Ubiquitous calpains (calpain I & II) are generally recognized as cytosolic proteins. Recently, mitochondrial localized calpain I (μ-calpain) has been identified. Activation of mito-u-calpain cleaves apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), a flavoprotein located within the mitochondrial intermembrane space, in liver mitochondria, but not in brain mitochondria. We first tested if activation of mito-u-calpain cleaves AIF in isolated heart mitochondria. A decrease in AIF content within mitochondria increases cardiac injury during ischemia-reperfusion by augmenting oxidative stress. We hypothesize that the activation of mito-u-calpain by calcium overload during ischemia-reperfusion results in decreased AIF content within mitochondria by cleaving AIF. The u-calpain was present within mouse heart mitochondria, mostly in the intermembrane space. Exogenous calcium treatment induced a calpain-dependent decrease of mitochondrial AIF content in isolated mouse heart mitochondria. This process was blocked by a calpain inhibitor (MDL-28170). The Mitochondrial u-calpain activity was increased by 160% ± 15% during ischemia-reperfusion compared to time control. In contrast, the mitochondrial AIF content was decreased by 52% ± 7% during reperfusion vs. time control in the buffer perfused mouse heart. Inhibition of mito-u-calpain using MDL-28170 decreased cardiac injury by preserving AIF content within mitochondria during ischemia-reperfusion. Thus, activation of mito-u-calpain is required to release AIF from cardiac mitochondria. Inhibition of calpains using MDL-28170 decreases cardiac injury by inhibiting both cytosolic calpains and mito-u-calpain during ischemia-reperfusion.
mitochondria; calpastatin; calpain; ischemia-reperfusion; calcium
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a critical second messenger mediating activity-dependent neuronal survival and neurite growth. We investigated the expression and function of the soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC, ADCY10) in central nervous system (CNS) retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). We found sAC protein expressed in multiple RGC compartments including the nucleus, cytoplasm and axons. sAC activation increased cAMP above the level seen with transmembrane adenylate cyclase (tmAC) activation. Electrical activity and bicarbonate, both physiologic sAC activators, significantly increased survival and axon growth, whereas pharmacologic or siRNA-mediated sAC inhibition dramatically decreased RGC survival and axon growth in vitro, and survival in vivo. Conversely, RGC survival and axon growth was unaltered in RGCs from AC1/AC8 double knockout mice or after specifically inhibiting tmACs. These data identify a novel sAC-mediated cAMP signaling pathway regulating RGC survival and axon growth, and suggest new neuroprotective or regenerative strategies based on sAC modulation.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictive efficiency of mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet size deviation width (PDW) for bone marrow failure (BMF) in thrombocytopenic patients. Platelet count, MPV and PDW data were retrieved from the records of 574 unselected thrombocytopenic patients from between March 2010 and March 2011, of which 182 patients with a platelet count <20×109/l were excluded from further study. A total of 392 valid thrombocytopenic patients were included in the present study and divided into two groups: 124 patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) and 268 with BMF. The predictive efficiency of MPV and PDW were tested for the diagnosis of BMF. Significant differences were observed in the age distribution, platelet count, MPV and PDW between the ITP and BMF groups. The platelet count was positively correlated with MPV and PDW in the patients with ITP but not BMF. The negative-predictive values of MPV and PDW for BMF were 59.3 and 58.9%, respectively, with an MPV threshold of ≥11.0 fl and a PDW threshold of <16.0%. The positive-predictive values of MPV and PDW for BMF were 88.4 and 83.9%, respectively, with an MPV threshold <8.0 fl and a PDW threshold ≥17.5%. The areas under the curves (AUCs) of MPV and PDW were 0.281 and 0.700, respectively, for the diagnosis of BMF. The negative and positive-predictive values of MPV for BMF at different thresholds were not as conclusive as described in previous studies. MPV and PDW do not have sufficient specificity and sensitivity for the diagnosis of BMF in thrombocytopenic patients.
thrombocytopenia; platelet volume indices; mean platelet volume; platelet distribution width; idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura; bone marrow failure
During the 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009) virus (pH1N1) outbreak, school students were at an increased risk of infection by the pH1N1 virus. However, the estimation of the attack rate showed significant variability.
