Neutrophils are known to play a major role in the egg granulomatous lesions caused by Schistosoma japonicum, but the precise mechanism by which eggs recruit or active neutrophil is unknown. Here we report S. japonicum egg specific EF-hand protein-SjE16.7 is a potent neutrophil recruiter and initiates the egg associated inflammatory granuloma in schistosomiasis. We show that the expression of SjE16.7 at level of both mRNA and protein is restricted to the egg stage. It locates in the miracidium and subshell area of the egg and can be secreted by the egg. The antigenic properties of SjE16.7 strongly suggest a role for SjE16.7 as an egg-derived molecule involved in host-parasite interactions. To study SjE16.7 functions in vivo, we challenged murine air pouch with recombinant SjE16.7. The results showed SjE16.7 trigged more inflammatory cell infiltration than vehicle or control protein. Using peritoneal exudate neutrophils from mice, we found that SjE16.7 significantly induced neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro, and the observed phenotypes were associated with enhanced Rac GTPase activation in SjE16.7 treated cells. Finally, in vivo hepatic granuloma formation model showed SjE16.7 coupled beads recruited more inflammatory cell infiltration than control beads. Our findings suggest SjE16.7 is an important pathogenic factor derived from egg. By recruiting neutrophils and inducing local inflammation, SjE16.7 facilitates eggs to be excreted through gut tissues and also initiates pathology in the liver; therefore SjE16.7 is a possible target for the prevention and treatment of schistosomiasis.
As a neglected disease, schistosomiasis continues to be a significant cause of parasitic morbidity and mortality worldwide. Schistosoma japonicum is one of the major causative agents of human schistosomiasis. Trapped in the liver or intestinal tissue, S. japonicum eggs are the main cause of pathology following infection. They induce vigorous immune responses from the host, which facilitate the passage of the eggs from the tissue to the gut lumen and cause the pathology in liver. In this paper, we described, for the first time, S. japonicum egg specific EF-hand protein-SjE16.7 is a potent neutrophil recruiter and initiates the egg associated inflammatory granuloma in schistosomiasis. This study presents a precise mechanism by which eggs recruit neutrophil and induce inflammatory response. It furthers our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of human schistosomiasis. In addition, it provides a potential target for the prevention and treatment of this globally important parasite.
Ki-67 expression is a biomarker for proliferation. Its prognostic value is recognized in breast cancer (BC) patients with negative axillary nodes, but is less clear in BC patients with positive axillary lymph nodes.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 1131 Chinese BC patients treated from January 2002 to June 2007 and 450 patients met the inclusion criteria: positive nodes, adjuvant therapy, and complete biomarker profile (estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), HER2, p53, Ki-67). Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were used to correlate biomarkers and tumor characteristics with metastasis free survival (MFS) and overall survival (OS).
Median follow-up time was 46 months (range 5–76 months). The Ki-67 expression was associated significantly with histological grade, ER, PR, HER2, and P53 status (P<0.05). Tumor stage, nodal stage, and ER status were independent prognostic factors for MFS. Ki-67 status was associated significantly with OS but not MFS. To determine whether the extent of LN involvement in the BC patients influenced the role of Ki-67 in survival rates, we compared these variables in patients with 1–3 positive lymph nodes (N1) to those of patients with ≥4 positive lymph nodes. Ki-67 status was an independent prognostic factor for MFS (Hazard Ratio, 3.27, P = 0.026) and overall survival (HR, 10.64, P = 0.007) in patients with 1–3 positive nodes (N1).
The possibility that Ki-67 expression together with clinical factors can improve prediction of the prognosis of BC patients with 1∼3 positive axillary lymph nodes warrants further studies.
The impact of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) on locoregional recurrence–free survival (LRFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) outcomes was investigated in patients with triple-negative breast cancer. PMRT was associated with longer LRFS and DFS times in high-risk TNBC patients and a longer DFS time in intermediate-risk TNBC patients.
