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1.  HIF-1α is critical for hypoxia-mediated maintenance of glioblastoma stem cells by activating Notch signaling pathway 
Cell Death and Differentiation  2011;19(2):284-294.
Hypoxia induces the expansion of glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs), but the mechanism underlying it is still unclear. Here, we supply evidence that hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) induced activation of Notch pathway is essential for hypoxia-mediated maintenance of GSC. Either depletion of HIF-1α or inactivation of Notch signaling partly inhibits the hypoxia-mediated maintenance of GSC. Further data suggest a role for HIF-1α in the interaction and stabilization of intracellular domain of Notch (NICD), and activation of Notch signaling. The mRNA level of HIF-1α and Notch target gene FABP7 was elevated in GSC. And the STAT3 pathway responsible for the HIF-1α gene transcription, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt and ERK1/2, both of which are contributed to HIF-1α protein translation, are also preferentially activated in GSC. Inhibition of these pathways partly reduces the hypoxia-induced activation of the Notch pathway and subsequent GSC maintenance. Taken together, our findings suggest that HIF-1α requires Notch pathway to drive the maintenance of GSC. The activated regulation of HIF-1α makes GSC more sensitive to hypoxia-mediated maintenance. These findings enhance our understanding of mechanism of hypoxia-mediated GSC expansion and provide HIF-1α as an attractive target for glioblastoma therapy.
PMCID: PMC3263503  PMID: 21818118
cancer stem cell; hypoxia; Notch; Stat3; PI3K/AKT/mTOR
2.  Atrial and brain natriuretic peptides stimulate the production and secretion of C-type natriuretic peptide from bovine aortic endothelial cells. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1995;95(3):1151-1157.
C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a member of the natriuretic peptide family which is produced in vascular endothelial cells and may play an important paracrine role in the vasaculature. We sought to determine the regulation of CNP production by other vasoactive peptides from cultured aortic endothelial cells. The vasoconstrictors endothelin-1 and angiotensin II had little effect on the basal secretion of CNP. In contrast, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) strongly stimulated the secretion of CNP. BNP caused as much as a 400-fold enhancement above the basal accumulated secretion of CNP over 24 h at a concentration of 1 microM; this was 20 times greater than the stimulatory effect of ANP, BNP and ANP also significantly enhanced the production of new CNP protein (translation) and mRNA expressed in the BAEC. In contrast, C-ANP-4-23, a truncated form of ANP which selectively binds to the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor, did not stimulate CNP secretion. The enhanced production and secretion of CNP, caused by either ANP or BNP, was significantly prevented by LY 83583, an inhibitor of cGMP generation, and was also attenuated by KT 5823, an inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinase. Our results indicate that ANP and BNP can stimulate CNP production through a guanylate cyclase receptor on endothelial cells. BNP is a much more potent stimulator of CNP secretion, compared to ANP. Our findings suggest that the vasodilatory, and anti-mitogenic effects of ANP and BNP in the vasculature could occur in part through CNP production and subsequent action if these interactions occur in vivo.
PMCID: PMC441452  PMID: 7883964
3.  Astrocyte growth is regulated by neuropeptides through Tis 8 and basic fibroblast growth factor. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1994;93(4):1820-1827.
The important intracellular mechanisms of astrocyte growth are not well defined. Using an inhibitor of astrocyte proliferation, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and the glial mitogen endothelin (ET-3), we sought a common pathway for growth regulation in these neural cells. In cultured fetal rat diencephalic astrocytes, ANP selectively and rapidly inhibited the Tis 8 immediate early gene and protein. After 4 h, ANP selectively inhibited the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) gene and protein. ET-3 significantly stimulated both Tis 8 and bFGF mRNAs and protein, but also stimulated several other immediate early and growth factor/receptor genes. An antisense oligonucleotide to Tis 8 strongly prevented ET-stimulated thymidine incorporation, while the inhibitory action of ANP was enhanced. The Tis 8 antisense oligonucleotide also significantly reversed ET-stimulated bFGF transcription and enhanced the bFGF inhibition caused by ANP. In addition, an antisense oligonucleotide to bFGF significantly reversed the ET-stimulated thymidine incorporation and enhanced the ANP inhibition of DNA synthesis. The sequential modulation of Tis 8, followed by bFGF, provides a novel mechanism for both positive and negative regulation of astrocyte growth by endogenous neuropeptides.
PMCID: PMC294252  PMID: 8163680
4.  High density lipoproteins stimulate the production and secretion of endothelin-1 from cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1994;93(3):1056-1062.
The concentration of HDL in the blood inversely correlates with the incidence of cardiovascular disease, probably related to the ability of these lipoproteins to efflux cholesterol from vascular cells. it is also possible that HDL affect the production or action of vasoactive peptides implicated in the development of vascular diseases. Therefore, we determined the effects of human HDL on the production and secretion of endothelin-1 (ET-1) from cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. HDL produced a highly significant stimulation of endothelin secretion (maximum 240% of control), even at very low levels of lipoproteins (1 microgram/ml). HDL also stimulated the translation of ET-1 by twofold in the bovine aortic endothelial cells. In contrast, HDL had no significant effect on steady state mRNA levels, transcript degradation, or transcription. Stimulation of ET-1 secretion by HDL was dependent on protein kinase C activation. Purified apo A-I, the major apoprotein of HDL, increased ET-1 secretion and translation approximately 85% as potently as HDL. Our results indicate that low concentrations of human HDL strongly stimulate the production of ET-1, a powerful vasoconstrictor and mitogen for the vascular smooth muscle cell. We propose that HDL may participate in the regulation of vasomotor tone through this potentially important effect in the vasculature.
PMCID: PMC294036  PMID: 8132743
6.  Improvement in the specificity of assays for detection of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1991;29(3):600-604.
Reducing agents dramatically alter the specificity of competitive assays for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). A specificity improvement was demonstrated with a new assay which utilizes microparticle membrane capture and chemiluminescence detection as well as a current radioimmunoassay procedure (Corab: Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Ill.). The effect was most noticeable with elevated negative and weakly reactive samples. In both systems, reductants increased separation of a negative population (n = 160) from assay cutoffs. With a selected population (n = 307), inclusion of reductant eliminated apparent anti-HBc activity in 54 of 81 samples in the 30 to 70% inhibition range. Reductant-stable anti-HBc samples were strongly associated with the presence of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (21 of 27). The association persisted below the detection limits of current assays to 0.3 to 0.4 Paul Ehrlich Institute units per ml. Only 1 of 54 reduction-sensitive borderline samples was confirmed to be positive for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen. The modified procedures had unchanged or slightly improved sensitivity for immunoglobulin G (IgG)-associated anti-HBc activity. Although IgM anti-HBc detection was reduced from four- to eightfold in the presence of reductants, sensitivities remained at least twofold greater than tha of an enzyme immunoassay (Corzyme M; Abbott) designed to detect acute-phase levels of IgM anti-HBc. The use of reducing agents should significantly improve the reliability of anti-HBc testing, especially near assay cutoffs.
PMCID: PMC269826  PMID: 2037678

Results 1-7 (7)