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author:("Han, yijun")
1.  Comparison of class 2 transposable elements at superfamily resolution reveals conserved and distinct features in cereal grass genomes 
BMC Genomics  2013;14:71.
Background
Class 2 transposable elements (TEs) are the predominant elements in and around plant genes where they generate significant allelic diversity. Using the complete sequences of four grasses, we have performed a novel comparative analysis of class 2 TEs. To ensure consistent comparative analyses, we re-annotated class 2 TEs in Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa (rice), Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays and assigned them to one of the five cut-and-paste superfamilies found in plant genomes (Tc1/mariner, PIF/Harbinger, hAT, Mutator, CACTA). We have focused on noncoding elements because of their abundance, and compared superfamily copy number, size and genomic distribution as well as correlation with the level of nearby gene expression.
Results
Our comparison revealed both unique and conserved features. First, the average length or size distribution of elements in each superfamily is largely conserved, with the shortest always being Tc1/mariner elements, followed by PIF/Harbinger, hAT, Mutator and CACTA. This order also holds for the ratio of the copy numbers of noncoding to coding elements. Second, with the exception of CACTAs, noncoding TEs are enriched within and flanking genes, where they display conserved distribution patterns, having the highest peak in the promoter region. Finally, our analysis of microarray data revealed that genes associated with Tc1/mariner and PIF/Harbinger noncoding elements have significantly higher expression levels than genes without class 2 TEs. In contrast, genes with CACTA elements have significantly lower expression than genes without class 2 TEs.
Conclusions
We have achieved the most comprehensive annotation of class 2 TEs to date in these four grass genomes. Comparative analysis of this robust dataset led to the identification of several previously unknown features of each superfamily related to copy number, element size, genomic distribution and correlation with the expression levels of nearby genes. These results highlight the importance of distinguishing TE superfamilies when assessing their impact on gene and genome evolution.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-71
PMCID: PMC3579700  PMID: 23369001
Genome comparison; Plant genomes; Genome evolution; Class2 transposable elements; Features; Grass genomes
2.  MITE-Hunter: a program for discovering miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements from genomic sequences 
Nucleic Acids Research  2010;38(22):e199.
Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are a special type of Class 2 non-autonomous transposable element (TE) that are abundant in the non-coding regions of the genes of many plant and animal species. The accurate identification of MITEs has been a challenge for existing programs because they lack coding sequences and, as such, evolve very rapidly. Because of their importance to gene and genome evolution, we developed MITE-Hunter, a program pipeline that can identify MITEs as well as other small Class 2 non-autonomous TEs from genomic DNA data sets. The output of MITE-Hunter is composed of consensus TE sequences grouped into families that can be used as a library file for homology-based TE detection programs such as RepeatMasker. MITE-Hunter was evaluated by searching the rice genomic database and comparing the output with known rice TEs. It discovered most of the previously reported rice MITEs (97.6%), and found sixteen new elements. MITE-Hunter was also compared with two other MITE discovery programs, FINDMITE and MUST. Unlike MITE-Hunter, neither of these programs can search large genomic data sets including whole genome sequences. More importantly, MITE-Hunter is significantly more accurate than either FINDMITE or MUST as the vast majority of their outputs are false-positives.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkq862
PMCID: PMC3001096  PMID: 20880995
3.  Detailed Analysis of a Contiguous 22-Mb Region of the Maize Genome 
PLoS Genetics  2009;5(11):e1000728.
Most of our understanding of plant genome structure and evolution has come from the careful annotation of small (e.g., 100 kb) sequenced genomic regions or from automated annotation of complete genome sequences. Here, we sequenced and carefully annotated a contiguous 22 Mb region of maize chromosome 4 using an improved pseudomolecule for annotation. The sequence segment was comprehensively ordered, oriented, and confirmed using the maize optical map. Nearly 84% of the sequence is composed of transposable elements (TEs) that are mostly nested within each other, of which most families are low-copy. We identified 544 gene models using multiple levels of evidence, as well as five miRNA genes. Gene fragments, many captured by TEs, are prevalent within this region. Elimination of gene redundancy from a tetraploid maize ancestor that originated a few million years ago is responsible in this region for most disruptions of synteny with sorghum and rice. Consistent with other sub-genomic analyses in maize, small RNA mapping showed that many small RNAs match TEs and that most TEs match small RNAs. These results, performed on ∼1% of the maize genome, demonstrate the feasibility of refining the B73 RefGen_v1 genome assembly by incorporating optical map, high-resolution genetic map, and comparative genomic data sets. Such improvements, along with those of gene and repeat annotation, will serve to promote future functional genomic and phylogenomic research in maize and other grasses.