Evaluate the effect of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in terms of locoregional recurrence-free survival and disease-free survival in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients.Identify the subgroup of TNBC patients most likely to benefit from PMRT.Assess the role of PMRT in TNBC patients with intermediate-risk (T1/2N1) disease.
Several studies have demonstrated poor locoregional control in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), compared with other molecular subtypes of breast cancer. We sought to evaluate whether or not postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) improves locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) outcomes in TNBC patients.
Methods and Materials.
Between January 2000 and July 2007, 553 TNBC patients treated with modified radical mastectomy from a single institution were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were categorized into three groups: low risk (stage T1–T2N0), intermediate risk (stage T1–T2N1), and high risk (stage T3–T4 and/or N2–N3). Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between PMRT and LRFS and DFS times after adjusting for other clinicopathologic covariates.
With a median follow-up of 65 months (range, 1–140 months), 51 patients (9.2%) developed locoregional recurrence and 135 patients (24.4%) experienced disease recurrence. On multivariate analysis, PMRT was associated with significantly longer LRFS and DFS times in the entire cohort. In the intermediate-risk group, PMRT was associated with a longer DFS time but not with the LRFS interval. In the high-risk group, PMRT was associated with significantly longer LRFS and DFS times.
PMRT is associated with longer LRFS and DFS times in high-risk TNBC patients and a longer DFS time in intermediate-risk TNBC patients. Prospective randomized studies are needed to investigate the best locoregional treatment approaches for patients with this molecular subtype of breast cancer.
Breast cancer; Triple negative; Postmastectomy radiotherapy; Locoregional recurrence; Disease-free survival
Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) mediates the degradation of cGMP in a variety of tissues including brain. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of the nitric oxide/cGMP/cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) pathway to the process of learning and memory. Thus, PDE5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) are thought to be promising new therapeutic agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory loss. To explore this possibility, a series of quinoline derivatives were synthesized and evaluated. We found that compound 7a selectively inhibits PDE5 with an IC50 of 0.27 nM and readily crosses the blood brain barrier. In an in vivo mouse model of AD, compound 7a rescues synaptic and memory defects. Quinoline-based, CNS-permeant PDE5Is have potential for AD therapeutic development.
PDE5 inhibitor; Alzheimer's disease; quinoline derivative; cGMP; memory; long-term potentiation
Mastery over the structure of nanomaterials enables control of their properties to enhance their performance for a given application. Herein we demonstrate the design and fabrication of Pt-based nanomaterials with enhanced catalytic activity and superior selectivity toward the reactions in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) upon the deep understanding of the mechanisms of these electrochemical reactions. In particular, the ternary Au@Ag2S-Pt nanocomposites display superior methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) selectivity due to the electronic coupling effect among different domains of the nanocomposites, while the cage-bell structured Pt-Ru nanoparticles exhibit excellent methanol tolerance for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode because of the differential diffusion of methanol and oxygen in the porous Ru shell of the cage-bell nanoparticles. The good catalytic selectivity of these Pt-based nanomaterials via structural construction enables a DMFC to be built without a proton exchange membrane between the fuel electrode and the oxygen electrode.
Human infection with a novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus occurred continuously in China during the first half of 2013, with high infectivity and pathogenicity to humans. In this study, we investigated the origin of internal genes of the novel H7N9 virus and analyzed the relationship between internal genes and infectivity of the virus.
