Cancer has become the leading cause of death worldwide; early diagnosis and treatment of cancers is critical for the survival of the patients. The concentration of cancer markers in easy-to-access biological fluids can provide great assistance in screening for occult primary cancers, distinguishing malignant from benign findings, determining prognosis and prediction for cancer patients. The multiplex detection technology of a panel of cancer markers can greatly increase the accuracy of disease diagnosis. Herein, we briefly fabricate a high-throughput micro-immunoassay based on the electrospun polystyrene (PS) substrates to improve detection sensitivity. The immunoassay was evaluated by analyzing three different cancer biomarkers (AFP, CEA, VEGF). For AFP, CEA, VEGF immunofluorescence assay, the LOD of assay conducted on electrospun PS substrates before or after plasma and the conventional PS substrates were 0.42, 0.10, 1.12 ng/mL, 0.57, 0.09, 1.24 ng/mL, and 159.75, 26.19, 385.59 pg/mL, respectively (P < 0.05). Due to the high porosity and large surface area-to-volume ratio which is the foremost merit of nanostructures, and the plasma treatment which make the hydrophobic PS nanofibers hydropholic, the nanofibers substrates showed sufficient retention of immunoassay functionality and high potential for capture molecules immobilization. Consequently, the immunofluorescence assay conducted on electrospun PS substrates could significantly enhance the sensitivity and limits of detection.
Turmeric (Curcuma longa), a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, has been used for the treatment of diabetes in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine. The active component of turmeric, curcumin, has caught attention as a potential treatment for diabetes and its complications primarily because it is a relatively safe and inexpensive drug that reduces glycemia and hyperlipidemia in rodent models of diabetes. Here, we review the recent literature on the applications of curcumin for glycemia and diabetes-related liver disorders, adipocyte dysfunction, neuropathy, nephropathy, vascular diseases, pancreatic disorders, and other complications, and we also discuss its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The applications of additional curcuminoid compounds for diabetes prevention and treatment are also included in this paper. Finally, we mention the approaches that are currently being sought to generate a “super curcumin” through improvement of the bioavailability to bring this promising natural product to the forefront of diabetes therapeutics.
Although the pathogenetic mechanism of DN has not been elucidated, an inflammatory mechanism has been suggested as a potential contributor. This study was designed to explore the relationship between low-grade inflammation and renal microangiopathy in T2DM. A total of 261 diabetic subjects were divided into three groups according to UAE: a normal albuminuria group, a microalbuminuria group, and a macroalbuminuria group. A control group was also chosen. Levels of hs-CRP, TNF-α, uMCP-1, SAA, SCr, BUN, serum lipid, blood pressure, and HbA1c were measured in all subjects. Compared with the normal controls, levels of hs-CRP, TNF-α, uMCP-1, and SAA in T2DM patients were significantly higher. They were also elevated in the normal albuminuria group, P < 0.05. Compared with the normal albuminuria group, levels of these inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in the microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria group, P < 0.01. The macroalbuminuria group also showed higher levels than the microalbuminuria group, P < 0.01. Also they were positively correlated with UAE, SBP, DBP, LDL-C, and TC. We noted no significance correlated with course, TG, or HDL-C. Only TNF-α; was positively correlated with HbA1c. This study revealed the importance of these inflammatory cytokines in DN pathogenesis. Further studies are needed to fully establish the potential of these cytokines as additional biomarkers for the development of DN.
To evaluate the effects of the multiple burr hole (MBH) revascularization on ischemic type adult Moyamoya disease (MMD) by computed tomography perfusion (CTP).
Eighty-six ischemic MMD patients received CTP 1 week before and 3 weeks after MBH operation. Fifty-seven patients received it again at 6 month and underwent digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and mRS follow-up. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT), time to peak (TTP), and relative values of ischemic symptomatic hemispheres were measured. Differences in pre- and post-surgery perfusion CT values were assessed.
There were significant differences of CBF, TTP, and relative time to peak (rTTP) in ischemic hemisphere between 1 week before and 3 weeks after surgery, and no significant difference in relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), CBV, relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), MTT, relative mean transit time (rMTT). According to whether there was symptom improvement or not on 3 weeks after MBH, the rTTP value was not statistically significant in the patients whose symptoms were not improved at all on 3 weeks after operation. Six-month follow-up showed that CBF, rCBF, and rCBV values were significantly higher than those before operation. Postoperative MTT, TTP, rMTT, and rTTP values were significantly lower than those before operation.
