Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with decreased adhesion and acquisition of metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is mediated, in part, by two transcription repressors, Snail and Slug, that are known to be targets of the Notch signaling pathway, and JAGGED1-induced Notch activation increases EMT. However, the events that lead to increased Notch activity during EMT of breast cancer cells are unknown.
The accumulation of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) under hypoxia was detected by western blot analysis, and their effects on Notch signaling were measured by an in vitro Notch reporter assay. The expression of Notch target genes under hypoxia was tested by real-time PCR. The knockdown of HIF-1α was mediated by retroviral delivery of shRNA. The expression of Slug and Snail under hypoxia was measured by real-time PCR. Breast cancer cell migration and invasion under hypoxia were tested with cell migration and invasion kits.
Hypoxia increased the expression of Notch target genes such as HES1 and HEY1 in breast cancer cells, as was expression of Notch receptors and ligands. The mechanism is likely to involve the accumulation of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in these cells by hypoxia, which synergised with the Notch co-activator MAML1 in potentiating Notch activity. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α was found to bind to HES1 promoter under hypoxia. Knockdown of HIF-1α with shRNA inhibited both HES1 and HEY1 expression under hypoxia. Hypoxia increased the expression of Slug and Snail, and decreased the expression of E-cadherin, hallmarks of EMT. Notch pathway inhibition abrogated the hypoxia-mediated increase in Slug and Snail expression, as well as decreased breast cancer cell migration and invasion.
Hypoxia-mediated Notch signaling may have an important role in the initiation of EMT and subsequent potential for breast cancer metastasis.
Notch; hypoxia; hypoxia inducible factor (HIF); breast cancer; epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)
Alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) may play an important role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington’s disease (HD). While a few reports have suggested reductions in CBF in HD, little is known about their extent and whether, or how, they might be related to atrophy and to clinical symptoms. We used pulsed arterial-spin labelling MRI in conjunction with high-resolution anatomical MRI to non-invasively measure regional CBF in 17 early stage HD subjects and 41 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. We found profound yet heterogeneous CBF reductions in the cortex, extending to the sensorimotor, paracentral, inferior temporal and lateral occipital regions, with sparing of the neighbouring postcentral gyrus, insula and medial occipital areas. As expected, CBF in subcortical regions was also profoundly reduced, and to a similar degree. Unexpectedly, however, the association between CBF reductions and regional atrophy was complex, the two being directly associated in certain areas but not with others. In contrast, CBF was associated with performance on the Stroop, suggesting a potentially important role for alterations in CBF in cognitive deficits in HD. The work described here may have broad-reaching implications for our understanding of HD pathogenesis, progression and emerging therapies.
Huntington’s disease (HD); pulsed arterial-spin labelling (PASL); magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); cerebral blood flow (CBF); cortical thickness
Although Bid is considered to be a cell apoptotic mediator, current studies suggest that it has a possible role in cell survival for mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in response to low doses of anti-(±)-5- methylchrysene-l,2-diol-3,4-epoxide (<0.25µM) (5-MCDE). We found that the exposure of MEFs to 0.25 µM 5-MCDE resulted in a slight apoptotic induction, while this apoptotic response was substantially increased in the Bid knockout MEFs (Bid−/−), suggesting that there is a Bid-mediated anti-apoptotic function in this response. This notion was further supported by the findings that re-constitution expression of Bid into Bid−/− cells could inhibit the increased apoptosis. Further studies show that the antiapoptotic function of Bid was associated with its mediation of COX-2 expression. This conclusion was based the reduction of COX-2 expression in Bid−/− cells, the restoration of low sensitivity to 5-MCDE-induced apoptosis by the introduction of Bid into Bid−/− cells, and increased sensitivity of WT MEFs to 5-MCDE-induced apoptosis by the knockdown of COX-2 expression. Furthermore, we found that Bid mediated COX-2 expression through the IKKβ/NFκB pathway because the deficiency of Bid in Bid−/− MEFs resulted in the blockade of IKK/NFκB activation and knockout of IKKβ caused abrogation of COX-2 expression induced by 5-MCDE. Collectively, our results demonstrate that Bid is critical for COX-2 induction through the IKKβ/NFκB pathway, which mediates its anti-apoptotic function, in cell response to low doses of 5-MCDE exposure.
