The phosphotriesterase-like lactonase (PLL) enzymes in the amidohydrolase superfamily hydrolyze various lactones and exhibit latent phosphotriesterase activities. These enzymes serve as attractive templates for in vitro evolution of neurotoxic organophosphates (OPs) with hydrolytic capabilities that can be used as bioremediation tools. Here, a thermostable PLL from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 (GkaP) was targeted for joint laboratory evolution with the aim of enhancing its catalytic efficiency against OP pesticides. By a combination of site saturation mutagenesis and whole-gene error-prone PCR approaches, several improved variants were isolated. The most active variant, 26A8C, accumulated eight amino acid substitutions and demonstrated a 232-fold improvement over the wild-type enzyme in reactivity (kcat/Km) for the OP pesticide ethyl-paraoxon. Concomitantly, this variant showed a 767-fold decrease in lactonase activity with δ-decanolactone, imparting a specificity switch of 1.8 × 105-fold. 26A8C also exhibited high hydrolytic activities (19- to 497-fold) for several OP pesticides, including parathion, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos. Analysis of the mutagenesis sites on the GkaP structure revealed that most mutations are located in loop 8, which determines substrate specificity in the amidohydrolase superfamily. Molecular dynamics simulation shed light on why 26A8C lost its native lactonase activity and improved the promiscuous phosphotriesterase activity. These results permit us to obtain further insights into the divergent evolution of promiscuous enzymes and suggest that laboratory evolution of GkaP may lead to potential biological solutions for the efficient decontamination of neurotoxic OP compounds.
In the 1990s, Hendra virus and Nipah virus (NiV), two closely related and previously unrecognized paramyxoviruses that cause severe disease and death in humans and a variety of animals, were discovered in Australia and Malaysia, respectively. Outbreaks of disease have occurred nearly every year since NiV was first discovered, with case fatality ranging from 10 to 100%. In the African green monkey (AGM), NiV causes a severe lethal respiratory and/or neurological disease that essentially mirrors fatal human disease. Thus, the AGM represents a reliable disease model for vaccine and therapeutic efficacy testing. We show that vaccination of AGMs with a recombinant subunit vaccine based on the henipavirus attachment G glycoprotein affords complete protection against subsequent NiV infection with no evidence of clinical disease, virus replication, or pathology observed in any challenged subjects. Success of the recombinant subunit vaccine in nonhuman primates provides crucial data in supporting its further preclinical development for potential human use.
There are urgent needs for rapid and accurate drug susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis. GenoType MTBDRsl is a new molecular kit designed for rapid identification of the resistance to the second-line antituberculosis drugs with a single strip. In recent years, it has been evaluated in many settings, but with varied results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the latest data on the diagnostic accuracy of GenoType MTBDRsl in detecting drug resistance to fluoroquinolones, amikacin, capreomycin, kanamycin and ethambutol, in comparison with the phenotypic drug susceptibility test.
This systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. The search terms of “MTBDRsl” and “tuberculosis” were used on PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. QUADAS-2 was used to assess the quality of included studies. Data were analyzed by Meta-Disc 1.4. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for each study. From these calculations, forest plots and summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves were produced.
Patient selection bias as well as flow and timing bias were observed in most studies. The summarized sensitivity (95% CI) was 0.874(0.845–0.899), 0.826(0.777–0.869), 0.820(0.772–0.862), 0.444(0.396–0.492), and 0.679(0.652–0.706) for fluoroquinolones, amikacin, capreomycin, kanamycin, and ethambutol, respectively. The specificity (95% CI) was 0.971(0.961–0.980), 0.995(0.987–0.998), 0.973(0.963–0.981), 0.993(0.985–0.997), and 0.799(0.773–0.823), respectively. The AUC (standard error) were 0.9754(0.0203), 0.9300(0.0598), 0.9885(0.0038), 0.9689(0.0359), and 0.6846(0.0550), respectively.
Genotype MTBDRsl showed good accuracy for detecting drug resistance to fluoroquinolones, amikacin and capreomycin, but it may not be an appropriate choice for kanamycin and ethambutol. The lack of data did not allow for proper evaluation of the test on clinical specimens. Further systematic assessment of diagnostic performance should be carried out on direct clinical samples.
Rationale and Objectives
The aim of this study was to validate the feasibility of assessing the efficacy of antiangiogenic therapy on VX2 tumors using three-dimensional computed tomographic (CT) angiography (CTA) combined with CT perfusion.