Methodology and Principal findings
We tested the environmental specimens using real-time RT-PCR assays and isolated five H9N2 viruses from specimens that were positive for both H7 and H9. Results of recombination and phylogeny analysis, performed based on the entire sequences of 221 influenza viruses, showed that one of the Zhejiang avian H9N2 isolates, A/environment/Zhejiang/16/2013, shared the highest identities on the internal genes with the novel H7N9 virus A/Anhui/1/2013, ranging from 98.98% to 100%. Zhejiang avian H9N2 isolates were all reassortant viruses, by acquiring NS gene from A/chicken/Dawang/1/2011-like viruses and other five internal genes from A/brambling/Beijing/16/2012-like viruses. Compared to A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9), the homology on the NS gene was 99.16% with A/chicken/Dawang/1/2011, whereas only 94.27-97.61% with A/bramnling/Beijing/16/2012-like viruses. Analysis on the relationship between internal genes and the infectivity of novel H7N9 viruses were performed by comparing amino acid sequences with the HPAI H5N1 viruses, the H9N2 and the earlier H7N9 avian influenza viruses. There were nine amino acids on the internal genes found to be possibly associated with the infectivity of the novel H7N9 viruses.
These findings indicate that the internal genes, sharing the highest similarities with A/environment/Zhejiang/16/2013-like (H9N2) viruses, may affect the infectivity of the novel H7N9 viruses.
Newborn striatal neurons induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) can form functional projections targeting into the substantia nigra, which should be very important for the recovery of motor function. Exercise training post-stroke improves motor recovery in clinic patients and increases striatal neurogenesis in experimental animals. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exercise on axon regeneration of newborn projection neurons in adult rat brains following ischemic stroke. Rats were subjected to a transient MCAO to induce focal cerebral ischemic injury, followed by 30 minutes of exercise training daily from 5 to 28 days after MCAO. Motor function was tested using the rotarod test. We used fluorogold (FG) nigral injection to trace striatonigral and corticonigral projection neurons, and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-targeting retroviral vectors combined with FG double labeling (GFP+ -FG+) to detect newborn projection neurons. The results showed that exercise improved the recovery of motor function of rats after MCAO. Meanwhile, exercise also increased the levels of BDNF and VEGF, and reduced Nogo-A in ischemic brain. On this condition, we further found that exercise significantly increased the number of GFP+ -FG+ neurons in the striatum and frontal and parietal cortex ipsilateral to MCAO, suggesting an increase of newborn striatonigral and corticonigral projection neurons by exercise post-stroke. In addition, we found that exercise also increased NeuN+ and FG+ cells in the striatum and frontal and parietal cortex, the ischemic territory, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunopositive staining cells in the substantia nigra, a region remote from the ischemic territory. Our results provide the first evidence that exercise can effectively enhance the capacity for regeneration of newborn projection neurons in ischemic injured mammalian brains while improving motor function. Our results provide a very important cellular mechanism to illustrate the effectiveness of rehabilitative treatment post-stroke in the clinic.
Pericardial lipomas are rare and mostly asymptomatic tumors, which are usually detected incidentally during physical examination. The present study describes a case of giant pericardial lipoma that was diagnosed by surgical pathology. The study also describe the X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging, and the distinguish of the pericardial lipomas. The study also describes the ultrasonography, X-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of the tumor, and a review of the literature of cardiac lipoma, to help increase awareness of the tumor and selection of the correct imaging method for diagnosis.
