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author:("He, qihai")
1.  Porcine Coronin 1A Contributes to Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-κB) Inactivation during Haemophilus parasuis Infection 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e103904.
Haemophilus parasuis (H.parasuis) is the etiological agent of porcine polyserositis and arthritis (Glässer's disease) characterized by fibrinous polyserositis, meningitis and polyarthritis, causing severe economic losses to the swine industry. Currently, the molecular basis of this infection is largely unkonwn. Coronin 1A (Coro1A) plays important roles in host against bacterial infection, yet little is known about porcine Coro1A. In this study, we investigated the molecular characterization of porcine Coro1A, revealing that porcine Coro1A was widely expressed in different tissues. Coro1A could be induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), polyinosinic acid-polycytidylic acid [poly (I:C)] and H.parasuis in porcine kidney-15 (PK-15) cells. Functional analyses revealed that porcine Coro1A suppressed the NF-κB activation during H.parasuis infection by inhibiting the degradation of IκBα and nuclear translocation of p65. Overexpression of porcine Coro1A inhibited the transcription of NF-κB-mediated downstream genes [Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-8 (IL-8) and COX-2] through down-regulation of NF-κB. The results indicated that porcine Coro1A is an important immunity related gene that helps to inhibit NF-kB activation during H. parasuis infection.
PMCID: PMC4122374  PMID: 25093672
2.  Broad Activity against Porcine Bacterial Pathogens Displayed by Two Insect Antimicrobial Peptides Moricin and Cecropin B 
Molecules and Cells  2013;35(2):106-114.
In response to infection, insects produce a variety of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to kill the invading pathogens. To study their physicochemical properties and bioactivities for clinical and commercial use in the porcine industry, we chemically synthesized the mature peptides Bombyx mori moricin and Hyalophora cecropia cecropin B. In this paper, we described the antimicrobial activity of the two AMPs. Moricin exhibited antimicrobial activity on eight strains tested with minimal inhibitory concentration values (MICs) ranging between 8 and 128 μg/ml, while cecropin B mainly showed antimicrobial activity against the Gramnegative strains with MICs ranging from 0.5 to 16 μg/ml. Compared to the potent antimicrobial activity these two AMPs displayed against most of the bacterial pathogens tested, they exhibited limited hemolytic activity against porcine red blood cells. The activities of moricin and cecropin B against Haemophilus parasuis SH 0165 were studied in further detail. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of moricin and cecropin B treated H. parasuis SH 0165 indicated extensive damage to the membranes of the bacteria. Insights into the probable mechanism utilized by moricin and cecropin B to eliminate pathogens are also presented. The observations from this study are important for the future application of AMPs in the porcine industry.
PMCID: PMC3887904  PMID: 23456332
antimicrobial peptide; cecropin B; Haemophilus parasuis SH 0165; moricin; transmission electron microscopy
3.  Immune-Tolerizing Procedure for Preparation of Monoclonal Antibodies Against Glycoprotein E of Pseudorabies Virus 
The glycoprotein E (gE) of pseudorabies virus (PRV) is known to be an important marker protein in the control and eradication of Aujeszky's disease. In this study, BALB/c mice were immunized with gE-deleted PRV as tolerogen and with wild-type PRV as immunogen. The spleen cells from the immunized mice were then fused with the myeloma cell line Sp2/0. Two hybridoma cell lines that could stably secrete the monoclonal antibody (MAb) against gE were achieved by using indirect ELISA screening and subcloning three times; they were named 1D2 and 2B2. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) revealed that the MAbs were specifically against gE of PRV. MAbs 1D2 and 2B2 were subgroup IgG1. The MAbs obtained in this study provide useful tools for the development of differential diagnostic methods for PRV.
PMCID: PMC4014296  PMID: 23600501
4.  Transcription analysis of the porcine alveolar macrophage response to porcine circovirus type 2 
BMC Genomics  2013;14:353.
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the causal agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), which has severely impacted the swine industry worldwide. PCV2 triggers a weak and atypical innate immune response, but the key genes and mechanisms by which the virus interferes with host innate immunity have not yet been elucidated. In this study, genes that control the response of primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), the main target of PCV2, were profiled in vitro.
PAMs were successfully infected by PCV2-WH strain, as evidenced quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunofluorescence assay (IFA) results. Infection-related differential gene expression was investigated using pig microarrays from the US Pig Genome Coordination Program and validated by real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Microarray analysis at 24 and 48 hours post-infection (HPI) revealed 266 and 175 unique genes, respectively, that were differentially expressed (false discovery rate <0.05; fold-change >2). Only six genes were differentially expressed between 24 and 48 HPI. The up-regulated genes were principally related to immune response, cytokine activity, locomotion, regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell growth arrest, and antigen procession and presentation. The down-regulated genes were mainly involved in terpenoid biosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, translation, proteasome degradation, signal transducer activity, and ribosomal proteins, which were representative of the reduced vital activity of PCV2-infected cells.