Two school outbreaks were investigated in this study. A questionnaire was designed to collect information by interview. Throat samples were collected from all the subjects in this study 6 times and sero samples 3 times to confirm the infection and to determine viral shedding. Data analysis was performed using the software STATA 9.0.
The attack rate of the pH1N1 outbreak was 58.3% for the primary school, and 52.9% for the middle school. The asymptomatic infection rates of the two schools were 35.8% and 37.6% respectively. Peak virus shedding occurred on the day of ARI symptoms onset, followed by a steady decrease over subsequent days (p = 0.026). No difference was found either in viral shedding or HI titer between the symptomatic and the asymptomatic infectious groups.
School children were found to be at a high risk of infection by the novel virus. This may be because of a heightened risk of transmission owing to increased mixing at boarding school, or a lack of immunity owing to socio-economic status. We conclude that asymptomatically infectious cases may play an important role in transmission of the pH1N1 virus.
This study measured photopic negative responses (PhNRs) in the flash ERGs of multiple sclerosis patients, to evaluate the function of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. PhNR amplitudes were found to be reduced in eyes with and without a history of optic neuritis.
To use the photopic electroretinogram (ERG) to evaluate retinal function in eyes of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with and without a history of optic neuritis (ON) and to compare the functional and structural status of the inner retina.
Full-field ERG responses to brief red flashes (0.04–2.8 cd · s/m2) on a rod-saturating blue background were recorded from 51 MS patients and 33 age-matched control subjects. In patients, perimetry was performed and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) was assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP). MS eyes were separated into groups: “ON >6” months (n = 25), “ON <6” months (n = 29), and “no ON” (n = 33) based on positive or negative history of ON and time since the last episode. Thirteen ON<6 eyes were re-evaluated 1 year later.
PhNR amplitudes were lower in ON>6, ON<6, and no-ON eyes (mean ± SD, 17.3 ± 7.6, 16.0 ± 6.5, and 23.8 ± 9.3 μV, respectively), than in control eyes (29.8 ± 6.5 μV; P < 0.001) for a standard stimulus of 1.42 cd · s/m2; a- and b-wave amplitudes were unaffected. PhNR amplitudes correlated with visual fields mean deviation (MD) in ON>6 (r2 = 0.43; P < 0.001) and no-ON eyes (r2 = 0.10; P < 0.05), with similar results for weaker stimuli. PhNR amplitudes correlated with RNFLT in ON>6 eyes: OCT (r2 = 0.52; P < 0.0001) and SLP (r2 = 0.51; P < 0.01); and in no-ON eyes, OCT (r2 = 0.21; P < 0.01) and SLP (r2 = 0.17; P < 0.05). ON<6 amplitudes did not correlate significantly with other measures, but increased after 1 year by 5.1 ± 3.1 μV (P < 0.001), visual fields MD increased by 1.8 ± 2.3 dB (P < 0.05), and RNFL loss persisted.
Photopic ERG PhNR amplitudes in MS patients are significantly reduced in eyes with and without a history of ON.
S100A9 was originally discovered as a factor secreted by inflammatory cells. Recently, S100A9 was found to be associated with several human malignancies. The purpose of this study is to investigate S100A9 expression in gastric cancer and explore its role in cancer progression.
S100A9 expression in gastric tissue samples from 177 gastric cancer patients was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The expression of its dimerization partner S100A8 and the S100A8/A9 heterodimer were also assessed by the same method. The effect of exogenous S100A9 on motility of gastric cancer cells AGS and BGC-823 was then investigated.
S100A9 was specifically expressed by inflammatory cells such as macrophages and neutrophils in human gastric cancer and gastritis tissues. Statistical analysis showed that a high S100A9 cell count (> = 200) per 200x magnification microscopic field in cancer tissues was predictive of early stage gastric cancer. High S100A9-positive cell count was negatively correlated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.009) and tumor invasion (P = 0.011). S100A9 was identified as an independent prognostic predictor of overall survival of patients with gastric cancer (P = 0.04). Patients with high S100A9 cell count were with favorable prognosis (P = 0.021). Further investigation found that S100A8 distribution in human gastric cancer tissues was similar to S100A9. However, the number of S100A8-positive cells did not positively correlate with patient survival. The inflammatory cells infiltrating cancer were S100A8/A9 negative, while those in gastritis were positive. Furthermore, exogenous S100A9 protein inhibited migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells.