Materials and Methods
Forty rabbits with VX2 tumors were randomly assigned to four groups according to different doses of antiangiogenic drug, which were administered intraperitoneally daily for 14 days. In each group, 10 animals were scanned using three-dimensional CTA and CT perfusion on days 1 and 2 after the latest administration of the drug. Tumor masses were sectioned, stained by immunohistochemistry, and processed for correlation between CT imaging and histology.
The numbers of new tumor vessels from CTA were significantly different among the four groups (P < .001). As the dose of the drug increased, blood flow and blood volume on CT perfusion increased linearly, but the mean transit time and permeability surface-area product decreased linearly (P < .001). Immunohistochemical analyses showed that microvascular density decreased, while both luminal vascular number and mature vessel number increased linearly as the drug dose increased (P < .001). CT manifestations were correlated well with histologic findings (P < .05).
It is feasible to assess the efficacy of antiangiogenic therapy on VX2 tumors using three-dimensional CTA combined with CT perfusion. Three-dimensional CTA can display the morphologic changes of tumor vessels, while CT perfusion can predict the functional changes of tumor vessels after antiangiogenic therapy.
Tumor; angiogenesis; CT; angiography; perfusion
We developed a novel pyrrole analogue of etomidate, (R)-ethyl 1-(1-phenylethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate (carboetomidate), which retains etomidate’s desirable anesthetic and hemodynamic properties but lacks its potent inhibitory affect on adrenocorticotropic hormone-stimulated steroid synthesis. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that in contrast to etomidate, carboetomidate neither suppresses the adrenocortical response to endotoxemia nor enhances the accompanying production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
University research laboratory
Male Sprague-Dawley rats
For both single and multiple anesthetic dose studies, rats were injected with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide immediately followed by a hypnotic dose of etomidate, carboetomidate or vehicle alone (dimethyl sulfoxide) as a control. For single dose studies, no additional anesthetic (or vehicle) was administered. For multiple anesthetic dose studies, additional doses of anesthetic (or vehicle) were administered every 15 min for a total of eight anesthetic (or vehicle) doses.
Measurements and Main Results
Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone, and cytokine concentrations were measured before lipopolysaccharide administration and intermittently throughout the 5 hour experiment. In single anesthetic dose studies, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and cytokine concentrations were not different at any time point among the etomidate, carboetomidate, and vehicle groups whereas plasma corticosterone concentrations were briefly (60–120 min) reduced in the etomidate group. In multiple anesthetic dose studies, plasma corticosterone concentrations were persistently lower and peak plasma IL-1β and IL-6 concentrations were higher in the etomidate group versus the carboetomidate and control groups. Peak plasma IL-10 concentrations were similarly elevated in the etomidate and carboetomidate groups versus the control group.
Compared to etomidate, carboetomidate produces less suppression of adrenocortical function and smaller increases in pro-inflammatory cytokine production in an endotoxemia model of sepsis. These findings suggest that carboetomidate could be a useful alternative to etomidate for maintaining anesthesia for a prolonged period of time in patients with sepsis.
Lipopolysaccharides; Endotoxemia; Sepsis; Etomidate; Anesthetic; Corticosterone; Cytokines
Pathogenic fungi are capable of switching between different phenotypes, each of which has a different biological advantage. In the most prevalent human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, phenotypic transitions not only improve its adaptation to a continuously changing host microenvironment but also regulate sexual mating. In this report, we show that Candida tropicalis, another important human opportunistic pathogen, undergoes reversible and heritable phenotypic switching, referred to as the “white-opaque” transition. Here we show that N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), an inducer of white-to-opaque switching in C. albicans, promotes opaque-cell formation and mating and also inhibits filamentation in a number of natural C. tropicalis strains. Our results suggest that host chemical signals may facilitate this phenotypic switching and mating of C. tropicalis, which had been previously thought to reproduce asexually. Overexpression of the C. tropicalis WOR1 gene in C. albicans induces opaque-cell formation. Additionally, an intermediate phase between white and opaque was observed in C. tropicalis, indicating that the switching could be tristable.
Fascin-1, ezrin and paxillin, cytoskeleton-associated proteins, have been implicated in several human cancers, but their role in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is unknown. We investigated the association of their expression and clinicopathologic factors and their prognostic value in LSCC.
