Drug-resistant tuberculosis is a major public-health concern globally and can be difficult to manage clinically. Spinal tuberculosis is the most common manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. However, there have been few reports on the topic of drug-resistant spinal tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and drug susceptibility patterns and the outcomes of management with a combination of surgery and individualised chemotherapy, for drug-resistant spinal tuberculosis.
We retrospectively analysed 35 patients with drug-resistant tuberculous spondylitis. After surgery, individualised chemotherapy was tailored for each patient according to the drug-resistance profile and previous history of chemotherapy. The patients were followed up clinically and radiologically for an average period of 35.8 months.
Among 35 drug-resistant spinal tuberculosis cases, 13 were retreatment cases. Twelve were multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and 23 were non-MDR-TB. The patients with MDR-TB and non-MDR-TB had undergone previous chemotherapy for an average of 14.50 ± 2.00 (0–60) months and 4.56 ± 1.54 (0–74) months, respectively. A total of 32 cases underwent open operations, and the other three had percutaneous drainage and local chemotherapy. Patients received individualised chemotherapy for an average of 23.6 months postoperatively. Local recurrence was observed in six patients. Thirty-three patients had been cured at the final follow-up, and the other two were still receiving chemotherapy.
Drug-resistant tuberculous spondylitis is mainly acquired through previous irregular chemotherapy and the spreading of drug-resistant strains. Management with a combination of surgery and individualised chemotherapy is feasible in the treatment of severe complications and the prevention of acquired drug resistance.
We demonstrated the application of a simple electrode geometry for dielectrophoresis (DEP) on colloidal probes as a form of molecular force spectroscopy in a highly parallel format. The electric field between parallel plates is perturbed with dielectric microstructures, generating uniform DEP forces on colloidal probes in the range of several hundred piconewtons across a macroscopic sample area. We determined the approximate crossover frequency between negative and positive DEP using electrodes without dielectric microstructures—a simplification over standard experimental methods involving quadrupoles or optical trapping. 2D and 3D simulations of the electric field distributions validated the experimental behavior of several of our DEP tweezers geometries and provided insight into potential improvements. We applied the DEP tweezers to the stretching of a short DNA oligomer and detected its extension using total-internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The combination of a simple cell fabrication, a uniform distribution of high axial forces, and a facile optical detection of our DEP tweezers makes this form of molecular force spectroscopy ideal for highly parallel detection of stretching or unbinding kinetics of biomolecules.
DNA microarrays can detect tuberculosis and its multi-drug resistant form in M. tuberculosis isolates and sputum specimens with high sensitivity and specificity. However, no performance data currently exists for its use in spinal tuberculosis specimens. This study was aimed to assess the performance of the CapitalBio™ DNA microarray in the detection of isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RMP) resistance in spinal tuberculosis compared with the BACT/MGIT 960 system.
From March 2009 to December 2011, 153 consecutive patients from Southwest Hospital, Chongqing with clinically and pathologically diagnosed spinal tuberculosis were enrolled into this study. Specimens collected during surgery from the tuberculosis patients were subjected to M. tuberculosis species identification and drug-resistance detection by the CapitalBio™ DNA microarray, and results were compared with those obtained from the absolute concentration drug susceptibility testing.
The CapitalBio™ DNA microarray achieved 93.55% sensitivity for the correct M. tuberculosis species identification of the 93 specimens that tested positive for spinal tuberculosis through culture. In addition, twenty-seven additional patients (45.0%) were detected by the DNA microarray to be positive for M. tuberculosis among sixty spinal tuberculosis patients who were culture negative. Moreover, the DNA microarray had a sensitivity of 88.9% and a specificity of 90.7% for RMP resistance, and the microarray had a sensitivity of 80.0% and a specificity of 91.0% for INH resistance. The mean turn-around time of M. tuberculosis species identification and drug resistance detection using the DNA microarray was 5.8 (range, 4–9) hours.