Author Summary
Maize is a major cereal crop and key experimental system for eukaryotic biology. Previous investigations of the maize genome at the sequence level have primarily focused on analyses of genome survey sequences and BAC contigs. Here we used a comprehensive set of resources to construct an ordered and oriented 22-Mb sequence from chromosome 4 that represents 1% of the maize genome. Genome annotation revealed the presence of 544 genes that are interspersed with transposable elements (TEs), which occupy 83.8% of the sequence. Fifty-one genes were involved in 14 tandem gene clusters and most appear to have arisen after lineage divergence. TEs, especially helitrons, were found to contain gene fragments and were widely distributed in gene-rich regions. Large inversions and unequal gene deletion between the two homoeologous maize regions were the main contributors to synteny disruption among maize, sorghum, and rice. We also show that small RNAs are primarily associated with TEs across the region. Comparison of this ordered and oriented sequence with the corresponding uncurated region in the whole genome sequence of maize resulted in improvements in TE annotation that will ultimately enhance detection sensitivity and characterization of TEs. Doing so is likely to improve the specificity of gene annotations.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000728
PMCID: PMC2773423  PMID: 19936048
4.  TARGeT: a web-based pipeline for retrieving and characterizing gene and transposable element families from genomic sequences 
Nucleic Acids Research  2009;37(11):e78.
Gene families compose a large proportion of eukaryotic genomes. The rapidly expanding genomic sequence database provides a good opportunity to study gene family evolution and function. However, most gene family identification programs are restricted to searching protein databases where data are often lagging behind the genomic sequence data. Here, we report a user-friendly web-based pipeline, named TARGeT (Tree Analysis of Related Genes and Transposons), which uses either a DNA or amino acid ‘seed’ query to: (i) automatically identify and retrieve gene family homologs from a genomic database, (ii) characterize gene structure and (iii) perform phylogenetic analysis. Due to its high speed, TARGeT is also able to characterize very large gene families, including transposable elements (TEs). We evaluated TARGeT using well-annotated datasets, including the ascorbate peroxidase gene family of rice, maize and sorghum and several TE families in rice. In all cases, TARGeT rapidly recapitulated the known homologs and predicted new ones. We also demonstrated that TARGeT outperforms similar pipelines and has functionality that is not offered elsewhere.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkp295
PMCID: PMC2699529  PMID: 19429695
5.  ReAS: Recovery of Ancestral Sequences for Transposable Elements from the Unassembled Reads of a Whole Genome Shotgun 
PLoS Computational Biology  2005;1(4):e43.
We describe an algorithm, ReAS, to recover ancestral sequences for transposable elements (TEs) from the unassembled reads of a whole genome shotgun. The main assumptions are that these TEs must exist at high copy numbers across the genome and must not be so old that they are no longer recognizable in comparison to their ancestral sequences. Tested on the japonica rice genome, ReAS was able to reconstruct all of the high copy sequences in the Repbase repository of known TEs, and increase the effectiveness of RepeatMasker in identifying TEs from genome sequences.
Synopsis
Transposable elements (TEs) are a major component of the genomes of multicellular organisms. They are parasitic creatures that invade the genome, insert multiple copies of themselves, and then die. All we see now are the decayed remnants of their ancestral sequences. Reconstruction of these ancestral sequences can bring dead TEs back to life. Algorithms for detecting TEs compare present-day sequences to a library of ancestral sequences. Unknown to many, pervasive use of whole genome shotgun (WGS) methods in large-scale sequencing have made TE reconstructions increasingly problematic. To minimize assembly errors, WGS methods must reject the highly repetitive sequences that characterize most TEs, especially the most recent TEs, which are the least diverged from their ancestral sequences (and most informative for reconstruction). This is acceptable to many, because the most important parts of the genes are not repetitive, but for the TE aficionados, it is a problem. ReAS is a novel algorithm that does TE reconstruction using only the unassembled reads of a WGS. Tested against the WGS for japonica rice, it is shown to produce a library that is superior to the manually curated Repbase database of known ancestral TEs.
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.0010043
PMCID: PMC1232128  PMID: 16184192
6.  ReAS: Recovery of Ancestral Sequences for Transposable Elements from the Unassembled Reads of a Whole Genome Shotgun 
PLoS Computational Biology  2005;1(4):e43.
We describe an algorithm, ReAS, to recover ancestral sequences for transposable elements (TEs) from the unassembled reads of a whole genome shotgun. The main assumptions are that these TEs must exist at high copy numbers across the genome and must not be so old that they are no longer recognizable in comparison to their ancestral sequences. Tested on the japonica rice genome, ReAS was able to reconstruct all of the high copy sequences in the Repbase repository of known TEs, and increase the effectiveness of RepeatMasker in identifying TEs from genome sequences.
Synopsis
Transposable elements (TEs) are a major component of the genomes of multicellular organisms. They are parasitic creatures that invade the genome, insert multiple copies of themselves, and then die. All we see now are the decayed remnants of their ancestral sequences. Reconstruction of these ancestral sequences can bring dead TEs back to life. Algorithms for detecting TEs compare present-day sequences to a library of ancestral sequences. Unknown to many, pervasive use of whole genome shotgun (WGS) methods in large-scale sequencing have made TE reconstructions increasingly problematic. To minimize assembly errors, WGS methods must reject the highly repetitive sequences that characterize most TEs, especially the most recent TEs, which are the least diverged from their ancestral sequences (and most informative for reconstruction). This is acceptable to many, because the most important parts of the genes are not repetitive, but for the TE aficionados, it is a problem. ReAS is a novel algorithm that does TE reconstruction using only the unassembled reads of a WGS. Tested against the WGS for japonica rice, it is shown to produce a library that is superior to the manually curated Repbase database of known ancestral TEs.
