energy homeostasis and cell proliferation. The role of PPARβ in liver regeneration was studied using two-third partial hepatectomy (PH) in Wild-type (WT) and PPARβ-null (KO) mice. In KO mice, liver regeneration was delayed and the number of Ki-67 positive cells reached the peak at 60 hr rather than at 36–48 hr after PH shown in WT mice. RNA-sequencing uncovered 1344 transcriptomes that were differentially expressed in regenerating WT and KO livers. About 70% of those differentially expressed genes involved in glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis pathways failed to induce during liver regeneration due to PPARβ deficiency. The delayed liver regeneration in KO mice was accompanied by lack of activation of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1)/Akt. In addition, cell proliferation-associated increase of genes encoding E2f transcription factor (E2f) 1–2 and E2f7–8 as well as their downstream target genes were not noted in KO livers 36–48 hr after PH. E2fs have dual roles in regulating metabolism and proliferation. Moreover, transient steatosis was only found in WT, but not in KO mice 36 hr after PH. These data suggested that PPARβ-regulated PDK1/Akt and E2f signaling that controls metabolism and proliferation is involved in the normal progression of liver regeneration.
Dietary supplementation of selenium and green tea holds promise in cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated the efficacies of selenium and green tea administered individually and in combination against colorectal cancer in an azoxymethane (AOM)-induced rat colonic carcinogenesis model and determined the underlying mechanisms of the protection. Four-week old Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed with diets containing 0.5% green tea extract, 1ppm selenium as selenium-enriched milk protein, or combination of 1ppm selenium and 0.5% green tea extract. Animals received 2 AOM (15 mg/kg) treatments to induce colonic oncogenesis. Rats were killed 8 or 30 wk later after the last AOM to examine the effect of dietary intervention on aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation or tumor development. On sacrifice, colons were examined for ACF and tumors, the mRNA levels of SFRP5 and Cyclin D1, and the proteins levels of ß-catenin, COX-2, Ki-67, DNMT1 and acetyl histone H3. The combination of selenium and green tea resulted in a significant additive inhibition of large ACF formation, this effect was greater than either selenium or green tea alone, P<0.01; the combination also had a significant additive inhibition effect on all tumor endpoints, the effect of the combination diet on tumor incidence, multiplicity and size was greater than selenium or green tea alone, P<0.01. Rats fed the combination diet showed marked reduction of DNMT1 expression and induction of histone H3 acetylation, which were accompanied by restoration of SFRP5 mRNA in normal-appearing colonic crypts. The combination diet also significantly reduced ß-catenin nuclear translocation, Cyclin D1 expression and cell proliferation. These data show, for the first time, that combination of selenium and green tea is more effective in suppressing colorectal oncogenesis than either agent alone. The preventive effect is associated with regulation of genetic and epigenetic biomarkers implicated in colonic carcinogenesis.
Ovarian cancer remains a significant public health burden, with the highest mortality rate of all the gynecological cancers. This is attributable to the late stage at which the majority of ovarian cancers are diagnosed, coupled with the low and variable response of advanced tumors to standard chemotherapies. To date, clinically useful predictors of treatment response remain lacking. Identifying the genetic determinants of ovarian cancer survival and treatment response is crucial to the development of prognostic biomarkers and personalized therapies that may improve outcomes for the late-stage patients who comprise the majority of cases.
To identify constitutional genetic variations contributing to ovarian cancer mortality, we systematically investigated associations between germline polymorphisms and ovarian cancer survival using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas Project (TCGA). Using stage-stratified Cox proportional hazards regression, we examined 650,000 SNP loci for association with survival. We additionally examined whether the association of significant SNPs with survival was modified by somatic alterations.
Germline polymorphisms at rs4934282 (AGAP11/C10orf116) and rs1857623 (DNAH14) were associated with stage-adjusted survival ( = 1.12e-07 and 1.80e-07, FDR = 1.2e-04 and 2.4e-04, respectively). A third SNP, rs4869 (C10orf116), was additionally identified as significant in the exome sequencing data; it is in near-perfect LD with rs4934282. The associations with survival remained significant when somatic alterations.