pericardial lipoma; heart neoplasms; echocardiography; computed tomography; magnetic resonance imaging
Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) plays an important role in regulating most cellular processes, including apoptosis and survival, but its alterations are different and complicated under diverse conditions. In this study, we focused on the [Ca2+]i and its control mechanisms in process of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis of primary cultured Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat retinal cells and 17β-estradiol (βE2) anti-apoptosis. Fluo-3AM was used as a Ca2+ indicator to detect [Ca2+]i through fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), cell viability was assayed using MTT assay, and apoptosis was marked by Hoechst 33342 and annexin V/Propidium Iodide staining. Besides, PI3K activity was detected by Western blotting. Results showed: a) 100 μM H2O2-induced retinal cell apoptosis occurred at 4 h after H2O2 stress and increased in a time-dependent manner, but [Ca2+]i increased earlier at 2 h, sustained to 12 h, and then recovered at 24 h after H2O2 stress; b) 10 μM βE2 treatment for 0.5-24 hrs increased cell viability by transiently increasing [Ca2+]i, which appeared only at 0.5 h after βE2 application; c) increased [Ca2+]i under 100 µM H2O2 treatment for 2 hrs or 10 µM βE2 treatment for 0.5 hrs was, at least partly, due to extracellular Ca2+ stores; d) importantly, the transiently increased [Ca2+]i induced by 10 µM βE2 treatment for 0.5 hrs was mediated by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and gated by the L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (L-VGCC), but the increased [Ca2+]i induced by 100 µM H2O2 treatment for 2 hrs was not affected; and e) pretreatment with 10 µM βE2 for 0.5 hrs effectively protected retinal cells from apoptosis induced by 100 µM H2O2, which was also associated with its transient [Ca2+]i increase through L-VGCC and PI3K pathway. These findings will lead to better understanding of the mechanisms of βE2-mediated retinal protection and to exploration of the novel therapeutic strategies for retina degeneration.
This paper presents a variational level set method for simultaneous segmentation and bias field estimation of medical images with intensity inhomogeneity. In our model, the statistics of image intensities belonging to each different tissue in local regions are characterized by Gaussian distributions with different means and variances. According to maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) and Bayes' rule, we first derive a local objective function for image intensities in a neighborhood around each pixel. Then this local objective function is integrated with respect to the neighborhood center over the entire image domain to give a global criterion. In level set framework, this global criterion defines an energy in terms of the level set functions that represent a partition of the image domain and a bias field that accounts for the intensity inhomogeneity of the image. Therefore, image segmentation and bias field estimation are simultaneously achieved via a level set evolution process. Experimental results for synthetic and real images show desirable performances of our method.
The aim of this study was to understand the characteristics of blood pressure (BP) variability in subjects with diabetic nephropathy (DN), and identify the probable predictors affecting BP variability. Fifty-one chronic kidney disease (CKD)-hypertensive patients without diabetes (NDN group) and sixty type 2 diabetic patients with overt DN (DN group) were enrolled in this study. The values of short-term BP variability were obtained from 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). Variance analysis or nonparametric analysis revealed that 24-h systolic BP variability and nighttime systolic BP variability of the DN group were significantly higher than those of the NDN group [(12.23±3.66) vs. (10.74±3.83) mmHg, P<0.05; (11.23±4.82) vs. (9.48±3.69) mmHg, P<0.05]. Then the patients of the DN group were divided into two groups according to glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level: Group A (HbA1c<7%) and Group B (HbA1c≥7%), and the t-test showed that patients in Group B had larger 24-h diastolic, daytime diastolic, and nighttime systolic/diastolic BP variability compared with Group A. In the DN group, partial correlation analysis revealed that HbA1c exhibited a strong association with 24-h diastolic, daytime diastolic, nighttime systolic and diastolic BP variability (P<0.001, P<0.001, P<0.05, and P<0.001, respectively). Taken together, larger short-term BP variability was detected in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients with overt nephropathy and renal insufficiency. It may imply that the optimal BP variability level could benefit from a better glycaemic control.
Short-term blood pressure variability; Diabetic nephropathy; Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c); Hypertension; Glycaemic control
In order to confirm the effect on cocrystallization, two N-terminally truncated variants of a thermostable endoglucanase from the thermophilic bacterium Fervidobacterium nodosum Rt17-B1 were constructed, purified and cocrystallized at 291 K.