CTP is a sensitive method to obtain functional imaging of cerebral microcirculation, which can be a noninvasive assessment of the abnormalities of intracranial arteries and cerebral perfusion changes in MMD before and after surgery. CBF and TTP map, especially the relative values of TTP, seems to have the capability of being quite sensitive to the presence of altered brain perfusion at early time after indirect revascularization.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00234-013-1291-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Moyamoya disease; CT perfusion; Multiple burr hole surgery; Ischemic
MiR-106a is frequently down-regulated in various types of human cancer. However the underlying mechanism of miR-106a involved in glioma remains elusive.
The association of miR-106a with glioma grade and patient survival was analyzed. The biological function and target of miR-106a were determined by bioinformatic analysis and cell experiments (Western blot, luciferase reporter, cell cycle, ntracellular ATP production and glucose uptake assay). Finally, rescue expression of its target SLC2A3 was used to test the role of SLC2A3 in miR-106a-mediated cell glycolysis and proliferation.
Here we showed that miR-106a was a tumor suppressor miRNA was involved in GBM cell glucose uptake and proliferation. Decreased miR-106a in GBM tissues and conferred a poor survival of GBM patients. SLC2A3 was identified as a core target of miR-106a in GBM cells. Inhibition of SLC2A3 by miR-106a attenuated cell proliferation and inhibited glucose uptake. In addition, for each biological process we identified ontology-associated transcripts that significantly correlated with SLC2A3 expression. Finally, the expression of SLC2A3 largely abrogated miR-106a-mediated cell proliferation and glucose uptake in GBM cells.
Taken together, miR-106a and SLC2A3 could be potential therapeutic approaches for GBM.
miR-106a; SLC2A3; Cell proliferation; Glucose uptake; GBM
Crocodilians are diving reptiles that can hold their breath under water for long periods of time and are crepuscular animals with excellent sensory abilities. They comprise a sister lineage of birds and have no sex chromosome. Here we report the genome sequence of the endangered Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) and describe its unique features. The next-generation sequencing generated 314 Gb of raw sequence, yielding a genome size of 2.3 Gb. A total of 22 200 genes were predicted in Alligator sinensis using a de novo, homology- and RNA-based combined model. The genetic basis of long-diving behavior includes duplication of the bicarbonate-binding hemoglobin gene, co-functioning of routine phosphate-binding and special bicarbonate-binding oxygen transport, and positively selected energy metabolism, ammonium bicarbonate excretion and cardiac muscle contraction. Further, we elucidated the robust Alligator sinensis sensory system, including a significantly expanded olfactory receptor repertoire, rapidly evolving nerve-related cellular components and visual perception, and positive selection of the night vision-related opsin and sound detection-associated otopetrin. We also discovered a well-developed immune system with a considerable number of lineage-specific antigen-presentation genes for adaptive immunity as well as expansion of the tripartite motif-containing C-type lectin and butyrophilin genes for innate immunity and expression of antibacterial peptides. Multifluorescence in situ hybridization showed that alligator chromosome 3, which encodes DMRT1, exhibits significant synteny with chicken chromosome Z. Finally, population history analysis indicated population admixture 0.60-1.05 million years ago, when the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was uplifted.
diving hypoxia; oxidative phosphorylation; olfaction; immunity; FISH; SNP
Wnt activity is a key regulator of cardiac progenitor cell self-renewal, differentiation and morphogenesis. However, Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1), a antagonists of Wnt signaling activity, its potential effects on heart development has not yet been approached by either in vivo or in vitro studies. Here, the expression of WIF1 was regulated in a different way in the dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy heart from transgenic mice by mutations in cardiac troponin T, cTnTR141W and cTnTR92Q. The heart tissue specific transgenic mice of WIF1 was studied using M-mode echocardiography and histologic analyses. Production levels of an array of effectors and transcription factors that impact cellular organization and tissue morphology were measured. The effects of WIF1 on β-catenin pathway could be reversed by LiCl regarding signaling pathways and effector and respondent molecules in H9c2 cells, consistent with the expression levels of c-myc, natriuretic peptide precursor type B and skeletal muscle actin α1. Among the most noteworthy findings were that WIF1 impaired the function and structure of heart, and the effects on β-catenin pathway maybe the course of the former. It is anticipated that our findings will contribute to expansion of our understanding of WIF1 biological function on heart development and possible modes of treatment of heart diseases.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11248-013-9738-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
WIF1; Heart; Transgene; Mice
In a healthy cochlea stimulated with two tones f1 and f2, combination tones are generated by the cochlea's active process and its associated nonlinearity. These distortion tones travel “in reverse” through the middle ear. They can be detected with a sensitive microphone in the ear canal (EC) and are known as distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Comparisons of ossicular velocity and EC pressure responses at distortion product frequencies allowed us to evaluate the middle ear transmission in the reverse direction along the ossicular chain. In the current study, the gerbil ear was stimulated with two equal-intensity tones with fixed f2/f1 ratio of 1.05 or 1.25. The middle ear ossicles were accessed through an opening of the pars flaccida, and their motion was measured in the direction in line with the stapes piston-like motion using a laser interferometer. When referencing the ossicular motion to EC pressure, an additional amplitude loss was found in reverse transmission compared to the gain in forward transmission, similar to previous findings relating intracochlear and EC pressure. In contrast, sound transmission along the ossicular chain was quite similar in forward and reverse directions. The difference in middle ear transmission in forward and reverse directions is most likely due to the different load impedances—the cochlea in forward transmission and the EC in reverse transmission.