PCV2 infection of PAMs causes up-regulation of genes related to inflammation, indicating that PCV2 may induce systematic inflammation. PCV2 persistently induced cytokines, mainly through the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 1 and TLR9 pathways, which may promote high levels of cytokine secretion. PCV2 may prevent apoptosis in PAMs by up-regulating SERPINB9 expression, possibly to lengthen the duration of PCV2 replication-permissive conditions. The observed gene expression profile may provide insights into the underlying immunological response and pathological changes that occur in pigs following PCV2 infection.
PMCID: PMC3680065  PMID: 23711280
5.  Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Human Parechovirus 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(21):11945-11946.
Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) belonging to the family Picornaviridae are widely spread pathogens among young children. We report the complete genome sequence of a novel HPeV isolated from the stool sample of a hospitalized child with diarrhea in China. The genome consists of 7,305 nucleotides, excluding the 3′ poly(A) tail, and has an open reading frame that maps between nucleotide positions 675 and 7217 and encodes a 2,180-amino-acid polyprotein. The genome sequence of the virus was sufficiently distinct from the 8 known HPeV types. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete genome indicated that the HPeV strain represents a new genotype.
PMCID: PMC3486295  PMID: 23043176
6.  Efficacy of single dose of an inactivated porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) whole-virus vaccine with oil adjuvant in piglets 
Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) associated with PCV2 is one of the most costly diseases currently faced by the swine industry. The development of effective vaccines against PCV2 infection has been accepted as an important strategy in the prophylaxis of PMWS.
In the present study, a PK-15 cell-adapted formalin-inactivated prototype vaccine candidate was prepared using a strain of PCV2 from China. Inactivation of the virus was accomplished using a standard formalin inactivation protocol. The protective properties of the inactivated PCV2 vaccine were evaluated in piglets. Ten 28-day-old pigs were randomly assigned to two groups, each with five. Group 1 was vaccinated intramuscularly with the inactivated virus preparation; Group 2 received sterile PBS as a placebo. By 28 days post-vaccination (DPV), Groups 1 and 2 were challenged intranasally and intramuscularly with 5 × 107 TCID50 of a virulent PCV2 isolate.
The vaccinated pigs seroconverted to PCV2 and had high levels of serum antibodies to PCV2 at 28 days after vaccination, whereas the control pigs remained seronegative. No significant signs of clinical disease were recorded following the challenge with PCV2, but moderate amounts of PCV2 antigen were detected in most lymphoid organs of the control pigs. PCV2 was detected in two out of the five vaccinated pigs. Furthermore, pathological lesions and viremia were milder in the vaccinated group.
The obtained results indicate that the inactivated PCV2 virus vaccine with an oil adjuvant induce an immunological response in pigs that appears to provide protection from infection with PCV2. The vaccine, therefore, may have the potential to serve as a vaccine aimed to protect pigs from developing PMWS.
PMCID: PMC3539982  PMID: 23171757
Porcine circovirus type 2; Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome; Single-dose immunization; Formalin-inactivated vaccine
7.  New Variants of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, China, 2011 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2012;18(8):1350-1353.
In 2011, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection rates rose substantially in vaccinated swine herds. To determine the distribution profile of PEDV outbreak strains, we sequenced the full-length spike gene from samples from 9 farms where animals exhibited severe diarrhea and mortality rates were high. Three new PEDV variants were identified.
PMCID: PMC3414035  PMID: 22840964
porcine epidemic diarrhea virus; prevalence; China; phylogeny; variant strain; viruses
8.  Transcription analysis on response of porcine alveolar macrophages to Haemophilus parasuis 
BMC Genomics  2012;13:68.
Haemophilus parasuis (H. parasuis) is the etiological agent of Glässer's disease in pigs. Currently, the molecular basis of this infection is largely unknown. The innate immune response is the first line of defense against the infectious disease. Systematical analysis on host innate immune response to the infection is important for understanding the pathogenesis of the infectious microorganisms.