Bid; COX-2; 5-MCDE; NFκB; apoptosis
The relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue and bone mineral density is different between African Americans and Caucasians as well as between men and women. This suggests that the mechanisms that regulate the differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells may differ in these populations.
It has long been established that there are ethnic and sex differences in bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk. Recent studies suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) may play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. It is unknown whether ethnic and sex differences exist in the relationship between BMAT and BMD.
Pelvic BMAT was evaluated in 455 healthy African American and Caucasian men and women (age 18–88 years) using whole-body T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. BMD was measured using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.
A negative correlation was observed between pelvic BMAT and total body BMD or pelvic BMD (r=−0.533, −0.576, respectively; P<0.001). In multiple regression analyses with BMD as the dependent variable, ethnicity significantly entered the regression models as either an individual term or an interaction with BMAT. Menopausal status significantly entered the regression model with total body BMD as the dependent variable. African Americans had higher total body BMD than Caucasians for the same amount of BMAT, and the ethnic difference for pelvic BMD was greater in those participants with a higher BMAT. Men and premeno-pausal women had higher total body BMD levels than postmenopausal women for the same amount of BMAT.
An inverse relationship exists between BMAT and BMD in African American and Caucasian men and women. The observed ethnic and sex differences between BMAT and BMD in the present study suggest the possibility that the mechanisms regulating the differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells may differ in these populations.
Body composition; Bone marrow; Bone mineral density; Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; Ethnicity; Magnetic resonance imaging; Sex
The exact influence of statins on gefitinib resistance in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells with KRAS mutation alone or KRAS/PIK3CA and KRAS/PTEN comutations remains unclear. This work found that transfection of mutant KRAS plasmids significantly suppressed the gefitinib cytotoxicity in Calu3 cells (wild-type KRAS). Gefitinib disrupted the Kras/PI3K and Kras/Raf complexes in Calu3 cells, whereas not in Calu3 KRAS mutant cells. These trends were corresponding to the expression of pAKT and pERK in gefitinib treatment. Atorvastatin (1 μM) plus gefitinib treatment inhibited proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis, and reduced the AKT activity in KRAS mutant NSCLC cells compared with gefitinib alone. Atorvastatin (5 μM) further enhanced the gefitinib cytotoxicity through concomitant inhibition of AKT and ERK activity. Atorvastatin could interrupt Kras/PI3K and Kras/Raf complexes, leading to suppression of AKT and ERK activity. Similar results were also obtained in comutant KRAS/PTEN or KRAS/PIK3CA NSCLC cells. Furthermore, mevalonate administration reversed the effects of atorvastatin on the Kras/Raf and Kras/PI3K complexes, as well as AKT and ERK activity in both A549 and Calu1 cells. The in vivo results were similar to those obtained in vitro. Therefore, mutant KRAS-mediated gefitinib insensitivity is mainly derived from failure to disrupt the Kras/Raf and Kras/PI3K complexes in KRAS mutant NSCLC cells. Atorvastatin overcomes gefitinib resistance in KRAS mutant NSCLC cells irrespective of PIK3CA and PTEN statuses through inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase-dependent disruption of the Kras/Raf and Kras/PI3K complexes.