The CapitalBio™ DNA microarray is a feasible and accurate tool for the species identification of M. tuberculosis and for directly detecting RMP and INH resistance from spinal tuberculosis specimens in fewer than 9 hours.
DNA microarray; Spinal tuberculosis; Drug resistance; Gene mutation
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been shown to be able to migrate towards glioma, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for this migratory behavior still require further elucidation. This study aimed to test the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the C6 glioma-induced migration of BMSCs, evaluate the effect of VEGF on the migratory capacity and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression of BMSCs and explore the role of VCAM-1 in the VEGF-induced migration of BMSCs. The results showed that C6 glioma cells significantly increased the migration of BMSCs in vitro, which was partially blocked by a VEGF neutralizing antibody, and 20 ng/ml recombinant rat VEGF164 incubation enhanced the migration of BMSCs. Moreover, 12 h of 20 ng/ml VEGF164 incubation upregulated the VCAM-1 expression of BMSCs and the blocking of VCAM-1 reduced the VEGF164-induced migration of BMSCs. The data also revealed that LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), decreased the VEGF-induced migration and VCAM-1 expression of BMSCs. These findings indicate that VEGF participates in mediating the C6 glioma-induced migration of BMSCs by upregulating their VCAM-1 expression, and that PI3K is involved in the signal transduction of VEGF164-induced migration and VCAM-1 expression of BMSCs.
mesenchymal stem cells; vascular endothelial growth factor; migration; glioma; vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
Two atmospheric circulation systems, the mid-latitude Westerlies and the Asian summer monsoon (ASM), play key roles in northern-hemisphere climatic changes. However, the variability of the Westerlies in Asia and their relationship to the ASM remain unclear. Here, we present the longest and highest-resolution drill core from Lake Qinghai on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP), which uniquely records the variability of both the Westerlies and the ASM since 32 ka, reflecting the interplay of these two systems. These records document the anti-phase relationship of the Westerlies and the ASM for both glacial-interglacial and glacial millennial timescales. During the last glaciation, the influence of the Westerlies dominated; prominent dust-rich intervals, correlated with Heinrich events, reflect intensified Westerlies linked to northern high-latitude climate. During the Holocene, the dominant ASM circulation, punctuated by weak events, indicates linkages of the ASM to orbital forcing, North Atlantic abrupt events, and perhaps solar activity changes.
Inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is being pursued as a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Therefore, there is an urgent need to determine the effect of 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, which suppresses glucocorticoid action, on adipose tissue inflammation. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of BVT.2733, a selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, on expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue in C57BL/6J mice.
C57BL/6J mice were fed with a normal chow diet (NC) or high fat diet (HFD). HFD treated mice were then administrated with BVT.2733 (HFD+BVT) or vehicle (HFD) for four weeks. Mice receiving BVT.2733 treatment exhibited decreased body weight and enhanced glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity compared to control mice. BVT.2733 also down-regulated the expression of inflammation-related genes including monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and the number of infiltrated macrophages within the adipose tissue in vivo. Pharmacological inhibition of 11β-HSD1 and RNA interference against 11β-HSD1 reduced the mRNA levels of MCP-1 and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in cultured J774A.1 macrophages and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte in vitro.
These results suggest that BVT.2733 treatment could not only decrease body weight and improve metabolic homeostasis, but also suppress the inflammation of adipose tissue in diet-induced obese mice. 11β-HSD1 may be a very promising therapeutic target for obesity and associated disease.
To determine the role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) dependent pathway in the spinal cord secondary injury, compression injury was made at T8 segment of the spinal cord in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Shown by RT-PCR, TLR4 mRNA in the spinal cord was quickly elevated after compression injury. Intramedullary injection of MyD88 inhibitory peptide (MIP) resulted in significant improvement in locomotor function recovery at various time points after surgery. Meanwhile, injury area, p38 phosphorylation, and proinflammation cytokines in the injured spinal cord were significantly reduced in MIP-treated animals, compared with control peptide (CP) group. These data suggest that TLRs MyD88-dependent pathway may play an important role in the development of secondary spinal cord injury, and inhibition of this pathway at early time after primary injury could effectively protect cells from inflammation and apoptosis and therefore improve the functional recovery.