A total of 428 differentially expressed (DE) genes were identified in the porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) 6 days after H. parasuis infection. These genes were principally related to inflammatory response, immune response, microtubule polymerization, regulation of transcript and signal transduction. Through the pathway analysis, the significant pathways mainly concerned with cell adhesion molecules, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, complement and coagulation cascades, toll-like receptor signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, suggesting that the host took different strategies to activate immune and inflammatory response upon H. parasuis infection. The global interactions network and two subnetworks of the proteins encoded by DE genes were analyzed by using STRING. Further immunostimulation analysis indicated that mRNA levels of S100 calcium-binding protein A4 (S100A4) and S100 calcium-binding protein A6 (S100A6) in porcine PK-15 cells increased within 48 h and were sustained after administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Poly (I:C) respectively. The s100a4 and s100a6 genes were found to be up-regulated significantly in lungs, spleen and lymph nodes in H. parasuis infected pigs. We firstly cloned and sequenced the porcine coronin1a gene. Phylogenetic analysis showed that poCORONIN 1A belonged to the group containing the Bos taurus sequence. Structural analysis indicated that the poCORONIN 1A contained putative domains of Trp-Asp (WD) repeats signature, Trp-Asp (WD) repeats profile and Trp-Asp (WD) repeats circular profile at the N-terminus.
Our present study is the first one focusing on the response of porcine alveolar macrophages to H. parasuis. Our data demonstrate a series of genes are activated upon H. parasuis infection. The observed gene expression profile could help screening the potential host agents for reducing the prevalence of H. parasuis and further understanding the molecular pathogenesis associated with H. parasuis infection in pigs.
PMCID: PMC3296652  PMID: 22330747
9.  Isolation, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Virulence Genes of Pasteurella multocida Strains from Swine in China▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2009;47(4):951-958.
A total of 233 isolates of Pasteurella multocida were obtained from 2,912 cases of clinical respiratory disease in pigs in China, giving an isolation rate of 8.0%. Serogroup A P. multocida isolates were isolated from 92 cases (39.5%), and serogroup D isolates were isolated from 128 cases (54.9%); 12 isolates (5.2%) were untypeable. P. multocida was the fourth most frequent pathogenic bacterium recovered from the respiratory tract, after Streptococcus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, and Escherichia coli. All isolates were characterized for their susceptibilities to 20 antibiotics and the presence of 19 genes for virulence factors (VFs). The frequency of antimicrobial resistance among P. multocida isolates from swine in China was higher than that reported among P. multocida isolates from swine in from other countries, and 93.1% of the isolates showed multiple-drug resistance. There was a progressive increase in the rate of multiresistance to more than seven antibiotics, from 16.2% in 2003 to 62.8% in 2007. The resistance profiles suggested that cephalosporins, florfenicol, and fluoroquinolones were the drugs most likely to be active against P. multocida. Use of PCR showed that colonization factors (ptfA, fimA, and hsf-2), iron acquisition factors, sialidases (nanH), and outer membrane proteins occurred in most porcine strains. The VFs pfhA, tadD, toxA, and pmHAS were each present in <50% of strains. The various VFs exhibited distinctive associations with serogroups: concentrated in serogroup A, concentrated in serogroup D, or occurring jointly in serogroups A and D. These findings provide novel insights into the epidemiological characteristics of porcine P. multocida isolates and suggest that the potential threat of such multiresistant bacteria in food-producing animals should not be neglected.
PMCID: PMC2668295  PMID: 19158260
10.  Detection of H5 Avian Influenza Viruses by Antigen-Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using H5-Specific Monoclonal Antibody▿  
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology  2007;14(5):617-623.
The unprecedented spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in Asia and Europe is threatening animals and public health systems. Effective diagnosis and control management are needed to control the disease. To this end, we developed a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) and implemented an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) to detect the H5 viral antigen. Mice immunized with denatured hemagglutinin (HA) from A/goose/Guangdong/97 (H5N1) expressed in bacteria or immunized with concentrated H5N2 virus yielded a panel of hybridomas secreting MAbs specific for influenza virus HA. The reactivity of each MAb with several subtypes of influenza virus revealed that hybridomas 3D4 and 8B6 specifically recognized H5 HA. Therefore, purified antibodies from hybridomas 3D4 and 8B6, which secrete immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM, respectively, were used as the capture antibodies and pooled hyperimmune guinea pig serum IgG served as the detector antibody. The specificity of the optimized AC-ELISA was evaluated by using AIV subtypes H5 H3, H4, H7, H9, and H10. Specimens containing AIV subtype H5 subtype yielded a specific and strong signal above the background, whereas specimens containing all other subtypes yielded background signals. The detection limits of the AC-ELISA were 62.5 ng of bacterium-expressed H5N1 HA1 protein and 124, 62, and 31 50% tissue culture infective doses of influenza virus subtypes H5N1/PR8, H5N2, and H5N3, respectively. Reconstituted clinical samples consisting of H5 AIVs mixed with pharyngeal-tracheal mucus from healthy chickens also yielded positive signals in the AC-ELISA, and the results were confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR. The tracheal swab samples from H9N2-infected chickens did not give positive signals. Taken together, the newly developed MAb-based AC-ELISA offers an attractive alternative to other diagnostic approaches for the specific detection of H5 AIV.