Materials and Methods
Quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analyses were used to examine mRNA and protein levels in 10 fresh LSCC specimens and 10 corresponding adjacent normal margin (ANM) tissues from patients undergoing surgery in 2012. We used immunohistochemistry to retrospectively study 216 paraffin blocks of LSCC samples from patients (193 men) who had undergone surgery between 2000 and 2006 and had not received special treatment before the diagnosis. Univariate analysis of patient survival involved the Kaplan–Meier method. Multivariate analyses involved the Cox proportional hazards model.
The relative mRNA and protein levels of fascin-1, ezrin and paxillin were significantly greater in LSCC than ANM tissue (P<0.05). The high expression of fascin-1, ezrin or paxillin was positively correlated with poor tumor differentiation, cervical lymph node metastasis (N+), and advanced clinical stage (III+IV) (P<0.05) but not sex or metastasis. In addition, a high expression of fascin-1 (P = 0.007) or ezrin (P = 0.047) was associated with advanced tumor stage (T3+T4). The expression of fascin-1 was higher in smokers than non-smokers (P = 0.019). A high expression of fascin-1, ezrin or paxillin was associated with poor prognosis.
Fascin-1, ezrin and paxillin may be prognostic of poor outcome with LSCC after surgery. Our study may lead to establishing new molecular therapeutic targets and/or prognostic biomarkers in LSCC.
The henipaviruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV), are paramyxoviruses discovered in the mid- to late 1990s that possess a broad host tropism and are known to cause severe and often fatal disease in both humans and animals. HeV and NiV infect cells by a pH-independent membrane fusion mechanism facilitated by their attachment (G) and fusion (F) glycoproteins. Here, several soluble forms of henipavirus F (sF) were engineered and characterized. Recombinant sF was produced by deleting the transmembrane (TM) and cytoplasmic tail (CT) domains and appending a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor signal sequence followed by GPI-phospholipase D digestion, appending a trimeric coiled-coil (GCNt) domain (sFGCNt), or deleting the TM, CT, and fusion peptide domain. These sF glycoproteins were produced as F0 precursors, and all were apparent stable trimers recognized by NiV-specific antisera. Surprisingly, however, only the GCNt-appended constructs (sFGCNt) could elicit cross-reactive henipavirus-neutralizing antibody in mice. In addition, sFGCNt constructs could be triggered in vitro by protease cleavage and heat to transition from an apparent prefusion to postfusion conformation, transitioning through an intermediate that could be captured by a peptide corresponding to the C-terminal heptad repeat domain of F. The pre- and postfusion structures of sFGCNt and non-GCNt-appended sF could be revealed by electron microscopy and were distinguishable by F-specific monoclonal antibodies. These data suggest that only certain sF constructs could serve as potential subunit vaccine immunogens against henipaviruses and also establish important tools for further structural, functional, and diagnostic studies on these important emerging viruses.
Background. Free radicals and proinflammatory cytokines have been shown to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). Picroliv, a Picrorhiza kurroa derivative, has been demonstrated to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of picroliv on experimental model of UC in mice. Materials and Methods. Picroliv was administrated orally by gavage to mice with colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Disease activity index (DAI), colon length, and histology score were observed. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and SOD, MDA concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while the expression of cytokine mRNAs was studied by real-time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and also ELISA. The expression of NF-κB p65 was observed by immunohistochemistry staining and western blotting. Results. A significant improvement was observed in DAI and histological score in mice treated with picroliv, and incerased MPO activity, MDA concentrations, and the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and NF-κB p65 in mice with DSS-induced colitis were significantly reduced while decreased SOD level increased following administration of picroliv. Conclusion. The administration of picroliv leads to an amelioration of DSS-induced colitis, suggesting administration of picroliv may provide a therapeutic approach for UC.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of conization in the diagnosis and treatment of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in post-menopausal women. A total of 101 post-menopausal patients who were diagnosed with high-grade lesion CIN by biopsy and in whom conization was used as the primary treatment were examined and 202 pre-menopausal patients were studied as the controls. Clinical and pathological data including symptoms, cytological examination and HPV DNA test results before and after conization treatment were analyzed. Both the cytological abnormalities (57.9 vs. 58.5%, P=0.260) and the positive rate of the HPV DNA test (89.5 vs. 86.4%, P=0.812) did not show a significant difference between the post- and pre-menopausal group. The rate of satisfactory colposcopy was significantly lower in post-menopausal patients compared with pre-menosausal patients (23.2 vs. 68.9%, P<0.001). Post-menopausal patients presented a significantly lower diagnostic consistency between colpscopy-directed biopsy and conization (46.4 vs. 68.9%, P=0.004), and a significantly higher positive margin rate of conization (20.8 vs. 10.9%, P=0.020). A total of 10 of the 101 post-menopausal and 2 of the 202 pre-menopausal women were diagnosed with invasive cancer by conization and underwent further treatment. In conclusion, these data suggest that conization, as a conservative primary treatment, is not suitable for post-menopausal women with high-grade lesion CIN due to the lower rate of satisfactory colposcopy, lower consistency of diagnosis between colposcopy-directed biopsy and conization, and a higher positive margin of conization.
cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; conization; colposcopy; post-menopause
Flexible NC-loops between the catalytic domain and the cap domain of the α/β hydrolase fold enzymes show remarkable diversity in length, sequence, and configuration. Recent investigations have suggested that the NC-loop might be involved in catalysis and substrate recognition in many enzymes from the α/β hydrolase fold superfamily. To foster a deep understanding of its role in catalysis, stability, and divergent evolution, we here systemically investigated the function of the NC-loop (residues 131–151) in a lipase (FClip1) from thermophilic bacterium Fervidobacterium changbaicum by loop deletion, alanine-scanning mutagenesis and site-directed mutagenesis. We found that the upper part of the NC-loop (residues 131–138) was of great importance to enzyme catalysis. Single substitutions in this region could fine-tune the activity of FClip1 as much as 41-fold, and any deletions from this region rendered the enzyme completely inactive. The lower part of the NC-loop (residues 139–151) was capable of enduring extensive deletions without loss of activity. The shortened mutants in this region were found to show both improved activity and increased stability simultaneously. We therefore speculated that the NC-loop, especially the lower part, would be a perfect target for enzyme engineering to optimize the enzymatic properties, and might present a hot zone for the divergent evolution of α/β hydrolases. Our findings may provide an opportunity for better understanding of the mechanism of divergent evolution in the α/β hydrolase fold superfamily, and may also guide the design of novel biocatalysts for industrial applications.
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) has been implicated in neutrophil and cardiac dysfunction during sepsis. Here we tested the hypothesis that non-hematopoietic (parenchymal) and hematopoietic TLR2 play distinct roles in sepsis pathogenesis. To achieve this, we generated two groups of chimeric mice with TLR2 deletions either in non-hematopoietic cells (KO mice with WT-bone marrow, BM) or in BM cells (WT mice with KO-BM). Polymicrobial sepsis was created by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP). Neutrophil functions, cytokine production, and bacterial clearance were investigated following CLP or sham procedures. Cardiac contractile function was measured in a Langendorff apparatus. Intracellular reactive oxygen species were measured using redox-sensitive dye and flow cytometry. CLP mice had markedly increased peritoneal neutrophil recruitment compared with the sham-operated mice. TLR2 KO mice, regardless their TLR2 phenotypes (WT vs. KO) in their BM-derived hematopoietic cells, had markedly increased neutrophil migration as well as phagocytosis, and reduced cytokine productions compared to TLR2 WT mice following polymicrobial peritonitis. These changes in the chimeric TLR2 KO mice were associated with enhanced blood bacterial clearance and markedly improved cardiac contractile function. Moreover, CLP induced a robust ROS production in the peritoneal leukocytes isolated from WT mice but not from TLR2 KO mice. Taken together, these data indicate that TLR2, particularly that of non-hematopoietic cells, plays a major role in sepsis pathogenesis by impairing neutrophil migratory and phagocytic function, promoting cytokine production, and mediating cardiac contractile dysfunction during polymicrobial sepsis. TLR2 also mediates critical ROS production during polymicrobial sepsis.
Sepsis; phagocytosis; cytokine; innate immunity; toll-like receptors; cardiac dysfunction
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) such as TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 contribute to the pathogenesis of polymicrobial sepsis. These TLRs signal via the common myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-dependent pathways. TLR4 also signals through MyD88-independent but TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFNβ-mediated transcription factor (Trif)-dependent pathway. The role of the two signaling pathways in cardiac dysfunction during polymicrobial sepsis and endotoxin shock is unknown.