The predominant bioserotypes of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in China are 2/O: 9 and 3/O: 3; no pathogenic O: 8 strains have been found to date. Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis (MLVA) based on seven loci was able to distinguish 104 genotypes among 218 pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates in China and from abroad, showing a high resolution. The major pathogenic serogroups in China, O: 3 and O: 9, were divided into two clusters based on MLVA genotyping. The different distribution of Y. enterocolitica MLVA genotypes maybe due to the recent dissemination of specific clones of 2/O: 9 and 3/O: 3 strains in China. MLVA was a helpful tool for bacterial pathogen surveillance and investigation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica outbreaks.
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) in Asia and now is being recognized as an important neurotropic virus. Effective medications and prophylactic vaccine against EV71 infection are urgently needed. Based on the success of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, a prototype chemically inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate has been developed and currently in human phase 1 clinical trial.
In this report, we present the development of a serum-free cell-based EV71 vaccine. The optimization at each step of the manufacturing process was investigated, characterized and quantified. In the up-stream process development, different commercially available cell culture media either containing serum or serum-free was screened for cell growth and virus yield using the roller-bottle technology. VP-SFM serum-free medium was selected based on the Vero cell growth profile and EV71 virus production. After the up-stream processes (virus harvest, diafiltration and concentration), a combination of gel-filtration liquid chromatography and/or sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation down-stream purification processes were investigated at a pilot scale of 40 liters each. Although the combination of chromatography and sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation produced extremely pure EV71 infectious virus particles, the overall yield of vaccine was 7–10% as determined by a VP2-based quantitative ELISA. Using chromatography as the downstream purification, the virus yield was 30–43%. To retain the integrity of virus neutralization epitopes and the stability of the vaccine product, the best virus inactivation was found to be 0.025% formalin-treatment at 37°C for 3 to 6 days. Furthermore, the formalin-inactivated virion vaccine candidate was found to be stable for >18 months at 4°C and a microgram of viral proteins formulated with alum adjuvant could induce strong virus-neutralizing antibody responses in mice, rats, rabbits, and non-human primates.
These results provide valuable information supporting the current cell-based serum-free EV71 vaccine candidate going into human Phase I clinical trials.
Clinical studies consistently demonstrate that a single sub-psychomimetic dose of ketamine, an ionotropic glutamatergic n-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, produces fast-acting antidepressant responses in patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD), although the underlying mechanism is unclear1-3. Depressed patients report alleviation of MDD symptoms within two hours of a single low-dose intravenous infusion of ketamine with effects lasting up to two weeks1-3, unlike traditional antidepressants (i.e. serotonin reuptake inhibitors), which take weeks to reach efficacy. This delay is a major drawback to current MDD therapies, leaving a need for faster acting antidepressants particularly for suicide-risk patients3. Ketamine's ability to produce rapidly acting, long-lasting antidepressant responses in depressed patients provides a unique opportunity to investigate underlying cellular mechanisms. We show that ketamine and other NMDAR antagonists produce fast-acting behavioural antidepressant-like effects in mouse models that depend on rapid synthesis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We find that ketamine-mediated NMDAR blockade at rest deactivates eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) kinase (also called CaMKIII) resulting in reduced eEF2 phosphorylation and desuppression of BDNF translation. Furthermore, we find inhibitors of eEF2 kinase induce fast-acting behavioural antidepressant-like effects. Our findings suggest that protein synthesis regulation by spontaneous neurotransmission may serve as a viable therapeutic target for fast-acting antidepressant development.
antidepressant; BDNF; protein translation; animal model; ketamine
Skin tissue homeostasis is maintained by the balanced proliferation and differentiation of certain types of proliferating cells such as epidermal stem cells (EpSCs). The proliferation and differentiation of EpSCs are complex processes which are not well understood. This study aimed to find the internal relationship between the Nanog pathway and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the proliferation and differentiation process of EpSCs. In brief, EpSCs were isolated from rat epidermis and cultured. The MTT assay, western blotting, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunocytochemistry were performed during the proliferation and differentiation process of EpSCs. Our results showed that 10−7 M neuropeptide substance P could effectively stimulate proliferation of EpSCs and that a possible link exists between the Nanog pathway and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.