Discovery analysis of TCGA data reveals germline genetic variations that may play a role in ovarian cancer survival even among late-stage cases. The significant loci are located near genes previously reported as having a possible relationship to platinum and taxol response. Because the variant alleles at the significant loci are common (frequencies for rs4934282 A/C alleles = 0.54/0.46, respectively; rs1857623 A/G alleles = 0.55/0.45, respectively) and germline variants can be assayed noninvasively, our findings provide potential targets for further exploration as prognostic biomarkers and individualized therapies.
Ubiquitous calpains (calpain I & II) are generally recognized as cytosolic proteins. Recently, mitochondrial localized calpain I (μ-calpain) has been identified. Activation of mito-u-calpain cleaves apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), a flavoprotein located within the mitochondrial intermembrane space, in liver mitochondria, but not in brain mitochondria. We first tested if activation of mito-u-calpain cleaves AIF in isolated heart mitochondria. A decrease in AIF content within mitochondria increases cardiac injury during ischemia-reperfusion by augmenting oxidative stress. We hypothesize that the activation of mito-u-calpain by calcium overload during ischemia-reperfusion results in decreased AIF content within mitochondria by cleaving AIF. The u-calpain was present within mouse heart mitochondria, mostly in the intermembrane space. Exogenous calcium treatment induced a calpain-dependent decrease of mitochondrial AIF content in isolated mouse heart mitochondria. This process was blocked by a calpain inhibitor (MDL-28170). The Mitochondrial u-calpain activity was increased by 160% ± 15% during ischemia-reperfusion compared to time control. In contrast, the mitochondrial AIF content was decreased by 52% ± 7% during reperfusion vs. time control in the buffer perfused mouse heart. Inhibition of mito-u-calpain using MDL-28170 decreased cardiac injury by preserving AIF content within mitochondria during ischemia-reperfusion. Thus, activation of mito-u-calpain is required to release AIF from cardiac mitochondria. Inhibition of calpains using MDL-28170 decreases cardiac injury by inhibiting both cytosolic calpains and mito-u-calpain during ischemia-reperfusion.
mitochondria; calpastatin; calpain; ischemia-reperfusion; calcium
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a critical second messenger mediating activity-dependent neuronal survival and neurite growth. We investigated the expression and function of the soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC, ADCY10) in central nervous system (CNS) retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). We found sAC protein expressed in multiple RGC compartments including the nucleus, cytoplasm and axons. sAC activation increased cAMP above the level seen with transmembrane adenylate cyclase (tmAC) activation. Electrical activity and bicarbonate, both physiologic sAC activators, significantly increased survival and axon growth, whereas pharmacologic or siRNA-mediated sAC inhibition dramatically decreased RGC survival and axon growth in vitro, and survival in vivo. Conversely, RGC survival and axon growth was unaltered in RGCs from AC1/AC8 double knockout mice or after specifically inhibiting tmACs. These data identify a novel sAC-mediated cAMP signaling pathway regulating RGC survival and axon growth, and suggest new neuroprotective or regenerative strategies based on sAC modulation.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictive efficiency of mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet size deviation width (PDW) for bone marrow failure (BMF) in thrombocytopenic patients. Platelet count, MPV and PDW data were retrieved from the records of 574 unselected thrombocytopenic patients from between March 2010 and March 2011, of which 182 patients with a platelet count <20×109/l were excluded from further study. A total of 392 valid thrombocytopenic patients were included in the present study and divided into two groups: 124 patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) and 268 with BMF. The predictive efficiency of MPV and PDW were tested for the diagnosis of BMF. Significant differences were observed in the age distribution, platelet count, MPV and PDW between the ITP and BMF groups. The platelet count was positively correlated with MPV and PDW in the patients with ITP but not BMF. The negative-predictive values of MPV and PDW for BMF were 59.3 and 58.9%, respectively, with an MPV threshold of ≥11.0 fl and a PDW threshold of <16.0%. The positive-predictive values of MPV and PDW for BMF were 88.4 and 83.9%, respectively, with an MPV threshold <8.0 fl and a PDW threshold ≥17.5%. The areas under the curves (AUCs) of MPV and PDW were 0.281 and 0.700, respectively, for the diagnosis of BMF. The negative and positive-predictive values of MPV for BMF at different thresholds were not as conclusive as described in previous studies. MPV and PDW do not have sufficient specificity and sensitivity for the diagnosis of BMF in thrombocytopenic patients.