Our results suggested S100A9-positive inflammatory cells in gastric cancer tissues are associated with early stage of gastric cancer and good prognosis.
Gastric cancer; S100A9; Inflammatory cells; Tumor staging; Survival
Myocardial injury is increased in the aged heart following ischemia-reperfusion (ISC-REP) compared to adult hearts. Intervention at REP with ischemic postconditioning decreases injury in the adult heart by attenuating mitochondrial driven cell injury. Unfortunately, postconditioning is ineffective in aged hearts. Blockade of electron transport at the onset of REP with the reversible inhibitor amobarbital (AMO) decreases injury in adult hearts. We tested if AMO treatment at REP protects the aged heart via preservation of mitochondrial integrity. Buffer-perfused elderly Fischer 344 24 mo. rat hearts underwent 25 min global ISC and 30 min REP. AMO (2.5 mM) or vehicle was given for 3 min at the onset of REP. Subsarcolemmal (SSM) and interfibrillar (IFM) mitochondria were isolated after REP. Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and mitochondrial inner membrane potential were measured. AMO treatment at REP decreased cardiac injury. Compared to untreated ISC-REP, AMO improved inner membrane potential in SSM and IFM during REP, indicating preserved inner membrane integrity. Thus, direct pharmacologic modulation of electron transport at REP protects mitochondria and decreases cardiac injury in the aged heart, even when signaling-induced pathways of postconditioning that are upstream of mitochondria are ineffective.
The incidence of measles in China from 1991 to 2008 was reviewed, and the nucleotide sequences from 1507 measles viruses (MeV) isolated during 1993 to 2008 were phylogenetically analyzed. The results showed that measles epidemics peaked approximately every 3 to 5 years with the range of measles cases detected between 56,850 and 140,048 per year. The Chinese MeV strains represented three genotypes; 1501 H1, 1 H2 and 5 A. Genotype H1 was the predominant genotype throughout China continuously circulating for at least 16 years. Genotype H1 sequences could be divided into two distinct clusters, H1a and H1b. A 4.2% average nucleotide divergence was found between the H1a and H1b clusters, and the nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid homologies of H1a viruses were 92.3%–100% and 84.7%–100%, H1b were 97.1%–100% and 95.3%–100%, respectively. Viruses from both clusters were distributed throughout China with no apparent geographic restriction and multiple co-circulating lineages were present in many provinces. Cluster H1a and H1b viruses were co-circulating during 1993 to 2005, while no H1b viruses were detected after 2005 and the transmission of that cluster has presumably been interrupted. Analysis of the nucleotide and predicted amino acid changes in the N proteins of H1a and H1b viruses showed no evidence of selective pressure. This study investigated the genotype and cluster distribution of MeV in China over a 16-year period to establish a genetic baseline before MeV elimination in Western Pacific Region (WPR). Continuous and extensive MeV surveillance and the ability to quickly identify imported cases of measles will become more critical as measles elimination goals are achieved in China in the near future. This is the first report that a single endemic genotype of measles virus has been found to be continuously circulating in one country for at least 16 years.
To identify a potential pathogenic mutation in a four-generation Chinese family with X-linked congenital nystagmus (XLCN).
Routine clinical examination and ophthalmic evaluation were performed on normal controls, two patients and two healthy members of the family. Genomic DNA was prepared from the peripheral blood of members of the family and from 50 normal controls. All coding exons and the intronic boundaries of the four-point-one (4.1), ezrin, radixin, moesin (FERM) domain-containing 7 (FRMD7) gene were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by direct sequencing.
A previously unreported splicing mutation, c.163–1 G→T transversion (c.163–1 G>T), was detected preceding exon3 of FRMD7 in the patients but not in the unaffected family members and 50 unrelated healthy individuals.