middle ear; ossicles; middle ear gain; otoacoustic emissions
When driven at sound pressure levels greater than ~110 dB stimulus pressure level, the mammalian middle ear is known to produce subharmonic distortion. In this study, we simultaneously measured subharmonics in the ear canal pressure, intracochlear pressure, and basilar membrane or round window membrane velocity, in gerbil. Our primary objective was to quantify the relationship between the subharmonics measured in the ear canal and their intracochlear counterparts. We had two primary findings: (1) The subharmonics emerged suddenly, with a substantial amplitude in the ear canal and the cochlea; (2) at the stimulus level for which subharmonics emerged, the pressure in scala vestibuli/pressure in the ear canal amplitude relationship was similar for the subharmonic and fundamental components. These findings are important for experiments and clinical conditions in which high sound pressure level stimuli are used and could lead to confounding subharmonic stimulation.
tympanic membrane; intracochlear pressure; subharmonics; nonlinearity; hearing aid
AIM: To determine whether the human giant larvae homolog 1 gene (Hugl-1/Llg1/Lgl1) exerts tumor suppressor effects in esophageal cancer.
METHODS: We constructed a Hugl-1 expression plasmid, pEZ-M29-Hugl1, for gene transfection. We transfected the pEZ-M29-Hugl1 plasmid into Eca109 esophageal cancer cell lines with Lipofectamine 2000 to overexpress Hugl-1. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were performed to determine the effects of the plasmid on Hugl-1 expression. In vitro cell proliferation and apoptosis were examined separately by cell counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, flow cytometry, and Western blotting before and after the transfection of the plasmid into Eca109 cells. Cell cycle distribution was assessed with flow cytometry. The effect of Hugl-1 overexpressing on tumor growth in vivo was performed with a xenograft tumor model in nude mice. Expression of Hugl-1 in xenograft tumor was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) technique was performed to detect and quantitate apoptotic cell.
RESULTS: The transfection efficiency was confirmed with real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Our results show that compared with control groups the mRNA levels and protein levels of Hugl-1 in pEZ-M29-Hugl1-treated group were remarkably increased (P < 0.05). The CCK-8 assay demonstrated that the growth of cells overexpressing Hugl-1 was significantly lower than control cells. Cell cycle distribution showed there was a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in cells overexpressing Hugl-1 (64.09% ± 3.14% vs 50.32% ± 4.60%, 64.09% ± 3.14% vs 49.13% ± 2.24%). Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate revealed that apoptosis was significantly increased in cells overexpressing Hugl-1 compared with control group (17.33% ± 4.76% vs 6.90% ± 1.61%, 17.33% ± 4.76% vs 6.27% ± 0.38%). Moreover, we found that Hugl-1 changes the level of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and the activation of both caspase-3 and caspase-9. With a TUNEL assay, we found that Hugl-1 markedly increased the apoptosis rate of Eca109 cells in vivo (60.50% ± 9.11% vs 25.00% ± 12.25%). It was shown that Hugl-1 represents a significantly more effective tumor suppressor gene alone in a xenograft tumor mouse model. This data suggest that Hugl-1 inhibited tumor growth and induced cell apoptosis in vivo.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Hugl-1 induces growth suppression and apoptosis in a human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line both in vitro and in vivo.