thrombocytopenia; platelet volume indices; mean platelet volume; platelet distribution width; idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura; bone marrow failure
During the 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009) virus (pH1N1) outbreak, school students were at an increased risk of infection by the pH1N1 virus. However, the estimation of the attack rate showed significant variability.
Two school outbreaks were investigated in this study. A questionnaire was designed to collect information by interview. Throat samples were collected from all the subjects in this study 6 times and sero samples 3 times to confirm the infection and to determine viral shedding. Data analysis was performed using the software STATA 9.0.
The attack rate of the pH1N1 outbreak was 58.3% for the primary school, and 52.9% for the middle school. The asymptomatic infection rates of the two schools were 35.8% and 37.6% respectively. Peak virus shedding occurred on the day of ARI symptoms onset, followed by a steady decrease over subsequent days (p = 0.026). No difference was found either in viral shedding or HI titer between the symptomatic and the asymptomatic infectious groups.
School children were found to be at a high risk of infection by the novel virus. This may be because of a heightened risk of transmission owing to increased mixing at boarding school, or a lack of immunity owing to socio-economic status. We conclude that asymptomatically infectious cases may play an important role in transmission of the pH1N1 virus.
This study measured photopic negative responses (PhNRs) in the flash ERGs of multiple sclerosis patients, to evaluate the function of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. PhNR amplitudes were found to be reduced in eyes with and without a history of optic neuritis.
To use the photopic electroretinogram (ERG) to evaluate retinal function in eyes of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with and without a history of optic neuritis (ON) and to compare the functional and structural status of the inner retina.
Full-field ERG responses to brief red flashes (0.04–2.8 cd · s/m2) on a rod-saturating blue background were recorded from 51 MS patients and 33 age-matched control subjects. In patients, perimetry was performed and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) was assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP). MS eyes were separated into groups: “ON >6” months (n = 25), “ON <6” months (n = 29), and “no ON” (n = 33) based on positive or negative history of ON and time since the last episode. Thirteen ON<6 eyes were re-evaluated 1 year later.
PhNR amplitudes were lower in ON>6, ON<6, and no-ON eyes (mean ± SD, 17.3 ± 7.6, 16.0 ± 6.5, and 23.8 ± 9.3 μV, respectively), than in control eyes (29.8 ± 6.5 μV; P < 0.001) for a standard stimulus of 1.42 cd · s/m2; a- and b-wave amplitudes were unaffected. PhNR amplitudes correlated with visual fields mean deviation (MD) in ON>6 (r2 = 0.43; P < 0.001) and no-ON eyes (r2 = 0.10; P < 0.05), with similar results for weaker stimuli. PhNR amplitudes correlated with RNFLT in ON>6 eyes: OCT (r2 = 0.52; P < 0.0001) and SLP (r2 = 0.51; P < 0.01); and in no-ON eyes, OCT (r2 = 0.21; P < 0.01) and SLP (r2 = 0.17; P < 0.05). ON<6 amplitudes did not correlate significantly with other measures, but increased after 1 year by 5.1 ± 3.1 μV (P < 0.001), visual fields MD increased by 1.8 ± 2.3 dB (P < 0.05), and RNFL loss persisted.
Photopic ERG PhNR amplitudes in MS patients are significantly reduced in eyes with and without a history of ON.
S100A9 was originally discovered as a factor secreted by inflammatory cells. Recently, S100A9 was found to be associated with several human malignancies. The purpose of this study is to investigate S100A9 expression in gastric cancer and explore its role in cancer progression.