We identified a novel mutation (c.163–1 G→T) of FRMD7 in this Chinese family with XLCN. Our finding is the first report related to c.163–1 G→T mutation in FRMD7. The result expands the mutation spectrum of FRMD7 in association with congenital nystagmus.
Heart tissues from hibernating mammals, such as ground squirrels, are able to endure hypothermia, hypoxia and other extreme insulting factors that are fatal for human and nonhibernating mammals. This study was designed to understand adaptive mechanisms involved in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis in cardiomyocytes from the mammalian hibernator, ground squirrel, compared to rat. Electrophysiological and confocal imaging experiments showed that the voltage-dependence of L-type Ca2+ current (ICa) was shifted to higher potentials in ventricular myocytes from ground squirrels vs. rats. The elevated threshold of ICa did not compromise the Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, because a higher depolarization rate and a longer duration of action potential compensated the voltage shift of ICa. Both the caffeine-sensitive and caffeine-resistant components of cytosolic Ca2+ removal were more rapid in ground squirrels. Ca2+ sparks in ground squirrels exhibited larger amplitude/size and much lower frequency than in rats. Due to the high ICa threshold, low SR Ca2+ leak and rapid cytosolic Ca2+ clearance, heart cells from ground squirrels exhibited better capability in maintaining intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis than those from rats and other nonhibernating mammals. These findings not only reveal adaptive mechanisms of hibernation, but also provide novel strategies against Ca2+ overload-related heart diseases.
Although aberrations of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression have been identified in several other cancer types, certain previous studies have revealed that PPARγ is abundant in normal and malignant tissue in the colon. The question of whether aberrant PTEN is involved in the initial stage or is a later event during colorectal carcinogenesis remains controversial. Relatively few studies have focused on the correlation of expression of PPARγ and PTEN in various tissues. In the present study, paraffin-embedded blocks from 139 patients with CRC, 18 adenomatous polyps and 50 paired paracancerous benign mucosas were selected and analysed in 4 tissue microarray (TMA) blocks comprising 104, 72, 130 and 54 cores, respectively. Expression of PPARγ and PTEN was examined using immunohistochemical staining on TMAs. There were no significant differences in the expression of PPARγ (P=0.055) and PTEN (P=0.100) between the colorectal cancers, adenomas and paracancerous mucosas. However, correlations of PPARγ expression with clinical stage (P=0.004) and PTEN expression with histological grade (P=0.006) and distant metastasis (P=0.015) were demonstrated in the CRC specimens. Although the differences in PPARγ and PTEN protein expression in human colorectal cancer may not be considered as early diagnostic markers, our results indicate that CRCs with a low expression or deletion of PTEN may progress towards invasion and even metastasis; thus, PTEN may have potential as a prognostic marker in human CRC.
peroxisome proliferator receptor γ; phosphatase and tensin homolog; tissue microarray; immunohistochemistry; colorectal cancer
Ischemia damages the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), mediated in part by damage generated by the mitochondria themselves. Mitochondrial damage resulting from ischemia, in turn, leads to cardiac injury during reperfusion. The goal of the present study was to localize the segment of the ETC that produces the ischemic mitochondrial damage. We tested if blockade of the proximal ETC at complex I differed from blockade distal in the chain at cytochrome oxidase. Isolated rabbit hearts were perfused for 15 min followed by 30 min stop-flow ischemia at 37°C. Amobarbital (2.5 mM) or azide (5 mM) was used to block proximal (complex I) or distal (cytochrome oxidase) sites in the ETC. Time control hearts were buffer-perfused for 45 min. Subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM) and interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM) were isolated. Ischemia decreased cytochrome c content in SSM but not in IFM compared to time control. Blockade of electron transport at complex I preserved the cytochrome c content in SSM. In contrast, blockade of electron transport at cytochrome oxidase with azide did not retain cytochrome c in SSM during ischemia. Since blockade of electron transport at complex III also prevented cytochrome c loss during ischemia, the specific site that elicits mitochondrial damage during ischemia is likely located in the segment between complex III and cytochrome oxidase.