Nanog; Wnt/β-catenin; epidermal stem cells
Even though benign tracheobronchial tumors are quite rare, they still can induce airway obstruction, result in suffocation, and need emergent management to remove the obstructing lesions and make the respiratory tracts unobstructed. Although the preferred therapy is surgery, it is still difficult to deal with the tumors in some cases, and the complications of surgery are common. Therefore, bronchoscopic managements, such as Nd: YAG laser, electrocautery, APC and Cryotherapy, are very important to treat benign tracheobronchial tumors and can cure most of them.
The efficacy of therapeutic endoscopy for the treatment of patients with benign airways obstruction has been established. However, in order to maximally eradicate the benign tumors with minimal damage to patients, the success of bronchoscopic managements for the treatment strongly depends on the diligent identification of the various factors, including the location, size, shape of tumor, and the age, status, cardio respiratory function of patients, and full comprehension of the limits and potential of each particular technique.
Because the advantages and disadvantages of above mentioned interventional methods, single method can not solve all clinical issues. Therefore, in order to remove benign tracheobronchial tumors completely, and reduce the incidence of recurrence as far as possible, many doctors combine several methods of them to treat complicated benign tracheobronchial tumors. This article reviews the core principles and techniques available to the bronchoscope managing benign tracheobronchial tumors.
Benign tracheobronchial tumors; bronchoscope; electrocautery; argon plasma coagulation; Nd: YAG laser, cryotherapy
Insecticide resistance jeopardizes the control of mosquito populations and mosquito-borne disease control, which creates a major public health concern. Two-dimensional electrophoresis identified one protein segment with high sequence homology to part of Aedes aegypti iron-responsive element binding protein (IRE-BP).
RT-PCR and RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA end) were used to clone a cDNA encoding full length IRE-BP 1. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to evaluate the transcriptional level changes in the Cr-IRE strain Aedes aegypti compared to the susceptible strain of Cx. pipiens pallens. The expression profile of the gene was established in the mosquito life cycle. Methyl tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR) was used to observe the cypermethrin resistance changes in C6/36 cells containing the stably transfected IRE-BP 1 gene of Cx. pipiens pallens.
The complete sequence of iron responsive element binding protein 1 (IRE-BP 1) has been cloned from the cypermethrin-resistant strain of Culex pipiens pallens (Cr-IRE strain). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that the IRE-BP 1 transcription level was 6.7 times higher in the Cr-IRE strain than in the susceptible strain of 4th instar larvae. The IRE-BP 1 expression was also found to be consistently higher throughout the life cycle of the Cr-IRE strain. A protein of predicted size 109.4 kDa has been detected by Western blotting in IRE-BP 1-transfected mosquito C6/36 cells. These IRE-BP 1-transfected cells also showed enhanced cypermethrin resistance compared to null-transfected or plasmid vector-transfected cells as determined by 3H-TdR incorporation.
IRE-BP 1 is expressed at higher levels in the Cr-IRE strain, and may confer some insecticide resistance in Cx. pipiens pallens.
The title complex, [Co(C12H10N6)2(H2O)2](C8H4NO6)2, is composed of a mononuclear cobalt(II) cation and two 3-carboxy-5-nitrobenzoate anions for charge balance. In the cation, the CoII atom is six-coordinated in a distorted octahedral geometry. It bonds to two O atoms of two water molecules, and two pairs of N atoms from two 4-amino-3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole molecules, which behave as bidentate chelating ligands. There are intramolecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds in the cation. In the crystal, there are a number of intermolecular N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, as well as intermolecular π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.657 (2) and 3.847 (2) Å], that link the molecules into two-dimensional networks lying parallel to the ab plane. The presence of C—H⋯O interactions leads to the formation of a three-dimensional network.