S100A9 expression in gastric tissue samples from 177 gastric cancer patients was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The expression of its dimerization partner S100A8 and the S100A8/A9 heterodimer were also assessed by the same method. The effect of exogenous S100A9 on motility of gastric cancer cells AGS and BGC-823 was then investigated.
S100A9 was specifically expressed by inflammatory cells such as macrophages and neutrophils in human gastric cancer and gastritis tissues. Statistical analysis showed that a high S100A9 cell count (> = 200) per 200x magnification microscopic field in cancer tissues was predictive of early stage gastric cancer. High S100A9-positive cell count was negatively correlated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.009) and tumor invasion (P = 0.011). S100A9 was identified as an independent prognostic predictor of overall survival of patients with gastric cancer (P = 0.04). Patients with high S100A9 cell count were with favorable prognosis (P = 0.021). Further investigation found that S100A8 distribution in human gastric cancer tissues was similar to S100A9. However, the number of S100A8-positive cells did not positively correlate with patient survival. The inflammatory cells infiltrating cancer were S100A8/A9 negative, while those in gastritis were positive. Furthermore, exogenous S100A9 protein inhibited migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells.
Our results suggested S100A9-positive inflammatory cells in gastric cancer tissues are associated with early stage of gastric cancer and good prognosis.
Gastric cancer; S100A9; Inflammatory cells; Tumor staging; Survival
Myocardial injury is increased in the aged heart following ischemia-reperfusion (ISC-REP) compared to adult hearts. Intervention at REP with ischemic postconditioning decreases injury in the adult heart by attenuating mitochondrial driven cell injury. Unfortunately, postconditioning is ineffective in aged hearts. Blockade of electron transport at the onset of REP with the reversible inhibitor amobarbital (AMO) decreases injury in adult hearts. We tested if AMO treatment at REP protects the aged heart via preservation of mitochondrial integrity. Buffer-perfused elderly Fischer 344 24 mo. rat hearts underwent 25 min global ISC and 30 min REP. AMO (2.5 mM) or vehicle was given for 3 min at the onset of REP. Subsarcolemmal (SSM) and interfibrillar (IFM) mitochondria were isolated after REP. Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and mitochondrial inner membrane potential were measured. AMO treatment at REP decreased cardiac injury. Compared to untreated ISC-REP, AMO improved inner membrane potential in SSM and IFM during REP, indicating preserved inner membrane integrity. Thus, direct pharmacologic modulation of electron transport at REP protects mitochondria and decreases cardiac injury in the aged heart, even when signaling-induced pathways of postconditioning that are upstream of mitochondria are ineffective.
The incidence of measles in China from 1991 to 2008 was reviewed, and the nucleotide sequences from 1507 measles viruses (MeV) isolated during 1993 to 2008 were phylogenetically analyzed. The results showed that measles epidemics peaked approximately every 3 to 5 years with the range of measles cases detected between 56,850 and 140,048 per year. The Chinese MeV strains represented three genotypes; 1501 H1, 1 H2 and 5 A. Genotype H1 was the predominant genotype throughout China continuously circulating for at least 16 years. Genotype H1 sequences could be divided into two distinct clusters, H1a and H1b. A 4.2% average nucleotide divergence was found between the H1a and H1b clusters, and the nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid homologies of H1a viruses were 92.3%–100% and 84.7%–100%, H1b were 97.1%–100% and 95.3%–100%, respectively. Viruses from both clusters were distributed throughout China with no apparent geographic restriction and multiple co-circulating lineages were present in many provinces. Cluster H1a and H1b viruses were co-circulating during 1993 to 2005, while no H1b viruses were detected after 2005 and the transmission of that cluster has presumably been interrupted. Analysis of the nucleotide and predicted amino acid changes in the N proteins of H1a and H1b viruses showed no evidence of selective pressure. This study investigated the genotype and cluster distribution of MeV in China over a 16-year period to establish a genetic baseline before MeV elimination in Western Pacific Region (WPR). Continuous and extensive MeV surveillance and the ability to quickly identify imported cases of measles will become more critical as measles elimination goals are achieved in China in the near future. This is the first report that a single endemic genotype of measles virus has been found to be continuously circulating in one country for at least 16 years.