electron transport chain; reactive oxygen species; ischemia; cytochrome c; cardiolipin
The IC53 gene was reported to be upregulated in the colon adenocarcinoma cell line SW480. Here, we show that the expression level of IC53 is positively correlated with the grade and depth of invasion in adenocarcinoma of the colon. Injection of IC53 stably transfected HCT-116 cells into athymic nude mice promoted tumor growth. Furthermore, overexpression of IC53 increased cell invasive growth, which could be dramatically prevented by knocking down IC53 with siRNA. The effects of IC53 on cell-invasive growth were mediated by upregulation of integrins, activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phosphorylation of Akt. A single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2737 in the IC53 gene created a potential microRNA379 target site, and microRNA379 expression inhibited IC53 translation. Among 222 patients with colorectal cancer, the C/C rs2737 genotype was associated with late onset of colorectal cancer (median age 63.0 versus 55.3 years, P = 0.003). The frequency of the C/C rs2737 genotype was much lower in patients who developed colorectal cancer below the age of 45 years than in individuals over age 45 years (10.8% versus 26.6%, P = 0.039). These data indicated that IC53 is a positive mediator for colon cancer progression, and IC53-rs2737 may serve as protection from the onset of colorectal cancer.
The aim of this study was to detect metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1) expression in Chinese gastric cancer and analyze the relationship between MACC1 expression and postoperative survival.
The expression of MACC1 and c-MET protein in a sample of 128 gastric cancer tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. A retrospective cohort study on the prognosis was carried out and data were collected from medical records.
The positive rate of MACC1 protein expression in gastric cancer was 47.66%, higher than that in adjacent noncancerous mucosa (P<0.001). MACC1 protein expression was not related to the clinicopathological variables involved. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the survival of MACC1 positive group tended to be better than that of MACC1 negative group, particularly in patients with stage III carcinoma (P=0.032). Cox regression analysis revealed that MACC1 protein over-expression in gastric cancer tended to be a protective factor with hazard ratio of 0.621 (P=0.057). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the positive rate of c-MET protein expression was much higher in cases with positive MACC1 expression in gastric cancer (P=0.002), but P53 expression was not associated with MACC1 expression.
MACC1 over-expression implies better survival and may be an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer in Chinese patients.
MACC1; Gastric cancer; Prognosis
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) may be used for focal delivery of plasmids, drugs, cells, and other applications. Here we ask whether such particles are toxic to ocular structures.
To evaluate the ocular toxicity of MNPs, we asked if either 50 nm or 4 µm magnetic particles affect intraocular pressure, corneal endothelial cell count, retinal morphology including both cell counts and glial activation, or photoreceptor function at different time points after injection. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 44) were injected in the left eye with either 50 nm (3 µl, 1.65 mg) or 4 µm (3 µl, 1.69 mg) magnetic particles, and an equal volume of PBS into the right eye. Electroretinograms (ERG) were used to determine if MNPs induce functional changes to the photoreceptor layers. Enucleated eyes were sectioned for histology and immunofluorescence.
Compared to control-injected eyes, MNPs did not alter IOP measurements. ERG amplitudes for a-waves were in the 100–250 µV range and b-waves were in the 500–600 µV range, with no significant differences between injected and non-injected eyes. Histological sectioning and immunofluorescence staining showed little difference in MNP-injected animals compared to control eyes. In contrast, at 1 week, corneal endothelial cell numbers were significantly lower in the 4 µm magnetic particle-injected eyes compared to either 50 nm MNP- or PBS-injected eyes. Furthermore, iron deposition was detected after 4 µm magnetic particle but not 50 nm MNP injection.
Intravitreal or anterior chamber injections of MNPs showed little to no signs of toxicity on retinal structure, photoreceptor function or aqueous drainage in the eye. Our results suggest that MNPs are safe for intraocular use.
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combination therapy with recombinant adenovirus p53 injection (rAdp53) and transcatheter hepatic arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: A total of 82 patients with advanced HCC treated only with TACE served as control group. Another 68 patients with HCC treated with TACE in combination with recombinant adenovirus-p53 injection served as p53 treatment group. Patients were followed up for 12 mo. Safety and therapeutic effects were evaluated according to the improvement in clinical symptoms, leukocyte count, Karnofsky and RECIST criteria. Survival rate was calculated with Kaplan-Meier method.