Sepsis was generated by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP). Mice were divided into sham and CLP groups, or subjected to saline or endotoxin. Left ventricular function was assessed in a Langenforff apparatus or by echocardiography. Cytokines were examined using a multiplex immunoassay. Neutrophil migratory and phagocytic functions were assessed using flow cytometry.
Compared to wild-type (WT), MyD88−/−, but not Trif−/−, mice had markedly improved cardiac function and survival after CLP. In comparison, both MyD88−/− and Trif−/− mice were protected from cardiac depression and mortality during endotoxin shock. Septic MyD88−/−, but not Trif−/−, mice had diminished cytokine production in serum and in peritoneal space compared to WT mice following CLP. In contrast, both MyD88−/− and Trif−/− mice had attenuated serum cytokines compared to WT mice following endotoxin challenge. Neither MyD88 nor Trif signaling had any impact on neutrophil phagocytic function or bacterial clearance at 24 hours of polymicrobial sepsis.
These studies establish that MyD88, but not Trif, signaling plays a critical role in mediating cardiac dysfunction, systemic inflammation, and mortality during polymicrobial sepsis. Both MyD88 and Trif are essential for cardiac depression and mortality during endotoxin shock.
The recently identified type VI secretion system (T6SS) of proteobacteria has been shown to promote pathogenicity, competitive advantage over competing microorganisms, and adaptation to environmental perturbation. By detailed phenotypic characterization of loss-of-function mutants, in silico, in vitro and in vivo analyses, we provide evidence that the enteric pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni, possesses a functional T6SS and that the secretion system exerts pleiotropic effects on two crucial processes – survival in a bile salt, deoxycholic acid (DCA), and host cell adherence and invasion. The expression of T6SS during initial exposure to the upper range of physiological levels of DCA (0.075%–0.2%) was detrimental to C. jejuni proliferation, whereas down-regulation or inactivation of T6SS enabled C. jejuni to resist this effect. The C. jejuni multidrug efflux transporter gene, cmeA, was significantly up-regulated during the initial exposure to DCA in the wild type C. jejuni relative to the T6SS-deficient strains, suggesting that inhibition of proliferation is the consequence of T6SS-mediated DCA influx. A sequential modulation of the efflux transporter activity and the T6SS represents, in part, an adaptive mechanism for C. jejuni to overcome this inhibitory effect, thereby ensuring its survival. C. jejuni T6SS plays important roles in host cell adhesion and invasion as T6SS inactivation resulted in a reduction of adherence to and invasion of in vitro cell lines, while over-expression of a hemolysin co-regulated protein, which encodes a secreted T6SS component, greatly enhanced these processes. When inoculated into B6.129P2-IL-10tm1Cgn mice, the T6SS-deficient C. jejuni strains did not effectively establish persistent colonization, indicating that T6SS contributes to colonization in vivo. Taken together, our data demonstrate the importance of bacterial T6SS in host cell adhesion, invasion, colonization and, for the first time to our knowledge, adaptation to DCA, providing new insights into the role of T6SS in C. jejuni pathogenesis.
The henipaviruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV), are two deadly zoonotic viruses for which no vaccines or therapeutics have yet been approved for human or livestock use. In 14 outbreaks since 1994 HeV has been responsible for multiple fatalities in horses and humans, with all known human infections resulting from close contact with infected horses. A vaccine that prevents virus shedding in infected horses could interrupt the chain of transmission to humans and therefore prevent HeV disease in both. Here we characterise HeV infection in a ferret model and show that it closely mirrors the disease seen in humans and horses with induction of systemic vasculitis, including involvement of the pulmonary and central nervous systems. This model of HeV infection in the ferret was used to assess the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a subunit vaccine based on a recombinant soluble version of the HeV attachment glycoprotein G (HeVsG), adjuvanted with CpG. We report that ferrets vaccinated with a 100 μg, 20 μg or 4 μg dose of HeVsG remained free of clinical signs of HeV infection following a challenge with 5,000 TCID50 of HeV. In addition, and of considerable importance, no evidence of virus or viral genome was detected in any tissues or body fluids in any ferret in the 100 and 20 μg groups, while genome was detected in the nasal washes only of one animal in the 4 μg group. Together, our findings indicate that 100 μg or 20 μg doses of HeVsG vaccine can completely prevent a productive HeV infection in the ferret, suggesting that vaccination to prevent the infection and shedding of HeV is possible.