In the centrosymmetric binuclear title complex, [Hg2Cl4(C12H10N6)2], the HgII ion is five-coordinated by two N atoms and three chloride ions with a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. In the complex, there is an intramolecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bond. In the crystal, the binuclear units are connected by intermolecular N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, as well as π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.526 (2) and 3.696 (2) Å], forming a two-dimensional layered structure parallel to (010).
AIM: To determine the effects of duodenogastric juice pH on the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC).
METHODS: An animal model of duodenogastroesophageal reflux was established using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats undergoing esophagoduodenostomy (ED). The development of EAC was investigated in rats exposed to duodenogastric juice of different pH. The rats were divided into three groups: low-pH group (group A), high-pH group (group B) and a sham-operated group as a control (group C) (n = 30 rats in each group). The incidence of esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus (BE), intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia and EAC was observed 40 wk after the treatment.
RESULTS: The incidence rate of esophagitis, BE, intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia and EAC was higher in groups A and B compared with the control group after 40 wk (P < 0.01), being 96% and 100% (P > 0.05), 88% and 82.4% (P > 0.05), 20% and 52.1% (P < 0.05), and 8% and 39% (P < 0.05), respectively.
CONCLUSION: Non-acidic refluxate increases the occurrence of intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia and EAC while the low-pH gastric juice exerts a protective effect in the presence of duodenal juice. The non-acid reflux is particularly important in the progression from BE to cancer. Therefore, control of duodenal reflux may be an important prophylaxis for EAC.
Esophageal reflux; Esophageal adenocarcinoma; pH-metry; Pathogenesis
In the title molecule, C12H10N6O, the dihedral angle between the two pyrazine rings [planar to within 0.009 (3) and 0.018 (3) Å] is 5.62 (15)°. They deviate from the central oxadiazole ring [planar to within 0.005 (3) Å] by 1.52 (16) and 5.55 (17)°, respectively. In the crystal, C—H⋯N interactions involving the pyrazine rings connect molecules to form zigzag supramolecular chains propagating in .
In the title molecule, C17H12N6, the 2-pyridyl rings in the 3- and 4-positions and the 3-pyridyl ring in the 5-position make dihedral angles of 29.78 (16), 67.06 (16) and 32.97 (16)°, respectively, with the triazole group. The dihedral angle between the two 2-pyridyl rings is 65.72 (15)°. The dihedral angles between the 3-pyridyl ring and the two 2-pyridyl rings in the 3- and 4-positions are 61.28 (15) and 63.11 (15)°, respectively. In the crystal, C—H⋯π and π–π interactions [centroid-centroid distance = 3.6248 (19) Å] link the molecules, forming a two-dimensional network.
Studies on the relationship between obesity and bone have recently become widespread. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of obesity on bone, utilizing a diet-induced obese mouse model, and to explore the role of free fatty acids (FFAs) in the osteogenesis/adipogenesis of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). An obese mouse model was established by a high-fat diet (HFD). Proximal femurs were collected at sacrifice, and bone mineral density (BMD) in the proximal femurs was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone histomorphometry was performed using undecalcified sections of the proximal femurs. The effect of obesity on the differentiation of mouse BMSCs was assessed by colony formation assays and gene expression analysis. In vitro, various osteogenic and adipogenic genes were determined by real-time quantitative PCR in mouse BMSCs after exposure to conditioned medium (CM) from FFA-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Western blotting was further performed to analyze the representative protein expression of PPARγ and Runx2. BMD and trabecular thickness were significantly greater in the HFD mice than in the control mice. CFU-osteo assay showed significantly increased osteogenesis of BMSCs. The mRNA level of Runx2 was significantly higher, while PPARγ and Pref-1 were significantly lower in BMSCs from the HFD mice compared to the control mice. In mouse BMSCs, the Sox9 and Runx2 genes were significantly up-regulated after exposure to CM from FFA-treated adipocytes, while PPARγ and CEBP-α were significantly down-regulated. Osteogenesis was significantly increased, while adipogenesis was significantly decreased. In conclusion, HFD-induced obesity may play a protective role in bone formation by concomitantly promoting osteogenic and suppressing adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs through factors secreted by FFA-treated adipocytes.