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Human giant larvae homolog 1; Proliferation; Apoptosis
Hemorrhagic shock is known to disrupt the gut barrier leading to end-organ dysfunction. The vagus nerve can inhibit detrimental immune responses that contribute to organ damage in hemorrhagic shock. Therefore, we explored whether stimulation of the vagus nerve can protect the gut and recover lung permeability in trauma-hemorrhagic shock (THS).
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to left cervical vagus nerve stimulation at 5 V for 10 minutes. The right internal jugular and femoral artery were cannulated for blood withdrawal and blood pressure monitoring, respectively. Animals were then subjected to hemorrhagic shock to a mean arterial pressure between 30 mm Hg and 35 mm Hg for 90 minutes then reperfused with their own whole blood. After observation for 3 hours, gut permeability was assessed with fluorescein dextran 4 in vivo injections in a ligated portion of distal ileum followed by Evans blue dye injection to assess lung permeability. Pulmonary myeloperoxidase levels were measured and compared.
Vagal nerve stimulation abrogated THS-induced lung injury (mean [SD], 8.46 [0.36] vs. 4.87 [0.78]; p < 0.05) and neutrophil sequestration (19.39 [1.01] vs. 12.83 [1.16]; p < 0.05). Likewise, THS gut permeability was reduced to sham levels.
Neuromodulation decreases injury in the THS model as evidenced by decreased gut permeability as well as decreased lung permeability and pulmonary neutrophil sequestration in a rat model.
Vagus; lung permeability; gut barrier
Neural activity plays an important role in development and maturation of visual circuits in the brain. Activity can be instructive in refining visual projections by directly mediating formation and elimination of specific synaptic contacts through competition-based mechanisms. Alternatively, activity could be permissive – regulating production of factors which create a favorable environment for circuit refinement. Here we used the Xenopus laevis tadpole visual system to test whether activity is instructive or permissive for shaping development of the retinotectal circuit. In vivo spike output was dampened in a small subgroup of tectal neurons, starting from developmental stages 44–46, by overexpressing Shaker-like Xenopus Kv1.1 potassium channels using electroporation. Tadpoles were then reared until stage 49, a time period when significant refinement of the retinotectal map occurs. Kv1.1 expressing neurons had significantly decreased spike output in response to both current injection and visual stimuli, compared to untransfected controls, with spiking occurring during a more limited time interval. We found that Kv1.1 expressing neurons had larger visual receptive fields, decreased receptive field sharpness and more persistent recurrent excitation than control neurons, all of which are characteristics of immature neurons. Transfected cells, however had normal spontaneous excitatory synaptic currents and dendritic arbors. These results suggest that spike output of a tectal neuron plays an important instructive role in development of its receptive field properties and refinement of local circuits. However, other activity dependent processes, such as synaptogenesis and dendritic growth, remain unaffected due to the permissive environment created by otherwise normal network activity.
AIM: To investigate the association of p42.3 expression with clinicopathological characteristics and the biological function of p42.3 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: We used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative real-time RT-PCR and western blotting to detect p42.3 mRNA and protein expression in hepatic cell lines. We examined primary HCC samples and matched adjacent normal tissue by immunohistochemistry to investigate the correlation between p42.3 expression and clinicopathological features. HepG2 cells were transfected with a pIRES2-EGFP-p42.3 expression vector to examine the function of the p42.3 gene. Transfected cells were analyzed for their viability and malignant transformation abilities by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, colony formation assay, and tumorigenicity assay in nude mice.
RESULTS: p42.3 is differentially expressed in primary HCC tumors and cell lines. Approximately 69.6% (96/138) of cells were p42.3-positive in hepatic tumor tissues, while 30.7% (35/114) were p42.3-positive in tumor-adjacent normal tissues. Clinicopathological characteristics of the HCC specimens revealed a significant correlation between p42.3 expression and tumor differentiation (P = 0.031). However, p42.3 positivity was not related to tumor tumor-node-metastasis classification, hepatitis B virus status, or hepatoma type. Regarding p42.3 overexpression in stably transfected HepG2 cells, we discovered significant enhancement of cancer cell growth and colony formation in vitro, and significantly enhanced tumorigenicity in nude mice. Western blot analysis of cell cycle proteins revealed that enhanced p42.3 levels promote upregulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin B1 and mitotic arrest deficient 2.