Hendra virus; vaccination; subunit vaccine; glycoprotein G
Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric cancer is male predominant and animal studies suggest that sex hormones influence gastric carcinogenesis. We investigated the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) or castration on H.pylori-induced gastritis in male INS-GAS/FVB/N (Tg(Ins1-GAS)1Sbr) mice. Comparisons were made to previously evaluated sham (n = 8) and H.pylori-infected (n = 8), intact male INS-GAS mice which had developed severe corpus gastritis accompanied by atrophy, hyperplasia, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia of the epithelium within 16 weeks postinfection (all P < 0.01). Castration at 8 weeks of age had no sparing effect on lesions in uninfected (n = 5) or H.pylori-infected mice (n = 7) but all lesion subfeatures were attenuated by E2 in H.pylori-infected mice (n = 7) (P < 0.001). Notably, inflammation was not reduced but glandular atrophy, hyperplasia, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia were also less severe in uninfected, E2-treated mice (n = 7) (P < 0.01). Attenuation of gastric lesions by E2 was associated with lower messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of interferon (IFN)-γ (P < 0.05) and interleukin (IL)-1β (P < 0.004), and higher IL-10 (P < 0.02) as well as decreased numbers of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells when compared with infected intact males. Infected E2-treated mice also developed higher Th2-associated anti-H.pylori IgG1 responses (P < 0.05) and significantly lower Ki-67 indices of epithelial proliferation (P < 0.05). E2 elevated expression of mRNA for Foxp3 (P < 0.0001) and IL-10 (P < 0.01), and decreased IL-1β (P < 0.01) in uninfected, intact male mice compared with controls. Therefore, estrogen supplementation, but not castration, attenuated gastric lesions in H.pylori-infected male INS-GAS mice and to a lesser extent in uninfected mice, potentially by enhancing IL-10 function, which in turn decreased IFN-γ and IL-1β responses induced by H.pylori.
Objective: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of rotational atherectomy followed by drug eluting stent (DES) implantation in patients with complex coronary lesions. Methods: From August 2006 to August 2012, 253 consecutive patients with 289 lesions and who underwent rotational atherectomy in our center were enrolled in this study. Results: The overall procedure success rate was 98% with the cost of two (0.8%) coronary perforations, three (1.2%) dissections, five (2.0%) slow flows or no flows, three (1.2%) peri-procedure myocardial infarctions, and two (0.8%) in hospital deaths. During follow-up (mean three years), one (0.4%) patient died, two (0.8%) patients had acute myocardial infarction, 14 (5.5%) had restenosis, and target lesion revascularization occurred in eight patients (3.2%). Conclusions: Rotational atherectomy followed by DES implantation is a safe and effective technique for patients with complex coronary lesions, especially calcified and non-dilatable lesions.
Complex coronary lesions; Calcified coronary lesions; Rotational atherectomy; Drug eluting stents
The purpose of this article is to propose an empirical solution to the problem of how many clusters of complex samples should be selected to construct the training set for a universal near infrared quantitative model based on the Næs method. The sample spectra were hierarchically classified into clusters by Ward’s algorithm and Euclidean distance. If the sample spectra were classified into two clusters, the 1/50 of the largest Heterogeneity value in the cluster with larger variation was set as the threshold to determine the total number of clusters. One sample was then randomly selected from each cluster to construct the training set, and the number of samples in training set equaled the number of clusters. In this study, 98 batches of rifampicin capsules with API contents ranging from 50.1% to 99.4% were studied with this strategy. The root mean square errors of cross validation and prediction were 2.54% and 2.31% for the model for rifampicin capsules, respectively. Then, we evaluated this model in terms of outlier diagnostics, accuracy, precision, and robustness. We also used the strategy of training set sample selection to revalidate the models for cefradine capsules, roxithromycin tablets, and erythromycin ethylsuccinate tablets, and the results were satisfactory. In conclusion, all results showed that this training set sample selection strategy assisted in the quick and accurate construction of quantitative models using near-infrared spectroscopy.