It is well known that protein cocrystallization is affected by several parameters such as the ratio of the protein to the ligand, the reservoir solution, the pH and the temperature. Previously, spatial blocking by the N-terminus was observed in the active site in the crystal structure of the native protein of a thermostable endoglucanase from the thermophilic bacterium Fervidobacterium nodosum Rt17-B1 (FnCel5A). It was speculated that the N-terminal α-helix might form interactions with the substrate-binding residues and it was believed that this spatial block is special to some extent. In order to confirm the effect on cocrystallization, two N-terminally truncated variants of FnCel5A were constructed, purified and cocrystallized at 291 K. A crystal of FnCel5AND_12–343 in complex with cellobiose was obtained using PEG 8000 as a precipitant. A 2.2 Å resolution data set was collected. This crystal form (space group P41212, unit-cell parameters a = b = 47.3, c = 271.4 Å) differed from that of the native protein. One molecule is assumed to be present per asymmetric unit, which gives a Matthews coefficient of 2.05 Å3 Da−1.
cocrystallization; N-terminal peptide; thermophilic endo-β-1,4-glucanase
China experienced several large measles outbreaks in the past two decades, and a series of enhanced control measures were implemented to achieve the goal of measles elimination. Molecular epidemiologic surveillance of wild-type measles viruses (MeV) provides valuable information about the viral transmission patterns. Since 1993, virologic surveillnace has confirmed that a single endemic genotype H1 viruses have been predominantly circulating in China. A component of molecular surveillance is to monitor the genetic characteristics of the hemagglutinin (H) gene of MeV, the major target for virus neutralizing antibodies.
Analysis of the sequences of the complete H gene from 56 representative wild-type MeV strains circulating in China during 1993–2009 showed that the H gene sequences were clustered into 2 groups, cluster 1 and cluster 2. Cluster1 strains were the most frequently detected cluster and had a widespread distribution in China after 2000. The predicted amino acid sequences of the H protein were relatively conserved at most of the functionally significant amino acid positions. However, most of the genotype H1 cluster1 viruses had an amino acid substitution (Ser240Asn), which removed a predicted N-linked glycosylation site. In addition, the substitution of Pro397Leu in the hemagglutinin noose epitope (HNE) was identified in 23 of 56 strains. The evolutionary rate of the H gene of the genotype H1 viruses was estimated to be approximately 0.76×10−3 substitutions per site per year, and the ratio of dN to dS (dN/dS) was <1 indicating the absence of selective pressure.
Although H genes of the genotype H1 strains were conserved and not subjected to selective pressure, several amino acid substitutions were observed in functionally important positions. Therefore the antigenic and genetic properties of H genes of wild-type MeVs should be monitored as part of routine molecular surveillance for measles in China.
Objective. Initial optimized prescription of Chinese herb medicine for unstable angina (UA). Methods. Based on partially observable Markov decision process model (POMDP), we choose hospitalized patients of 3 syndrome elements, such as qi deficiency, blood stasis, and turbid phlegm for the data mining, analysis, and objective evaluation of the diagnosis and treatment of UA at a deep level in order to optimize the prescription of Chinese herb medicine for UA. Results. The recommended treatment options of UA for qi deficiency, blood stasis, and phlegm syndrome patients were as follows: Milkvetch Root + Tangshen + Indian Bread + Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome (ADR = 0.96630); Danshen Root + Chinese Angelica + Safflower + Red Peony Root + Szechwan Lovage Rhizome Orange Fruit (ADR = 0.76); Snakegourd Fruit + Longstamen Onion Bulb + Pinellia Tuber + Dried Tangerine peel + Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome + Platycodon Root (ADR = 0.658568). Conclusion. This study initially optimized prescriptions for UA based on POMDP, which can be used as a reference for further development of UA prescription in Chinese herb medicine.
Somatic mutation of the tumor suppressor gene LKB1 occurs frequently in lung cancer where it causes tumor progression and metastasis, but the underlying mechanisms remain mainly unknown. Here, we show that the oncogene NEDD9 is an important downstream mediator of lung cancer progression evoked by LKB1 loss. In de novo mouse models, RNAi-mediated silencing of Nedd9 inhibited lung tumor progression, whereas ectopic NEDD9 expression accelerated this process. Mechanistically, LKB1 negatively regulated NEDD9 transcription by promoting cytosolic translocation of CRTC1 from the nucleus. Notably, ectopic expression of either NEDD9 or CRTC1 partially reversed the inhibitory function of LKB1 on metastasis of lung cancer cells. In clinical specimens, elevated expression of NEDD9 was associated with malignant progression and metastasis. Collectively, our results decipher the mechanism through which LKB1 deficiency promotes lung cancer progression and metastasis, and provide a mechanistic rationale for therapeutic attack of these processes.
Signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) can arise from virtually all organs. However, primary SRCC of the breast is very rare. Until 2003, SRCC was placed under ‘mucin-producing carcinomas’ and separated from other carcinomas by the World Health Organization (WHO). To date, only a few cases have been reported. A case of a 46-year-old woman with primary SRCC of the breast is presented in this report. The patient underwent a right modified radical mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection. Characteristic features and differential diagnosis of this tumor are discussed in the light of pertinent literature.
Signet-ring cell carcinoma breast cancer
This paper presents a novel fuzzy energy minimization method for simultaneous segmentation and bias field estimation of medical images. We first define an objective function based on a localized fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering for the image intensities in a neighborhood around each point. Then, this objective function is integrated with respect to the neighborhood center over the entire image domain to formulate a global fuzzy energy, which depends on membership functions, a bias field that accounts for the intensity inhomogeneity, and the constants that approximate the true intensities of the corresponding tissues. Therefore, segmentation and bias field estimation are simultaneously achieved by minimizing the global fuzzy energy. Besides, to reduce the impact of noise, the proposed algorithm incorporates spatial information into the membership function using the spatial function which is the summation of the membership functions in the neighborhood of each pixel under consideration. Experimental results on synthetic and real images are given to demonstrate the desirable performance of the proposed algorithm.
Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic virus belonging to the henipavirus genus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Since NiV was first identified in 1999, outbreaks have continued to occur in humans in Bangladesh and India on an almost annual basis with case fatality rates reported between 40% and 100%.
Ferrets were vaccinated with 4, 20 or 100 μg HeVsG formulated with the human use approved adjuvant, CpG, in a prime-boost regime. One half of the ferrets were exposed to NiV at 20 days post boost vaccination and the other at 434 days post vaccination. The presence of virus or viral genome was assessed in ferret fluids and tissues using real-time PCR, virus isolation, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry; serology was also carried out. Non-immunised ferrets were also exposed to virus to confirm the pathogenicity of the inoculum.
Ferrets exposed to Nipah virus 20 days post vaccination remained clinically healthy. Virus or viral genome was not detected in any tissues or fluids of the vaccinated ferrets; lesions and antigen were not identified on immunohistological examination of tissues; and there was no increase in antibody titre during the observation period, consistent with failure of virus replication. Of the ferrets challenged 434 days post vaccination, all five remained well throughout the study period; viral genome – but not virus - was recovered from nasal secretions of one ferret given 20 μg HeVsG and bronchial lymph nodes of the other. There was no increase in antibody titre during the observation period, consistent with lack of stimulation of a humoral memory response.
We have previously shown that ferrets vaccinated with 4, 20 or 100 μg HeVsG formulated with CpG adjuvant, which is currently in several human clinical trials, were protected from HeV disease. Here we show, under similar conditions of use, that the vaccine also provides protection against NiV-induced disease. Such protection persists for at least 12 months post-vaccination, with data supporting only localised and self-limiting virus replication in 2 of 5 animals. These results augur well for acceptability of the vaccine to industry.
Nipah virus; Hendra virus; Henipavirus; Paramyxovirus; Ferret; Immunity; Vaccination; Glycoprotein; Subunit vaccine; Longevity
Recombinant GK1506 from the thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus kaustophilus has been expressed, purified and crystallized. A 2.6 Å resolution native data set was collected from a single flash-cooled crystal.