gefitinib; atorvastatin; mutant KRAS; NSCLC
Our previous studies have shown that the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or mTOR complex 1 can obviously promote the Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells by regulating the expression of proapoptotic factors. To further illustrate it, Homo sapiens eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1), p70S6 kinase (p70S6K), Akt1 and Akt2 were transfected to HeLa cells, respectively. And then, we established the stable transfected cell lines. Next, after CVB3 infection, apoptosis in different groups was determined by flow cytometry; the expressions of Bim, Bax, caspase-9 and caspase-3 were examined by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and western blot analysis; the expression of CVB3 mRNA and viral capsid protein VP1 were also analyzed by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR, western blot analysis and immunofluorescence, respectively. At the meantime, CVB3 replication was observed by transmission electron microscope. We found that CVB3-induced cytopathic effect and apoptosis in transfected groups were more obvious than that in controls. Unexpectedly, apoptosis rate in Akt1 group was higher than others at the early stage after viral infection and decreased with the viral-infected time increasing, which was opposite to other groups. Compared with controls, the expression of CVB3 mRNA was increased at 3, 6, 12 and 24 h postinfection (p. i.) in all groups. At the meantime, VP1 expression in 4EBP1 group was higher than control during the process of infection, while the expressions in the other groups were change dynamically. Moreover, overexpression of 4EBP1 did not affect the mRNA expressions of Bim, Bax, caspase-9 and caspase-3; while protein expressions of Bim and Bax were decreased, the self-cleavages of caspase-9 and caspase-3 were stimulated. Meanwhile, overexpression of p70S6K blocked the CVB3-induced Bim, Bax and caspase-9 expressions but promoted the self-cleavage of caspase-9. In the Akt1 group, it is noteworthy that the expressions of Bim protein were higher than controls at 3 and 6 h p. i. but lower at 24 h p. i., and the expression of Bax protein were higher at 6 and 24 h p. i., while their mRNA expressions were all decreased. Furthermore, overexpression of Akt1 stimulated the procaspase-9 and procaspase-3 expression but blocked their self-cleavages. Overexpression of Akt2, however, had little effect on Bim, Bax and caspase-3, while prevented caspase-9 from self-cleavage at the late stage of CVB3 infection. As stated above, our results demonstrated that overexpression of 4EBP1, p70S6K, Akt1 or Akt2 could promote the CVB3-induced apoptosis in diverse degree via different mediating ways in viral replication and proapoptotic factors in BcL-2 and caspase families. As 4EBP1, p70S6K and Akt are the important substrates of PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), we further illustrated the role of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in the process of CVB3-induced apoptosis.
overexpression; 4EBP1; p70S6K; Akt; coxsackievirus b3; apoptosis
The aim of the current study was to determine whether the FcγRIIb 187-Ile/Thr polymorphism is a predisposition factor for subtypes of RA defined by disease severity and production of autoantibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCPs) in Taiwanese RA patients. Genotype distributions and allele frequencies of FcγRIIb 187-Ile/Thr were compared between 562 normal healthy controls and 640 RA patients as stratified by clinical parameters and autoantibodies. Significant enrichment of 187-Ile allele was observed in RA patients positive for anti-CCP antibodies as compared with the anti-CCP negative RA patients (P=0.001, OR 1.652 (95% CI 1.210–2.257)) or as compared with the normal controls (P =0.005, OR 1.348 (95% CI 1.092–1.664)). In addition, 187-Ile allele was found to be enriched in RA patients positive for rheumatoid factor (RF) compared to the RF negative RA patients (P=0.024, OR 1.562 (95% CI 1.059–2.303)). Furthermore, the homozygotes were enriched in destructive male RA patients (P =0.035; OR 2.038 (95% CI 1.046–3.973)) and the 187-Ile allele was associated with early-onset of RA in Taiwanese patients (P=0.045, OR 1.548 (95% CI 1.007–2.379)). Thus, FcγRIIb SNP 187-Ile/Thr may influence the RA phenotypes in Taiwanese RA.
rheumatoid arthritis; anti-CCP antibody; FcγR; polymorphism
Minimal residual disease (MRD) is of the most important factor for predicting prognosis and guiding treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this study, we investigated the prognostic significance of leukemia-associated immunophenotypes (LAIPs) as assessment of index of MRD in 125 adult B-lineage ALL (B-ALL) patients by eight-color flow cytometry. The LAIPs could be identified in 96% and 81.6% of patients with the sensitivity of 10−4 and 10−5, respectively. MRD-negative status could clearly predict a favorable 2-year relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) at the end of induction of complete remission and one cycle of consolidation treatment. Moreover, we identified a group of cases with MRD of 0.001% to <0.01%, which showed significantly higher 2-year relapse rate than those with undetectable one. In multivariate analysis, MRD status was associated with RFS or OS independently. Furthermore, MRD assessed by LAIPs and RQ-PCR assay for patients with BCR-ABL fusion gene yielded concordant results in 89.7% of cases. In conclusion, MRD evaluated by eight-color flow cytometry could provide an important tool to assess treatment response and prognosis precisely in adult B-ALL.