RESULTS: The total effective rate was 58.3% for p53 treatment group, and 26.5% for control group (P < 0.05). The incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms was lower in p53 treatment group than in control group (P < 0.05). The 3-, 6- and 12-mo survival rates were significantly higher for p53 treatment group than for control group (P < 0.01). The combination treatment was well tolerated with such adverse events as fever (51.5%, P = 0.006) and pain of muscles and joints (13.2%, P = 0.003), which were significantly higher than the chemotherapy. Except for these minor adverse effects, no severe vector-related complications were identified. With respect to the efficacy, patients in p53 treatment group had less gastrointerestinal symptoms (P = 0.062), better improvement in tumor-related pain (P = 0.003), less downgrade of leukocyte counts (P = 0.003) and more upgrade of Karnofsky performance score (P = 0.029) than those in control group. The total effective rate (CR + PR) for p53 treatment group and control group was 58.3% and 26.5%, respectively, with distributions of different effect in two groups (P = 0.042). The survival rates were 89.71%, 76.13%, and 43.30% for p53 treatment group, and 68.15%, 36.98%, and 24.02% for control group, respectively, 3, 6 and 12 mo after treatment, suggesting that the survival rates are significantly higher for p53 treatment group than for control group (P = 0.0002).
CONCLUSION: The rAd-p53 gene therapy in combination with TACE is a safe and effective treatment modality for advanced HCC.
Adenovirus p53; Clinical trial; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Transcatheter hepatic arterial chemoembolization; p53 gene therapy
We have used short laser pulses to generate transient vapor nanobubbles around plasmonic nanoparticles. The photothermal, mechanical and optical properties of such bubbles were found to be different from those of plasmonic nanoparticle and vapor bubbles as well. This phenomena was considered as a new complex nanosystem – plasmonic nanobubble (PNB). Mechanical and optical scattering properties of PNB depended upon the nanoparticle surface and heat capacity, clusterization state, and the optical pulse length. The generation of the PNB required much higher laser pulse fluence thresholds than the explosive boiling level, and was characterized by the relatively high lower threshold of the minimal size (lifetime) of PNB. Optical scattering by PNB and its diameter (measured as the lifetime) has been varied with the fluence of laser pulse and this has demonstrated the tunable nature of PNB.
vapor nanobubble; photothermal; scattering; pulsed laser; gold nanoparticle; plasmon resonance; vapor bubble
Mainland China experienced pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009) virus (pH1N1) with
peak activity during November-December 2009. To understand the geographic
extent, risk factors, and attack rate of pH1N1 infection in China we
conducted a nationwide serological survey to determine the prevalence of
antibodies to pH1N1.
Stored serum samples (n = 2,379) collected during
2006-2008 were used to estimate baseline serum reactogenicity to pH1N1. In
January 2010, we used a multistage-stratified random sampling method to
select 50,111 subjects who met eligibility criteria and collected serum
samples and administered a standardized questionnaire. Antibody response to
pH1N1 was measured using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay and the
weighted seroprevalence was calculated using the Taylor series linearization
method. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine risk
factors for pH1N1 seropositivity. Baseline seroprevalence of pH1N1 antibody
(HI titer ≥40) was 1.2%. The weighted seroprevalence of pH1N1
among the Chinese population was 21.5%(vaccinated: 62.0%;
unvaccinated: 17.1%). Among unvaccinated participants, those aged
6-15 years (32.9%) and 16-24 years (30.3%) had higher
seroprevalence compared with participants aged 25–59 years
(10.7%) and ≥60 years (9.9%, P<0.0001). Children in
kindergarten and students had higher odds of seropositivity than children in
family care (OR: 1.36 and 2.05, respectively). We estimated that 207.7
million individuals (15.9%) experienced pH1N1 infection in China.
The Chinese population had low pre-existing immunity to pH1N1 and experienced
a relatively high attack rate in 2009 of this virus. We recommend routine
control measures such as vaccination to reduce transmission and spread of
seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses.
AIM: To study the HER-2/neu protein expression and gene amplification in gastric carcinoma and their relation.