CONCLUSION: p42.3 promotes tumorigenicity and tumor growth in HCC and may be a potential target for future clinical cancer therapeutics.
p42.3; Hepatocellular carcinoma; HepG2; Overexpression; Tumorigenicity
Organic acids in Chinese herbs, the long-neglected components, have been reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiplatelet aggregation activities; thus they may have potentially protective effect on ischemic heart disease. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the protective effects of two organic acids, that is, citric acid and L-malic acid, which are the main components of Fructus Choerospondiatis, on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and the underlying mechanisms. In in vivo rat model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, we found that treatments with citric acid and L-malic acid significantly reduced myocardial infarct size, serum levels of TNF-α, and platelet aggregation. In vitro experiments revealed that both citric acid and L-malic acid significantly reduced LDH release, decreased apoptotic rate, downregulated the expression of cleaved caspase-3, and upregulated the expression of phosphorylated Akt in primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. These results suggest that both citric acid and L-malic acid have protective effects on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury; the underlying mechanism may be related to their anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet aggregation and direct cardiomyocyte protective effects. These results also demonstrate that organic acids, besides flavonoids, may also be the major active ingredient of Fructus Choerospondiatis responsible for its cardioprotective effects and should be attached great importance in the therapy of ischemic heart disease.
AIM: To investigate the significance of Twist2 for colorectal cancer (CRC).
METHODS: In this study, 93 CRC patients were included who received curative surgery in Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital from January 1999 to December 2010. Records of patients’ clinicopathological characteristics and follow up data were reviewed. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were used to observe the protein expression of Twist2 and E-cadherin by immunohistochemistry. Two independent pathologists who were blinded to the clinical information performed semiquantitative scoring of immunostaining. A total score of 3-6 (sum of extent + intensity) was considered as Twist2-positive expression. The expression of E-cadherin was divided into two levels (preserved and reduced). An exploratory statistical analysis was conducted to determine the association between Twist2 expression and clinicopathological parameters, as well as E-cadherin expression. Furthermore, the variables associated with prognosis were analyzed by Cox’s proportional hazards model. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to plot survival curves according to different expression levels of Twist2.
RESULTS: Twist2-positive expression was observed in 66 (71.0%) samples and mainly located in the cytoplasm. Forty-three (46.2%) samples showed reduced expression of E-cadherin. There were no significant correlations between Twist2 expression and any of the clinicopathological parameters. However, Twist2-positive expression was significantly associated with reduced expression of E-cadherin (P = 0.040). Multivariate analysis revealed that bad M-stage [hazard ratio (HR) = 7.694, 95%CI: 2.927-20.224, P < 0.001] and Twist2-positive (HR = 5.744, 95%CI: 1.347-24.298, P = 0.018) were the independent risk factors for poor overall survival (OS), while Twist2-positive (HR = 3.264, 95%CI: 1.455-7.375, P = 0.004), bad N-stage (HR = 2.149, 95%CI: 1.226-3.767, P = 0.008) and bad M-stage (HR = 10.907, 95%CI: 4.937-24.096, P < 0.001) were independently associated with poor disease-free survival (DFS). Survival curves showed a definite trend for Twist2-negative patients to have longer OS and DFS than Twist2-negative patients, not only overall, but also for patients in different stages, especially for DFS of patients in stage III (P = 0.033) and IV (P = 0.026).
CONCLUSION: Our data suggests, for the first time, that Twist2 is a valuable prognostic biomarker for CRC, particularly for patients in stage III and IV.
Colorectal cancer; Prognostic biomarker; Twist2; Epithelial-mesenchymal transition; Immunohistochemstry
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene plays a key role in tumor survival, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastatic spread. Recent studies showed that gastric cancer (GC) was associated with polymorphisms of the EGFR gene and environmental influences, such as lifestyle factors. In this study, seven known SNPs in EGFR exons were investigated in a high-risk Chinese population in Jiangsu province to test whether genetic variants of EGFR exons and lifestyle are associated with an increased risk of GC.
A hospital-based case-control study was performed in Jiangsu province. The results showed that smoking, drinking and preference for salty food were significantly associated with the risk of GC. The differences of lifestyle between males and females might be as the reason of higher incidence rates in males than those in females. Seven exon SNPs were genotyped rs2227983,rs2072454,rs17337023,rs1050171,rs1140475, rs2293347, and rs28384375. It was noted that the variant rs2072454 T allele and TT genotype were significantly associated with an increased risk of GC. Interestingly, our result suggested the ACAGCA haplotype might be associated with decreased risk of GC. However, no significant association was examined between the other six SNPs and the risk of GC both in the total population and the age-matching population even with gender differences.