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.0010043
PMCID: PMC1232128  PMID: 16184192
7.  The Genomes of Oryza sativa: A History of Duplications 
Yu, Jun | Wang, Jun | Lin, Wei | Li, Songgang | Li, Heng | Zhou, Jun | Ni, Peixiang | Dong, Wei | Hu, Songnian | Zeng, Changqing | Zhang, Jianguo | Zhang, Yong | Li, Ruiqiang | Xu, Zuyuan | Li, Shengting | Li, Xianran | Zheng, Hongkun | Cong, Lijuan | Lin, Liang | Yin, Jianning | Geng, Jianing | Li, Guangyuan | Shi, Jianping | Liu, Juan | Lv, Hong | Li, Jun | Wang, Jing | Deng, Yajun | Ran, Longhua | Shi, Xiaoli | Wang, Xiyin | Wu, Qingfa | Li, Changfeng | Ren, Xiaoyu | Wang, Jingqiang | Wang, Xiaoling | Li, Dawei | Liu, Dongyuan | Zhang, Xiaowei | Ji, Zhendong | Zhao, Wenming | Sun, Yongqiao | Zhang, Zhenpeng | Bao, Jingyue | Han, Yujun | Dong, Lingli | Ji, Jia | Chen, Peng | Wu, Shuming | Liu, Jinsong | Xiao, Ying | Bu, Dongbo | Tan, Jianlong | Yang, Li | Ye, Chen | Zhang, Jingfen | Xu, Jingyi | Zhou, Yan | Yu, Yingpu | Zhang, Bing | Zhuang, Shulin | Wei, Haibin | Liu, Bin | Lei, Meng | Yu, Hong | Li, Yuanzhe | Xu, Hao | Wei, Shulin | He, Ximiao | Fang, Lijun | Zhang, Zengjin | Zhang, Yunze | Huang, Xiangang | Su, Zhixi | Tong, Wei | Li, Jinhong | Tong, Zongzhong | Li, Shuangli | Ye, Jia | Wang, Lishun | Fang, Lin | Lei, Tingting | Chen, Chen | Chen, Huan | Xu, Zhao | Li, Haihong | Huang, Haiyan | Zhang, Feng | Xu, Huayong | Li, Na | Zhao, Caifeng | Li, Shuting | Dong, Lijun | Huang, Yanqing | Li, Long | Xi, Yan | Qi, Qiuhui | Li, Wenjie | Zhang, Bo | Hu, Wei | Zhang, Yanling | Tian, Xiangjun | Jiao, Yongzhi | Liang, Xiaohu | Jin, Jiao | Gao, Lei | Zheng, Weimou | Hao, Bailin | Liu, Siqi | Wang, Wen | Yuan, Longping | Cao, Mengliang | McDermott, Jason | Samudrala, Ram | Wang, Jian | Wong, Gane Ka-Shu | Yang, Huanming | Bennetzen, Jeff
PLoS Biology  2005;3(2):e38.
We report improved whole-genome shotgun sequences for the genomes of indica and japonica rice, both with multimegabase contiguity, or almost 1,000-fold improvement over the drafts of 2002. Tested against a nonredundant collection of 19,079 full-length cDNAs, 97.7% of the genes are aligned, without fragmentation, to the mapped super-scaffolds of one or the other genome. We introduce a gene identification procedure for plants that does not rely on similarity to known genes to remove erroneous predictions resulting from transposable elements. Using the available EST data to adjust for residual errors in the predictions, the estimated gene count is at least 38,000–40,000. Only 2%–3% of the genes are unique to any one subspecies, comparable to the amount of sequence that might still be missing. Despite this lack of variation in gene content, there is enormous variation in the intergenic regions. At least a quarter of the two sequences could not be aligned, and where they could be aligned, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rates varied from as little as 3.0 SNP/kb in the coding regions to 27.6 SNP/kb in the transposable elements. A more inclusive new approach for analyzing duplication history is introduced here. It reveals an ancient whole-genome duplication, a recent segmental duplication on Chromosomes 11 and 12, and massive ongoing individual gene duplications. We find 18 distinct pairs of duplicated segments that cover 65.7% of the genome; 17 of these pairs date back to a common time before the divergence of the grasses. More important, ongoing individual gene duplications provide a never-ending source of raw material for gene genesis and are major contributors to the differences between members of the grass family.
Comparative genome sequencing of indica and japonica rice reveals that duplication of genes and genomic regions has played a major part in the evolution of grass genomes
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030038
PMCID: PMC546038  PMID: 15685292

Results 1-7 (7)