METHODS: One hundred and forty-five formalin-fixed and paraffin- embedded tumor tissue samples from Chinese gastric carcinoma patients were studied with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) methods. Clinicopathologic data about all patients were collected.
RESULTS: The levels of HER-2 3+, HER-2 2+ and HER2 1+ were measurable in 6.9%, 8.3% and 17.2% of the samples, respectively. No HER-2 was stained in 67.6% of the samples. FISH showed that HER-2 gene was amplified in 18 samples, 10 HER-2 3+ samples, 5 HER-2 2+ samples, and 3 HER-2 1+ samples with IHC staining. HER-2 status was not correlated with the sex and age of patients, and tumor size, location or differentiation, but with the depth of invasion, TNM stage, lymph node and distant metastasis as well as histopathological classification of gastric cancer (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: All samples with IHC as HER-2 expression should be analyzed with FISH. Detection of HER-2 gene amplification can assess the malignant biological behaviors and prognosis of gastric cancer.
Gastric carcinoma; HER-2; Clinocopathologic significance; Immunohistochemistry; Fluorescence in situ hybridization
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) die in glaucoma and virtually all optic neuropathies. Recently, novel tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) monoclonal antibodies have been shown to activate TrkB receptors and exert neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects. In the present study, the authors examined the ability of one of them, 29D7, to elicit RGC survival and neurite growth both in culture and in vivo.
RGCs from postnatal day (P)3 to P4 Sprague-Dawley rats were isolated by sequential immunopanning using a monoclonal antibody to Thy1. RGCs were cultured in serum-free defined medium in 96-well plates. RGC viability was assessed after 1 to 3 days by MTT assay. Activation of TrkB and downstream signaling molecules was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Intravitreal injections of 29D7 were performed after optic nerve axotomy, and subsequent RGC survival was quantified using β-III tubulin immunostaining. Regeneration was assessed using retrograde fluorogold tracing in an optic nerve-peripheral nerve graft model.
Similar to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the 29D7 antibody strongly promoted RGC survival and neurite growth in vitro compared with medium alone or control IgG. Forskolin, which weakly supported RGC survival on its own, potentiated the effect of 29D7. Intravitreal injection of 29D7 enhanced RGC survival but not regeneration in vivo 2 weeks after optic nerve injury.
Together, these findings demonstrate the potential for antibody-mediated TrkB agonism as a potential therapeutic approach to enhance RGC survival after optic nerve injury. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanistic differences between this TrkB agonist and BDNF.
Androgen dependent induction of the eTs related gene (ERG) expression in more than half of all prostate cancers results from gene fusions involving regulatory sequence of androgen regulated genes (i.e., TMPRSS2, SLC45A3 and NDRG1) and protein coding sequence of the ERG. Emerging studies in experimental models underscore the functions of ERG in prostate tumorigenesis. however, biological and biochemical functions of ERG in prostate cancer (Cap) remain to be elucidated. This study suggests that ERG activation plays a role in prostaglandin signaling because knockdown of ERG expression in TMPRSS2-ERG fusion containing Cap cells leads to altered levels of the 15-hydroxy-prostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD), a tumor suppressor and prostaglandin catabolizing enzyme and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). We demonstrate that HPGD expression is regulated by the binding of the ERG protein to the core promoter of this gene. Moreover, prostaglandin E2 dependent cell growth and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) expression are also affected by ERG knockdown. Together, these data imply that the ERG oncoprotein in CaP cells positively influence prostaglandin mediated signaling, which may contribute to tumor progression.
prostate; cancer; ETS; ERG; TMPRSS2; oncogene; HPGD; tumor suppressor; prostaglandin; inflammation
Two combinations of dilation drops (1% Tropicamide & 2.5% Phenylephrine [TP] versus 1% Tropicamide & 1% Cyclopentolate [TC]) were compared to determine time course and magnitude of dilation for patients with dark irides.