Smoking, drinking and preference for salty food were significantly associated with the risk of GC in Jiangsu province with gender differences. Although only one SNP (rs2072454) was significantly associated with an increased risk of GC, combined the six EGFR exon SNPs together may be useful for predicting the risk of GC.
Differential diagnosis of high-grade dysplastic nodules (HGDN) and well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (WDHCC) represents a challenge to experienced hepatic clinicians, radiologists and hepatopathologists.
The expression profiles of aminoacylase-1 (ACY1), sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1) and glypican-3 (GPC3) in low-grade dysplastic nodules (LGDN), HGDN and WDHCC were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The differential diagnostic performances of these three markers alone and in combination for HGDN and WDHCC were investigated by logistic regression models (HGDN = 21; WDHCC = 32) and validated in an independent test set (HGDN, n = 21; WDHCC n = 24). Postoperative overall survival and time to recurrence were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses in an independent set of 500 patients.
ACY1, SQSTM1 and GPC3 were differentially expressed in each group. For the differential diagnosis of WDHCC from HGDN, the sensitivity and specificity of the combination of ACY1 + SQSTM1 + GPC3 for detecting WDHCC were 93.8% and 95.2% respectively in the training set, which were higher than any of the three two-marker combinations. The validities of the four diagnostic models were further confirmed in an independent test set, and corresponding good sensitivity and specificity were observed. Interestingly, GPC3 expression in HCC tissues combined with serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) was found to be an independent predictor for overall survival and time to recurrence.
ACY1 + SQSTM1 + GPC3 combination represents a potentially valuable biomarker for distinguishing between WDHCC and HGDN using immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, low GPC3 staining combined with positive serum AFP may play a practical role in predicting poor postoperative outcome and high tumor recurrence risk.
High grade dysplastic nodules; Well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma; Aminoacylase-1; Sequestosome-1; Glypican-3
Ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50) is a postsynaptic density-95/disc-large/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ) homologous domain-containing protein that is involved in cell signaling. EBP50 regulates cell apoptosis, proliferation and invasion. In the present study, the prognostic impact factor of EBP50 expression was evaluated using a quantum dot (QD)-based assay and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The EBP50 protein expression in gastric cancer (GC) tissues was evaluated using IHC and QD-IHC. The study included 101 patients with GC (29 females and 72 males, aged 24–81 years), diagnosed and treated at the General Surgery Department of Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University (Wuhan, China) between 2000 and 2005. The survival rate was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank tests. IHC and QD analyses of 101 GC tissue specimens revealed that EBP50-positive tumor cells were frequently present in GC. Increased EBP50 immunostaining was observed in 63 specimens (62.4%). The EBP50 expression levels were correlated with increased tumor size and the male gender. EBP50 was well distributed in the cytoplasm and nuclei of the GC cells. However, EBP50 protein expression exhibited no correlation with age, differentiation, stage or lymph node metastasis. There were no associations between the expression of EBP50 and the mean survival rates (IHC, 50.5 vs. 58.1 months, P>0.05; QD, 55.4 vs. 63.2 months, P>0.05). These findings suggest that EBP50 protein expression is not correlated with the prognosis of patients with GC. QD-IHC and IHC have similar advantages for the detection of EBP50 protein expression.
ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein 50; tumor marker; gastric cancer; quantum dot; prognosis; immunochemistry
AIM: To determine the effect and molecular mechanism of ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein-50 (EBP50) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: Three human HCC cell lines, i.e., SM-MC7721, HepG2 and Hep3B, were used. We transfected the Pbk-CMV-HA-EBP50 plasmid into SMMC7721 cells with Lipofectamine 2000 to overexpress EBP50. Western blotting were performed to determine the effects of the plasmid on EBP50 expression and to detect the expression of β-catenin and E-cadherin before and after the transfection of the plasmid into SMMC7721 cells. In vitro cell proliferation was assessed with a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Cell cycle distribution was assessed with flow cytometry. Invasion and migration ability of before and after the transfection were determined with a transwell assay. Cell apoptosis was demonstrated with Annexin V-FITC. The effect of EBP50 overexpressing on tumor growth in vivo was performed with a xenograft tumor model in nude mice.