calibration set selection; cluster analysis; near-infrared spectroscopy; quantitative analysis
Animal models which allow the temporal regulation of gene activities are valuable for dissecting gene function in tumorigenesis. Here we have constructed a conditional inducible estrogen receptor-K-rasG12D (ER-K-rasG12D) knock-in mice allele that allows us to temporally switch on or off the activity of K-ras oncogenic mutant through tamoxifen administration. In vitro studies using mice embryonic fibroblast (MEF) showed that a dose of tamoxifen at 0.05 µM works optimally for activation of ER-K-rasG12D independent of the gender status. Furthermore, tamoxifen-inducible activation of K-rasG12D promotes cell proliferation, anchor-independent growth, transformation as well as invasion, potentially via activation of downstream MAPK pathway and cell cycle progression. Continuous activation of K-rasG12D in vivo by tamoxifen treatment is sufficient to drive the neoplastic transformation of normal lung epithelial cells in mice. Tamoxifen withdrawal after the tumor formation results in apoptosis and tumor regression in mouse lungs. Taken together, these data have convincingly demonstrated that K-ras mutant is essential for neoplastic transformation and this animal model may provide an ideal platform for further detailed characterization of the role of K-ras oncogenic mutant during different stages of lung tumorigenesis.
The incidence of measles in China from 1991 to 2008 was reviewed, and the nucleotide sequences from 1507 measles viruses (MeV) isolated during 1993 to 2008 were phylogenetically analyzed. The results showed that measles epidemics peaked approximately every 3 to 5 years with the range of measles cases detected between 56,850 and 140,048 per year. The Chinese MeV strains represented three genotypes; 1501 H1, 1 H2 and 5 A. Genotype H1 was the predominant genotype throughout China continuously circulating for at least 16 years. Genotype H1 sequences could be divided into two distinct clusters, H1a and H1b. A 4.2% average nucleotide divergence was found between the H1a and H1b clusters, and the nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid homologies of H1a viruses were 92.3%–100% and 84.7%–100%, H1b were 97.1%–100% and 95.3%–100%, respectively. Viruses from both clusters were distributed throughout China with no apparent geographic restriction and multiple co-circulating lineages were present in many provinces. Cluster H1a and H1b viruses were co-circulating during 1993 to 2005, while no H1b viruses were detected after 2005 and the transmission of that cluster has presumably been interrupted. Analysis of the nucleotide and predicted amino acid changes in the N proteins of H1a and H1b viruses showed no evidence of selective pressure. This study investigated the genotype and cluster distribution of MeV in China over a 16-year period to establish a genetic baseline before MeV elimination in Western Pacific Region (WPR). Continuous and extensive MeV surveillance and the ability to quickly identify imported cases of measles will become more critical as measles elimination goals are achieved in China in the near future. This is the first report that a single endemic genotype of measles virus has been found to be continuously circulating in one country for at least 16 years.
Hendra virus (HeV) is a recently emerged zoonotic paramyxovirus that can cause a severe and often fatal disease in horses and humans. HeV is categorized as a biosafety level 4 agent, which has made the development of animal models and testing of potential therapeutics and vaccines challenging. Infection of African Green monkeys (AGMs) with HeV was recently demonstrated and disease mirrored fatal HeV infection in humans, manifesting as a multisystemic vasculitis with widespread virus replication in vascular tissues and severe pathologic manifestations in the lung, spleen and brain. Here, we demonstrate that m102.4, a potent HeV neutralizing human monoclonal antibody (hmAb), can protect AGMs from disease post infection (p.i.) with HeV. Fourteen AGMs were challenged intratracheally with a lethal dose of HeV and twelve subjects were infused twice with a 100 mg dose of m102.4 beginning at either 10 hr, 24 hr or 72 hr p.i. and again approximately 48 hrs later. The presence of viral RNA, infectious virus and HeV-specific immune responses demonstrated that all subjects were infected following challenge. All twelve AGMs that received m102.4 survived infection; whereas the untreated control subjects succumbed to disease on day 8 p.i.. Animals in the 72 hr treatment group exhibited neurological signs of disease but all animals started to recover by day 16 p.i.. These results represent successful post-exposure in vivo efficacy by an investigational drug against HeV and highlight the potential impact a hmAb can have on human disease.