PMCID: PMC1865641  PMID: 17344345
11.  Expression of hemagglutinin protein from the avian influenza virus H5N1 in a baculovirus/insect cell system significantly enhanced by suspension culture 
BMC Microbiology  2006;6:16.
Prevention of a possible avian influenza pandemic necessitates the development of rapid diagnostic tests and the eventual production of a vaccine.
For vaccine production, hemagglutinin (HA1) from avian influenza H5N1 was expressed from a recombinant baculovirus. Recombinant HA1 was expressed in monolayer or suspension culture insect cells by infection with the recombinant baculovirus. The yield of rHA1 from the suspension culture was 68 mg/l, compared to 6 mg/l from the monolayer culture. Immunization of guinea pigs with 50 μg of rHA1 yielded hemagglutinin inhibition and virus neutralization titers of 1:160 after two times vaccination with rHA1 protein.
Thus, the production of rHA1 using an insect suspension cell system provides a promising basis for economical production of a H5 antigen.
PMCID: PMC1397843  PMID: 16504108
12.  Novel Immunofluorescence Assay Using Recombinant Nucleocapsid-Spike Fusion Protein as Antigen To Detect Antibodies against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by a novel and highly infectious virus named SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Among the serological tests currently available for the detection of SARS-CoV, a whole-virus-based immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was considered one of the most sensitive assays and served as a “gold standard” during the SARS epidemic in Singapore in 2003. However, the need to manipulate live SARS-CoV in the traditional IFA limits its wide application due to the requirement for a biosafety level 3 laboratory and the risk of laboratory infection. Previously, we have identified two immunodominant epitopes, named N195 and Sc, in the two major structural proteins, the N and S proteins, of SARS-CoV (Q. He, K. H. Chong, H. H. Chng, B. Leung, A. E. Ling, T. Wei, S. W. Chan, E. E. Ooi, and J. Kwang, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol., 11:417-422, 2004; L. Lu, I. Manopo, B. P. Leung, H. H. Chng, A. E. Ling, L. L. Chee, E. E. Ooi, S. W. Chan, and J. Kwang, J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:1570-1576, 2004). In the present study, the N195-Sc fusion protein was highly expressed in insect (Sf9) cells infected with a recombinant baculovirus bearing the hybrid gene under the control of a polyhedrin promoter. An IFA based on Sf9 cells producing the fusion protein was standardized with 23 serum samples from patients with SARS, 20 serum samples from patients with autoimmune diseases, and 43 serum samples from healthy blood donors. The detection rates were comparable to those obtained with a commercial SARS-CoV IFA kit (EUROIMMUN, Gross Groenau, Germany) and a conventional IFA performed at the Singapore General Hospital. Our data showed that the newly developed IFA could detect SARS-CoV in 22 of the 23 SARS-CoV-positive serum samples and gave no false-positive results when the sera from patients with autoimmune diseases and healthy individuals were tested. The detection rate was identical to those of the two whole-virus-based IFAs. Thus, the novel N-S fusion antigen-based IFA could be an attractive alternative to present whole-virus-based IFAs for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV infection.
PMCID: PMC549298  PMID: 15699428
13.  Development of a Western Blot Assay for Detection of Antibodies against Coronavirus Causing Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 
To identify a major antigenic determinant for use in the development of a rapid serological diagnostic test for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus infection and to study the immune response during SARS coronavirus infection in humans, we cloned the full length and six truncated fragments of the nucleocapsid gene, expressed them, and purified them as glutathione S-transferase-tagged recombinant proteins. The reactivities of the recombinant proteins to a panel of antibodies containing 33 SARS coronavirus-positive sera and 66 negative sera and to antibodies against other animal coronaviruses were screened. A truncated 195-amino-acid fragment from the C terminus of the nucleocapsid protein (N195) was identified that had a strong ability to detect antibodies against SARS coronavirus. No cross-reaction was found between the N195 protein and antibodies against chicken, pig, and canine coronaviruses. The N195 protein was used to develop a Western blot assay to detect antibodies against SARS coronavirus in 274 clinically blinded samples. The specificity and sensitivity of this test were 98.3 and 90.9%, respectively. The correlation between our Western blotting assay and an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was also analyzed. The results of our Western blot assay and IFA for the detection of SARS coronavirus-positive sera were the same. Thus, the N195 protein was identified as a suitable protein to be used as an antigen in Western blot and other possible assays for the detection of SARS coronavirus infection.
PMCID: PMC371214  PMID: 15013997

Results 1-13 (13)