RESULTS: The transfection efficiency was confirmed with Western blotting (1.36 ± 0.07 vs 0.81 ± 0.09, P < 0.01). The CCK8 assay demonstrated that the growth of cells overexpressing EBP50 was significantly lower than control cells (P < 0.01). Cell cycle distribution showed there was a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in cells overexpressing EBP50 (61.3% ± 3.1% vs 54.0% ± 2.4%, P < 0.05). The transwell assay showed that cell invasion and migration were significantly inhibited in cells overexpressing EBP50 compared with control cells (5.8 ± 0.8 vs 21.6 ± 1.3, P < 0.01). Annexin V-FITC revealed that apoptosis was significantly increased in cells overexpressing EBP50 compared with control cells (14.8% ± 2.7% vs 3.4% ± 1.3%, P < 0.05). The expression of β-catenin was downregulated and E-cadherin was upregulated in cells overexpressing EBP50 compared with control cells (0.28 ± 0.07 vs 0.56 ± 0.12, P < 0.05; 0.55 ± 0.08 vs 0.39 ± 0.07, P < 0.05). In vivo tumor growth assay conﬁrmed that up-regulation of EBP50 could obviously slow the growth of HCC derived from SMMC7721 cells (28.9 ± 7.2 vs 70.1 ± 7.2, P < 0.01).
CONCLUSION: The overexpression of EBP50 could inhibit the growth of SMMC7721 cells and promote apoptosis by modulating β-catenin, E-cadherin. EBP50 may serve asa potential therapeutic target in HCC.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein-50; Growth; Migration; Invasion
Two-tone distortion was measured in the intracochlear pressure in the base of the gerbil cochlea, close to the sensory tissue, where the local motions and forces of the organ of Corti can be detected. The measurements probe both the underlying nonlinear process that generates two-tone distortion, and the filtering and spreading of the distortion products. Some of our findings are as follows: (1) The observations were consistent with previous observations of two-tone distortion in BM motion [J. Neurophysiol. 77, 2385–2399 (1997); J. Neurophysiol. 78, 261–270 (1997)]. (2) Frequency sweeps show distortion product tuning and phase-versus-frequency behavior that is similar, but not identical, to single tone tuning. (3) The decay of distortion products with distance from the basilar membrane confirms the feasibility that they could drive the stapes by a direct fluid route, as proposed by Ren [Nat. Neurosci. 7, 333–334 (2004)]. (4) The phases of the distortion products within a single family (the group of distortion products generated by a single primary pair) in some cases alternated between 0° and 180° when referenced to the phases of the primaries. This behavior is predicted by a simple compressive nonlinearity.
Background and aims: Synchronous liver metastasis (SLM) remains a significant problem in newly diagnosed colorectal cancer (CRC). The system of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and Met plays an important role in cancer invasion and metastasis and is being developed to be targeted drugs. We aimed to investigate the role of HGF/Met in SLM based on a case-matched study and comparison between primary tumors and matched metastases.
Methods: A group of 30 patients with SLM and other two groups of patients without SLM in a hospital database were collected. They were matched into according to clinicopathological factors. 81 patients were included in the study. Their tissues of primary colorectal cancers, lymph nodes and liver metastases were collected to detect HGF and Met expression by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR.
Results: Expression of HGF and Met at the protein level and the RNA level in primary CRCs with SLM were significantly higher than that in primary colorectal carcinomas without liver metastases (all P value<0.05). Their expression was only related to SLM when concurrent with regional lymph node metastasis (all P value<0.05) but had little influence on SLM without involvement of lymph node metastasis (all P value>0.05). Comparison their expression between primary tumors and matched metastases, major concordance and minor difference existed.
Conclusions: HGF and Met may exert functions in the development of SLM when concurrent with lymph node metastases but had little influence on SLM without lymph node metastasis, further indicating their roles and potential values for a subtype of colorectal cancer metastasis. Major concordance and minor difference exist between primary tumors and matched metastases, which further provides evidence for evaluating the response to their inhibitors based on primary tumors or metastases.
colorectal carcinoma; synchronous liver metastasis; hepatocyte growth factor; Met.