Aging increases susceptibility to infection, in part because thymic involution culminates in reduced naïve T-lymphocyte output. Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are critical to ensure normal maturation of thymocytes and production of peripheral T cells. The forkhead-class transcription factor, encoded by FoxN1, regulates development, differentiation, and function of TECs, both in the prenatal and postnatal thymus. We recently showed that expression of FoxN1, by keratin 14 (K14)-expressing epithelial cells is essential for maintenance of thymic medullary architecture, and deletion of FoxN1 in K14 promoter-driven TECs inhibited development of mature TECs and reduced the number of total thymocytes. These findings are reminiscent of changes observed during normal thymic aging. In the current report, we compared the effects of K14-driven FoxN1 deletion on peripheral T cell function in response to influenza virus infection with those associated with normal aging in a mouse model. FoxN1-deleted mice had reduced numbers of peripheral CD62L+CD44− naïve T-cells. In addition, during influenza infection, these animals had reduced antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell and IgG responses to influenza virus, combined with increased lung injury, weight loss and mortality. These findings paralleled those observed in aged wild type mice, providing the first evidence that K14-mediated FoxN1 deletion causes changes in T-cell function that mimic those in aging during an immune response to challenge with an infectious agent.
Chronic microbial infection influence cancer progression but the mechanisms that link them remain unclear. Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a nuclear receptor that regulates enzymes involved in endobiotic and xenobiotic metabolism. CAR activation is a mechanism of xenobiotic tumor promotion, however, the effects of chronic microbial infection on tumor promotion have not been studied in the context of CAR function. Here we report that CAR limits the effects of chronic infection-associated progression of liver cancer. CAR knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) male mice were treated or not with the tumor initiator diethylnitrosamine (DEN) at 5 weeks of age and then orally inoculated with Helicobacter hepaticus (Hh) or sterile media at 8 weeks of age. At 50 weeks postinoculation mice were euthanized for histopathological, microbiological, molecular, and metabolomic analyses. Hh infection induced comparable hepatitis in WT and KO mice with or without DEN that correlated with significant upregulation of Tnfα and toll receptor Tlr2. Notably, DEN-treated Hh-infected KO mice exhibited increased numbers of liver lobes with dysplasia and neoplasia, as well as increased multiplicity of neoplasia, relative to similarly treated WT mice. Enhanced tumor promotion was associated with decreased hepatic expression of P450 enzymes Cyp2b10 and Cyp3a11, increased expression of Camp, and increased serum concentrations of chenodeoxycholic acid. Together, our findings suggest that liver tumor promotion is enhanced by an impaired metabolic detoxification of endobiotics and a persistent microbial-induced immune response.
Nuclear receptor; Helicobacter hepaticus; innate immunity; bile acid; liver cancer
To investigate how different enterohepatic Helicobacter species (EHS) influence Helicobacter pylori gastric pathology, C57BL/6 mice were infected with Helicobacter hepaticus or Helicobacter muridarum, followed by H. pylori infection 2 weeks later. Compared to H. pylori-infected mice, mice infected with H. muridarum and H. pylori (HmHp mice) developed significantly lower histopathologic activity index (HAI) scores (P < 0.0001) at 6 and 11 months postinoculation (MPI). However, mice infected with H. hepaticus and H. pylori (HhHp mice) developed more severe gastric pathology at 6 MPI (P = 0.01), with a HAI at 11 MPI (P = 0.8) similar to that of H. pylori-infected mice. H. muridarum-mediated attenuation of gastritis in coinfected mice was associated with significant downregulation of proinflammatory Th1 (interlukin-1beta [Il-1β], gamma interferon [Ifn-γ], and tumor necrosis factor-alpha [Tnf-α]) cytokines at both time points and Th17 (Il-17A) cytokine mRNA levels at 6 MPI in murine stomachs compared to those of H. pylori-infected mice (P < 0.01). Coinfection with H. hepaticus also suppressed H. pylori-induced elevation of gastric Th1 cytokines Ifn-γ and Tnf-α (P < 0.0001) but increased Th17 cytokine mRNA levels (P = 0.028) at 6 MPI. Furthermore, mRNA levels of Il-17A were positively correlated with the severity of helicobacter-induced gastric pathology (HhHp>H. pylori>HmHp) (at 6 MPI, r2 = 0.92, P < 0.0001; at 11 MPI, r2 = 0.82, P < 0.002). Despite disparate effects on gastritis, colonization levels of gastric H. pylori were increased in HhHp mice (at 6 MPI) and HmHp mice (at both time points) compared to those in mono-H. pylori-infected mice. These data suggest that despite consistent downregulation of Th1 responses, EHS coinfection either attenuated or promoted the severity of H. pylori-induced gastric pathology in C57BL/6 mice. This modulation was related to the variable effects of EHS on gastric interleukin 17 (IL-17) responses to H. pylori infection.