B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia; prognosis; minimal residual disease; leukemia-associated immunophenotypes; eight-color flow cytometry
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, NM 006164, 605 AA) is essential for the antioxidant responsive element (ARE)-mediated expression of a group of detoxifying antioxidant genes that detoxify carcinogens and protect against oxidative stress. Several proteins have been identified as Nrf2-interacting molecules. In this study, we found that the overexpression of RAC3/AIB-1/SRC-3, a nuclear co-regulator and oncogene frequently amplified in human breast cancers, induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) through Nrf2 transactivation in HeLa cells. Next, we determined the interaction between RAC3 and Nrf2 proteins using a co-immunoprecipitation assay (co-IP) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis. The results showed that RAC3 bound directly to the Nrf2 protein in the nucleus. Subsequently, we identified the interacting domains of Nrf2 and RAC3 using a GST pull-down assay. The results showed that both the N-terminal RAC3-pasB and C-terminal RAC3-R3B3 domains were tightly bound to the Neh4 and Neh5 transactivation domains. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) showed that RAC3 bound tightly to the ARE enhancer region of the HO-1 promoter via Nrf2 binding. These data suggest that Nrf2 activation is modulated and directly controlled through interactions with the RAC3 protein in HeLa cells.
Nrf2; RAC3/SRC-3; HO-1
Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes is a novel strategy for cardiac regeneration. However, the key determinants involved in this process are unknown.
To assess the efficiency of direct fibroblast reprogramming via viral overexpression of GATA4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT).
Methods and Results
We induced GMT overexpression in murine tail tip fibroblasts (TTFs) and cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) from multiple lines of transgenic mice carrying different cardiomyocyte lineage reporters. We found that the induction of GMT overexpression in TTFs and CFs is inefficient at inducing molecular and electrophysiological phenotypes of mature cardiomyocytes. In addition, transplantation of GMT infected CFs into injured mouse hearts resulted in decreased cell survival with minimal induction of cardiomyocyte genes.
Significant challenges remain in our ability to convert fibroblasts into cardiomyocyte-like cells and a greater understanding of cardiovascular epigenetics is needed to increase the translational potential of this strategy.
gene expression; Ca++ channels; cardiac development; myocardial ischemia; myocyte regeneration
We demonstrated a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation of canine ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM)-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50) at serine 347/348 by site-directed mutagenesis and a phospho-specific antibody. Cell fractionation and confocal imaging revealed the relocation of EBP50 from the plasma membrane to cytosol that accompanied this phosphorylation event. Increased phosphorylation at these serine residues led to the dissociation of EBP50 from ezrin and β-PIX, which are two upstream regulators of Rac1 activation. Cells overexpressing an EBP50 mutant, mimicking serine 347/348 phosphorylation, became refractory to hepatocyte growth factor-induced cell spreading and scattering, which is normally mediated by Rac1 activation. Detachment of cells from the substratum also elicited an increase in EBP50 phosphorylation, apparently due to counteracting activities of PKC and protein phosphastase 2A, which resulted in decreased Rac1 activation and induction of anoikis. Cells overexpressing an EBP50 mutant defective in serine 347/348 phosphorylation did not undergo apoptosis in suspension culture. These studies reveal a signaling cascade in which different phosphorylation states and subcellular localization of EBP50 regulate Rac1 function.