mesenchymal stem cells; free fatty acids; obesity; osteogenesis; adipogenesis
Tumor cell growth and migration can be directly regulated by chemokines. In the present study the association of CCL11 with ovarian cancer has been investigated.
Experimental design and results
Circulating levels of CCL11 in sera of patients with ovarian cancer were significantly lower than those in healthy women or women with breast, lung, liver, pancreatic or colon cancers. Cultured ovarian carcinoma cells absorbed soluble CCL11 indicating that absorption by tumor cells could be responsible for the observed reduction of serum level of CCL11 in ovarian cancer. Postoperative CCL11 levels in women with ovarian cancer negatively correlated with relapse-free survival. Ovarian tumors overexpressed three known cognate receptors of CCL11, CCR2, CCR3, and CCR5. Strong positive correlation was observed between expression of individual receptors and tumor grade. CCL11 potently stimulated proliferation and migration/invasion of ovarian carcinoma cell lines, and these effects were inhibited by neutralizing antibodies against CCR2,3, and 5. The growth stimulatory effects of CCL11 were likely associated with activation of ERK1/2, MEK-1, and STAT3 phosphoproteins and with increased production of multiple cytokines, growth and angiogenic factors. Inhibition of CCL11 signaling by the combination of neutralizing antibodies against the ligand and its receptors significantly increased sensitivity to cisplatin in ovarian carcinoma cells. We conclude that CCL11 signaling plays an important role in proliferation and invasion of ovarian carcinoma cells and CCL11 pathway could be targeted for therapy in ovarian cancer. Furthermore, CCL11 could be used as a biomarker and a prognostic factor of relapse-free survival in ovarian cancer.
In the title compound, C11H10BrNO2, the dihedral angle between the five- and six-membered rings of the phthalamide system is 1.00 (16)°. There are no significant intermolecular interations except for van der Waals contacts.
The complete molecule of the title compound, C24H30N4O4S2, is generated by a crystallographic inversion centre. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯O interactions link the molecules, forming infinite sheets.
In the title compound, C32H38N3O6S2, an intermediate in the synthesis of polyamine drugs, the dihedral angle between the phenyl rings of the two 2,4,6-trimethylbenzenesulfonyl groups is 27.1 (3)°. In the crystal structure, molecules are linked by intermolecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, thereby forming an infinite one-dimensional chain propagating along .
Point mutations and inserts in the β3-β4 region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) are associated with resistance to nucleoside analog inhibitors. This report describes HIV-1 strains from seven patients that were found to have a 3-bp deletion in the β3-β4 region of the RT gene. These patient strains also had a mean of 6.2 drug resistance-associated mutations in their RT genes (range, 3 to 10 mutations). The deletion was most frequently found in strains with the Q151M mutation. Nonnucleoside RT inhibitor mutations were found in six of seven strains. Culture-based drug sensitivity assays showed that deletion-containing isolates had reduced susceptibility to four to eight RT inhibitors. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments showed that the deletion alone conferred reduced susceptibility to nucleoside analogs. Changes in the three-dimensional models of the RT deletion mutants were consistently observed at the β3-β4 loop and at helices C and E in both the presence and the absence of dTTP. Loss of hydrogen bonds between the RT and dTTP were also observed in the RT deletion mutant. These results suggest that the deletion in the RT gene contributes to resistance to several nucleoside analogs through a complex interaction with other mutations in the RT gene.