GK1506 from the thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus kaustophilus is a member of the phosphotriesterase-like lactonases, which can catalyze the hydrolysis of a broad range of compounds with different chemical properties. It is of particular interest because of its high thermostability and its dual activity towards organophosphate compounds and some lactones. These properties make GK1506 an attractive target for future enzyme engineering and use in practical applications. In order to resolve the crystal structure of GK1506 and to gain a better understanding of its biological function, recombinant GK1506 was expressed, purified and crystallized using 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.6, 12%(w/v) PEG 8000, 8%(v/v) ethylene glycol at 291 K. A 2.6 Å resolution native data set was collected from a single flash-cooled crystal (100 K) using 10%(v/v) glycerol as a cryoprotectant. These crystals belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 51.444, b = 80.453, c = 92.615 Å, β = 99.29°. Two molecules were assumed to be present per asymmetric unit, which gives a Matthews coefficient of 2.7 Å3 Da−1.
phosphotriesterase-like lactonases; Geobacillus kaustophilus; GK1506
Helicobacter bilis, an enterohepatic helicobacter, is associated with chronic hepatitis in aged immunocompetent inbred mice and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in immunodeficient mice. To evaluate the role of macrophages in H. bilis-induced IBD, Rag2−/− BALB/c or wild-type (WT) BALB/c mice were either sham dosed or infected with H. bilis Missouri strain under specific-pathogen-free conditions, followed by an intravenous injection of a 0.2-ml suspension of liposomes coated with either phosphate-buffered saline (control) or clodronate (a macrophage depleting drug) at 15 weeks postinfection (wpi). At 16 wpi, the ceca of H. bilis-infected Rag2−/− mice treated with control liposomes had significantly higher histopathological lesional scores (for cumulative typhlitis index, inflammation, edema, epithelial defects, and hyperplasia) and higher counts of F4/80+ macrophages and MPO+ neutrophils compared to H. bilis-infected Rag2−/− mice treated with clodronate liposomes. In addition, cecal quantitative PCR analyses revealed a significant suppression in the expression of macrophage-related cytokine genes, namely, Tnfa, Il-1β, Il-10, Cxcl1, and iNos, in the clodronate-treated H. bilis-infected Rag2−/− mice compared to the H. bilis-infected Rag2−/− control mice. Finally, cecal quantitative PCR analyses also revealed a significant reduction in bacterial colonization in the clodronate-treated Rag2−/− mice. Taken together, our results suggest that macrophages are critical inflammatory cellular mediators for promoting H. bilis-induced typhlocolitis in mice.
To evaluate the prognostic value of axillary lymph node ratio (LNR) as compared to the number of involved nodes (pN stage) in patients with axillary lymph node-positive breast cancer treated with mastectomy without radiation.
We performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical data of patients with stage II-III node-positive breast cancer (N=1068) between 1998 and 2007. Locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared based on the LNR and pN staging.
A total of 780 cases were classified as pN1, 183 as pN2, and 105 as pN3. With respect to LNR, 690 cases had a LNR from 0.01-0.20, 269 cases a LNR from 0.21-0.65, and 109 cases a LNR > 0.65. The median follow-up time was 62 months. Univariate analysis showed that both LNR and pN stage were prognostic factors of LRFS and OS (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that LNR was an independent prognostic factor of LRFS and OS (p<0.05). pN stage had no significant effect on LRFS or OS (p>0.05). In subgroup analysis, the LNR identified groups of patients with different survival rates based on pN stage.
LNR is superior to pN staging as a prognostic factor in lymph node-positive breast cancer after mastectomy, and should be used as one of the indications for adjuvant radiation therapy.
Breast cancer; Lymph node ratio; Mastectomy; Recurrences; Radiotherapy
The prevalence of breast cancer varies among countries and regions. This retrospective study investigated the prognostic value of the lymph node ratio (LNR) compared with the number of positive lymph nodes (pN) in Chinese breast cancer patients.