EBP50; Rac1; β-PIX; anoikis; PP2A
The PML protein and PML nuclear bodies (PML-NB) are implicated in multiple cellular functions relevant to tumor suppression, including DNA damage response. In most cases of acute promyelocytic leukemia, the PML and retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) genes are translocated, resulting in expression of oncogenic PML-RARα fusion proteins. PML-NB fail to form normally, and promyelocytes remain in an undifferentiated, abnormally proliferative state. We examined the involvement of PML protein and PML-NB in homologous recombinational repair (HRR) of chromosomal DNA double-strand breaks. Transient overexpression of wild-type PML protein isoforms produced hugely enlarged or aggregated PML-NB and reduced HRR by ~2 fold, suggesting that HRR depends to some extent upon normal PML-NB structure. Knockdown of PML by RNA interference sharply attenuated formation of PML-NB and reduced HRR by up to 20 fold. However, PML-knockdown cells showed apparently normal induction of H2AX phosphorylation and RAD51 foci after DNA damage by ionizing radiation. These findings indicate that early steps in HRR, including recognition of DNA double-strand breaks, initial processing of ends, and assembly of single-stranded DNA/RAD51 nucleoprotein filaments, do not depend upon PML-NB. The HRR deficit in PML-depleted cells thus reflects inhibition of later steps in the repair pathway. Expression of PML-RARα fusion proteins disrupted PML-NB structure and reduced HRR by up to 10 fold, raising the possibility that defective HRR and resulting genomic instability may figure in the pathogenesis, progression and relapse of acute promyelocytic leukemia.
Acute promyelocytic leukemia; PML nuclear bodies; DNA repair; homologous recombination; all-trans retinoic acid; arsenic trioxide
In several mammalian species, the configuration of germinal vesicle (GV) chromatin correlates with the developmental competence of oocytes. Yet, no study has been published on the configuration of GV chromatin in ferret, nor is it known whether a specific configuration predicts meiotic competence in this species, in spite of the potential importance of ferret cloning to the study of human disease and to species conservation efforts. Here, we report on an analysis of the chromatin configuration in ferret GV oocytes and on how they correlate with meiotic development. Three distinct configurations were identified based on the degree of chromatin condensation: (1) fibrillar chromatin (FC), featuring strands of intertwined chromatin occupying most of the visible GV region; (2) intermediate condensed chromatin (ICC), characterized by dense, irregular chromatin masses throughout the GV; and (3) condensed chromatin (CC), which is highly compact and centered around the nucleolus. We also found that chromatin configuration was related to the extent of association with cumulus cells in cumulus–oocyte complexes; CC-configured oocytes were most often surrounded by a compact cumulus layer and also a compact corona but FC-configured oocytes were associated with neither. In addition, increasing chromatin condensation corresponded to an increase in oocyte diameter. Finally, following in vitro culture, significantly more CC-configured oocytes underwent maturation to meiotic metaphase II than did FC- or ICC-configured oocytes. We conclude that, in ferret, chromatin condensation is related to the sequential achievement of meiotic competencies during oocyte growth and differentiation, and thus can be used as a predictor of competence.
The design, synthesis, modeling and in vitro testing of channel-forming peptides derived from the cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels are part of an ongoing research focus. Over 300 different sequences have been prepared based on the M2 transmembrane segment of the spinal cord glycine receptor α-subunit. A number of these sequences are water-soluble monomers that readily insert into biological membranes where they undergo supramolecular assembly, yielding channels with a range of selectivities and conductances. Selection of a sequence for further modifications to yield an optimal lead compound came down to a few key biophysical properties: low solution concentrations that yield channel activity, greater ensemble conductance, and enhanced ion selectivity. The sequence NK4-M2GlyR T19R, S22W (KKKKPARVGLGITTVLTMRTQW) addressed these criteria. The structure of this peptide has been analyzed by solution NMR as a monomer in detergent micelles, simulated as five-helix bundles in a membrane environment, modified by cysteine-scanning and studied for insertion efficiency in liposomes of selected lipid compositions. Taken together, these results define the structural and key biophysical properties of this sequence in a membrane. This model provides an initial scaffold from which rational substitutions can be proposed and tested to modulate anion selectivity.
Background: Individuals with metastatic Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) continue to have poor outcomes. To evaluate the ability of a dendritic cell (DC) vaccine to target subdominant EBV antigens LMP1 and LMP2 expressed by NPC cells, we vaccinated patients using autologous DCs transduced with an adenovirus encoding a truncated LMP1 (ΔLMP1) and full-length LMP2 (Ad-ΔLMP1-LMP2).