Research in recent years has revealed that embryonic stem cells (ESCs) could generate obvious antitumor effects in both vitro and vivo. In vitro, ESCs could secrete soluble factors that are capable of blocking cancer cells proliferation, moreover, embryonic microenvironments could effectively inhibit tumorigenesis and metastasis; while in vivo, administration of ESCs in tumor-bearing mice could generate significant antitumor effects by indirectly activating the antitumor immune system. In this study, non-small cell lung cancer cells (Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells, LLCs) and ESCs were co-injected together into mice, after that subcutaneous tumor growth was monitored, cellular and humoral immune responses were detected, and different control groups were set to compare the results in different conditions. Our results suggested that compared to be injected alone, ESCs co-injected with cancer cells could inhibit cancer cell growth more efficiently in vivo, with more CD8+ lymphocytes generated in both peripheral circulation and spleen, and with higher serum anticancer cytokine level (interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ). We conclude that the boosted antitumor effects induced by ESCs and cancer cells co-injection may be both the effects of antitumor factors secreted by ESCs and immune responses induced by ESCs in vivo.
embryonic stem cells; immunotherapy; antitumor immunity; antitumor factors.
The abalone Haliotis diversicolor is a good model for study of the settlement and metamorphosis, which are widespread marine ecological phenomena. However, information on the global gene backgrounds and gene expression profiles for the early development of abalones is lacking.
In this study, eight non-normalized and multiplex barcode-labeled transcriptomes were sequenced using a 454 GS system to cover the early developmental stages of the abalone H. diversicolor. The assembly generated 35,415 unigenes, of which 7,566 were assigned GO terms. A global gene expression profile containing 636 scaffolds/contigs was constructed and was proven reliable using qPCR evaluation. It indicated that there may be existing dramatic phase transitions. Bioprocesses were proposed, including the ‘lock system’ in mature eggs, the collagen shells of the trochophore larvae and the development of chambered extracellular matrix (ECM) structures within the earliest postlarvae.
This study globally details the first 454 sequencing data for larval stages of H. diversicolor. A basic analysis of the larval transcriptomes and cluster of the gene expression profile indicates that each stage possesses a batch of specific genes that are indispensable during embryonic development, especially during the two-cell, trochophore and early postlarval stages. These data will provide a fundamental resource for future physiological works on abalones, revealing the mechanisms of settlement and metamorphosis at the molecular level.
Numerous studies have revealed that Rap1 (Ras-proximate-1 or Ras-related protein 1), a small GTPase protein, plays a crucial role in mediating cAMP signaling in isolated cardiac tissues and cell lines. However, the involvement of Rap1 in the cardiac development in vivo is largely unknown. By injecting anti-sense morpholino oligonucleotides to knock down Rap1a and Rap1b in zebrafish embryos, and in combination with time-lapsed imaging, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscope techniques, we seek to understand the role of Rap1 in cardiac development and functions. At an optimized low dose of mixed rap1a and rap1b morpholino oligonucleotides, the heart developed essentially normally until cardiac contraction occurred. Morphant hearts showed the myocardium defect phenotypes, most likely due to disrupted myofibril assembly and alignment. In vivo heart electrocardiography revealed prolonged P-R interval and QRS duration, consistent with an adherens junction defect and reduced Connexons in cardiac myocytes of morphants. We conclude that a proper level of Rap1 is crucial for heart morphogenesis and function, and suggest that Rap1 and/or their downstream factor genes are potential candidates for genetic screening for human heart diseases.
The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a devastating pest of cruciferous crops worldwide, and has developed resistance to a wide range of insecticides, including diacylhydrazine-based ecdysone agonists, a highly selective group of molt-accelerating biopesticides targeting the ecdysone receptors.
In this study, we cloned and characterized the ecdysone receptors from P. xylostella, including the two isoforms of EcR and a USP. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed striking conservations among insect ecdysone receptors, especially between P. xylostella and other lepidopterans. The binding affinity of ecdysteroids to in vitro-translated receptor proteins indicated that PxEcRB isoform bound specifically to ponasterone A, and the binding affinity was enhanced by co-incubation with PxUSP (Kd =3.0±1.7 nM). In contrast, PxEcRA did not bind to ponasterone A, even in the presence of PxUSP. The expression of PxEcRB were consistently higher than that of PxEcRA across each and every developmental stage, while the pattern of PxUSP expression is more or less ubiquitous.
Target site insensitivity, in which the altered binding of insecticides (ecdysone agonists) to their targets (ecdysone receptors) leads to an adaptive response (resistance), is one of the underlying mechanisms of diacylhydrazine resistance. Given the distinct differences at expression level and the ligand-binding capacity, we hypothesis that PxEcRB is the ecdysone receptor that controls the remodeling events during metamorphosis. More importantly, PxEcRB is the potential target site which is modified in the ecdysone agonist-resistant P. xylostella.
Plutella xylostella, Ecdysone receptor (EcR); Binding affinity, Expression profiling, Ecdysone agonist