The medical records of female breast cancer patients (N = 2591) were retrospectively evaluated. The association of LNR and TMN staging system were compared with respect to overall, disease-free, and distant metastasis-free survival.
Out of 2591 patients, 2495 underwent modified radical surgery and 96 received breast conserving surgery. All patients had adjuvant chemotherapy following surgery. The median follow up period 66.9 months (range 5–168 months). The 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates were 89.3% and 78.8%, respectively, and 5-year disease-free survival and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 81.6% and 83.5%, respectively. Univariate analysis indicated that in general T, pN, LNR, as well as tumor expression of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 were associated with overall, disease-free, and distant metastasis-free survival (all P-values <0.05). Mutlivariate analysis found pN stage and LNR were independent predictors of overall, disease-free, and distant metastasis-free survival (all P-values <0.001). If pN stage and LNR were both included in a multivariate analysis, LNR was still an independent prognostic factor for overall, disease-free, and distant metastasis-free survival (all P-values <0.001).
Our findings support the use of LNR as a predictor of survival in Chinese patients with breast cancer, and that LNR is superior to pN stage in determining disease prognosis.
Hendra virus (HeV) continues to cause morbidity and mortality in both humans and horses with a number of sporadic outbreaks. HeV has two structural membrane glycoproteins that mediate the infection of host cells: the attachment (G) and the fusion (F) glycoproteins that are essential for receptor binding and virion-host cell membrane fusion, respectively. N-linked glycosylation of viral envelope proteins are critical post-translation modifications that have been implicated in roles of structural integrity, virus replication and evasion of the host immune response. Deciphering the glycan composition and structure on these glycoproteins may assist in the development of glycan-targeted therapeutic intervention strategies. We examined the site occupancy and glycan composition of recombinant soluble G (sG) glycoproteins expressed in two different mammalian cell systems, transient human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells and vaccinia virus (VV)-HeLa cells, using a suite of biochemical and biophysical tools: electrophoresis, lectin binding and tandem mass spectrometry. The N-linked glycans of both VV and HEK293-derived sG glycoproteins carried predominantly mono- and disialylated complex-type N-glycans and a smaller population of high mannose-type glycans. All seven consensus sequences for N-linked glycosylation were definitively found to be occupied in the VV-derived protein, whereas only four sites were found and characterized in the HEK293-derived protein. We also report, for the first time, the existence of O-linked glycosylation sites in both proteins. The striking characteristic of both proteins was glycan heterogeneity in both N- and O-linked sites. The structural features of G protein glycosylation were also determined by X-ray crystallography and interactions with the ephrin-B2 receptor are discussed.
glycopeptides; Hendra virus (HeV); mass spectrometry; N- and O-linked glycosylation
The diagnostic utility of the apoptosis sensing nanoparticle, AnxCLIO-Cy5.5, is well established. Here we sought to define the pathophysiological impact of the nanoparticle on apoptotic cells. Confocal microscopy showed that AnxCLIO-Cy5.5 remained bound to apoptotic cell membranes for 3 hours, but by 7 hours had become completely internalized. AnxCLIO-Cy5.5 exposure did not impact energetics, metabolism or caspase-3 activity in apoptotic cells. Gene expression in cells exposed to AnxCLIO-Cy5.5 did not reveal upregulation of pro-inflammatory or cell death pathways. Moreover, exposure to AnxCLIO-Cy5.5 decreased the frequency of membrane rupture of early apoptotic cells. Similarly, in mice exposed to 1 hour of ischemia-reperfusion, the injection of AnxCLIO-Cy5.5 at the onset of reperfusion reduced infarct size/area-at-risk by 16.2%. Our findings suggest that AnxCLIO-Cy5.5 may protect apoptotic cells by stabilizing their cell membranes and has the potential to become a theranostic agent, capable of both identifying and salvaging early apoptotic cells.
Apoptosis; Magnetic Nanoparticle; Cardioprotection; Iron Oxide; Gene Expression