Materials and methods: Sixteen subjects with metastatic NPC received Ad-ΔLMP1-LMP2 DC vaccines i.d. biweekly for up to five doses. Toxicity, immune responses and clinical responses were determined.
Results: Most patients had extensive disease, with a median of three visceral sites of involvement (range 1–7). No significant toxicity was observed. Ad-ΔLMP1-LMP2 DCs induced delayed type hypersensitivity responses in 9 out of 12 patients, but although these DCs activated LMP1/2-specific T cells in vitro, no such increase in the frequency of peripheral LMP1/2-specific T cells was detected. Three patients had clinical responses including one with partial response (for 7½ months) and two with stable disease (for 6½ and 7½ months).
Conclusions: Ad-ΔLMP1-LMP2 transduced DCs can be successfully generated and safely administered to patients with advanced NPC. Since efficacy was limited, future studies should focus on DC vaccines with greater potency administered to subjects with less tumor burden.
dendritic cell vaccine; Epstein–Barr virus; nasopharyngeal carcinoma; recombinant adenovirus
This paper presents the psychometric evaluation of brief measures of therapeutic alliance (TA) for youths, clinicians and caregivers and a longitudinal analysis of relationships between changes in TA and changes in youth symptom and functioning severity. Psychometric analyses using methods from Classical Test Theory, Item Response Theory, and Factor Analysis indicate that the measures of TA used in this study offer something new for both practice and research. The measures have variability, sensitivity to change over time, brevity and can be used with multiple parties through parallel forms. The longitudinal analyses, employing hierarchical linear modeling with time-varying covariates, found the TA ratings of the clinician correlated with symptom improvement as rated by the clinician, caregiver and youth. Additional analysis showed that decreases in clinician-rated youth TA was most important in predicting a lower rate of youth improvement. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.
therapeutic alliance; youth mental health; improvement; ratings of therapeutic alliance
Following acute-phase infection, activated T cells are terminated to achieve immune homeostasis, failure of which results in lymphoproliferative and autoimmune diseases. We report that sterile α- and heat armadillo-motif-containing protein (SARM), the most conserved Toll-like receptors adaptor, is proapoptotic during T-cell immune response. SARM expression is significantly reduced in natural killer (NK)/T lymphoma patients compared with healthy individuals, suggesting that decreased SARM supports NK/T-cell proliferation. T cells knocked down of SARM survived and proliferated more significantly compared with wild-type T cells following influenza infection in vivo. During activation of cytotoxic T cells, the SARM level fell before rising, correlating inversely with cell proliferation and subsequent T-cell clearance. SARM knockdown rescued T cells from both activation- and neglect-induced cell deaths. The mitochondria-localized SARM triggers intrinsic apoptosis by generating reactive oxygen species and depolarizing the mitochondrial potential. The proapoptotic function is attributable to the C-terminal sterile alpha motif and Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domains. Mechanistically, SARM mediates intrinsic apoptosis via B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family members. SARM suppresses B cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) and downregulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, which are cell survival effectors. Overexpression of Bcl-xL and double knockout of Bcl-2 associated X protein and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer substantially reduced SARM-induced apoptosis. Collectively, we have shown how T-cell death following infection is mediated by SARM-induced intrinsic apoptosis, which is crucial for T-cell homeostasis.
intrinsic T-cell death by SARM; influenza infection; adoptive transfer mouse model; neglect- and activation-induced cell death; NK/T-cell lymphoma
Tumor metastasis is the main cause of death in cancer patients. Anoikis resistance is one critical malefactor of metastatic cancer cells to resist current clinical chemotherapeutic treatments. Although endoperoxide-containing compounds have long been suggested as anticancer drugs, few have been clinically employed due to their instability, complex synthesis procedure or low tumor cell selectivity. Herein, we describe a one-pot strategy to synthesize novel amino endoperoxides and their derivatives with good yields and stabilities. In vitro cell-based assays revealed that 4 out of the 14 amino endoperoxides selectively induce metastatic breast carcinoma cells but not normal breast cells to undergo apoptosis, in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistic studies showed that the most potent amino endoperoxide, 4-Me, is selective for cancer cells expressing a high level of Nox4. The anticancer effects are further shown to be associated with reduced O2−:H2O2 ratio and increased ·OH level in the cancerous cells. Animal study showed that 4-Me impairs orthotopic breast tumor growth as well as tumor cell metastasis to lymph nodes. Altogether, our study suggests that anticancer strategies that focus on redox-based apoptosis induction in tumors are clinically viable.