45 subjects, 4–32 years of age, with dark irides were enrolled. Photographs were taken prior to dilation and at 5, 10, 15, 20, 40, & 60 minutes after instillation of drops. Subjects received TP in one eye and TC in the fellow eye with eyes randomized to the combination received. An examiner masked to drug combination and time used digital analysis to calculate pupil diameter for each photograph. TP and TC were compared to determine the time to reach both 6 and 7 mm pupil diameter, and the percentage of subjects reaching these diameters.
98% of pupils reached 6 mm with either combination; however, 80% reached 7 mm with TP and only 58% with TC (p = 0.0062 McNemars Exact Test). Time at which 50% of pupils reached 6 mm was not significantly different between drug combinations (TP 11 min vs. TC 12 min, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis). However, time at which 50% reached 7 mm was statistically and clinically significant (TP 32 min vs. TC 52 min, p = 0.0325). For subjects ≤10 years versus >10 years, there was no significant difference in time at which 50% reached a 6 mm or 7 mm pupil with TP or TC; however, in every case the younger group took longer.
A 6 mm pupil dilation may be obtained with either TP or TC; however, more subjects achieved a 7 mm pupil with TP than TC and had a faster time course to attain that size.
pupil dilation; phenylephrine; tropicamide; cyclopentolate; dark iris
Tamoxifen was approved for breast cancer risk reduction in high-risk women based on the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project's Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (P-1:BCPT), which showed 50% fewer breast cancers with tamoxifen versus placebo, supporting tamoxifen's efficacy in preventing breast cancer. Poor metabolizing CYP2D6 variants are currently the subject of intensive scrutiny regarding their impact on clinical outcomes in the adjuvant setting. Our study extends to variants in a wider spectrum of tamoxifen-metabolizing genes and applies to the prevention setting.
Our case-only study, nested within P-1:BCPT, explored associations of polymorphisms in estrogen/tamoxifen-metabolizing genes with responsiveness to preventive tamoxifen. Thirty-nine candidate polymorphisms in 17 candidate genes were genotyped in 249 P-1:BCPT cases.
CYP2D6_C1111T, individually and within a CYP2D6 haplotype, showed borderline significant association with treatment arm. Path analysis of the entire tamoxifen pathway gene network showed that the tamoxifen pathway model was consistent with the pattern of observed genotype variability within the placebo-arm dataset. However, correlation of variations in genes in the tamoxifen arm differed significantly from the predictions of the tamoxifen pathway model. Strong correlations between allelic variation in the tamoxifen pathway at CYP1A1-CYP3A4, CYP3A4-CYP2C9, and CYP2C9-SULT1A2, in addition to CYP2D6 and its adjacent genes, were seen in the placebo-arm but not the tamoxifen-arm. In conclusion, beyond reinforcing a role for CYP2D6 in tamoxifen response, our pathway analysis strongly suggests that specific combinations of allelic variants in other genes make major contributions to the tamoxifen-resistance phenotype.
Breast cancer; tamoxifen resistance; chemoprevention; pathway analysis; breast cancer risk; genomic polymorphisms
Mutations in the collagen VI genes (COL6A1, COL6A2, and COL6A3) result in Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD), Bethlem myopathy (BM) or phenotypes intermediate between UCMD and BM. While UCMD can be caused by either recessively or dominantly acting mutations, BM has thus far been described as an exclusively autosomal dominant condition. We report two adult siblings with classic Bethlem myopathy who are compound heterozygous for a single nucleotide deletion (exon 23; c.1770delG), leading to in-frame skipping of exon 23 on the maternal allele, and a missense mutation p.R830W in exon 28 on the paternal allele. The parents are carriers of the respective mutations and are clinically unaffected. The exon skipping mutation in exon 23 results in a chain incapable of heterotrimeric assembly, while p.R830W likely ameliorates the phenotype into the Bethlem range. Thus, autosomal recessive inheritance can also underlie Bethlem myopathy, supporting the notion that UCMD and BM are part of a common clinical and genetic spectrum.
Bethlem myopathy; collagen VI; COL6A2; autosomal recessive inheritance
In the title gem-dinitroazetidinium 2-hydroxybenzoate salt, C3H6N3O4
−, the azetidine ring is virtually planar, with a mean deviation from the plane of 0.0242 Å. The dihedral angle between the two nitro groups is 87.5 (1)°.