Nox4; cancer; anoikis; reactive oxygen species; amino endoperoxides
Cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) and cavum Vergae
(CV) are unusual variants and usually asymptomatic, but their expansion or inside lesions can produce symptoms by mass effect. A 46-year-old female Taiwanese worker presented with chronic daily headaches for eight years. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed coexistent CSP and CV. She declined surgical drainage recommended by a neurosurgeon and thus visited our clinic for a second opinion. Physical examination did not show any abnormality. With the help of the patient's one-month headache diary, she was diagnosed with chronic migraine according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition, with further modification in 2006. In addition, hypertension was also identified. Over the following week, taking a daily selective β1-antagonist relieved the headache and hypertension. The medication was continued and the following year was uneventful. Therefore, the chronic daily headache was ascribed to chronic migraine, rather than symptomatic CSP and CV.
cavum septum pellucidum; cavum Vergae; chronic migraine; selective β1-antagonist; hypertension
Curcumin has very broad spectrum of biological activities; however, photodegradation, short half-life and low bioavailability have limited its clinical application. Curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles were studied to overcome these problems. The aim of this study was to optimize the best formulation on curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles. Emulsion-evaporation and low temperature-solidification technique was applied with monostearin as lipid carriers. The single factor analysis and orthogonal design were used to optimize formulation and various parameters were investigate. By the optimisation of a single factor analysis and orthogonal test, the particles size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and drug loading capacity of the optimised formulation were 99.99 nm, 0.158, −19.9 mV, 97.86%, and 4.35%, respectively. The differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analysis results demonstrated new structure was formed in nanoparticles. The release kinetics in vitro demonstrated curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles can control drug release. These studies confirmed that curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles could be prepared successfully with high drug entrapment efficiency and loading capacity. Curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles may be a promising drug delivery system to control drug release and improve bioavailability.
Curcumin; preparation; release; solid lipid nanoparticles
Degeneration of cerebral white matter is commonly observed in aging, and the associated degradation in neural connectivity contributes to cognitive decline in older adults. Vascular dysfunction has been implicated as a potential mechanism for general age-related neural tissue deterioration; however, no prior study has examined the direct relationship between cortical vascular health and subcortical white-matter integrity. In this work, we aimed to determine whether blood supply to the brain is associated with microstructural integrity of connective tissue, and whether such associations are regionally specific and mainly accounted for by aging. We examined the association between cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the cortical mantle, measured using arterial spin labeling (ASL), and subcortical white-matter integrity, measured using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), in a group of healthy adults spanning early to late adulthood. We found cortical CBF to be significantly associated with white-matter integrity throughout the brain. In addition, these associations were only partially tied to aging, as they remained even when statistically controlling for age, and when restricting the analyses to a young subset of the sample. Furthermore, vascular risk was not a prominent determinant of these effects. These findings suggest that the overall blood supply to the brain is an important indicator of white-matter health in the normal range of variations amongst adults, and that the decline in CBF with advancing age may potentially exacerbate deterioration of the connective anatomy of the brain.
Roots of Angelica sinensis (Danggui) have been used in promoting blood circulation as herbal medicine for over 2000 years in China. Another species of Angelica roots called A. gigas is being used in Korea. To reveal the efficiency of different Angelica roots, the chemical and biological properties of Angelica roots from different cultivated regions were compared. Roots of A. sinensis contained higher levels of ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, and senkyunolide A, while high amounts of butylphthalide and Z-butylenephthalide were found in A. gigas roots. The extracts deriving from A. gigas roots showed better effects in osteogenic and estrogenic properties than that of A. sinensis from China. However, this difference was markedly reduced when the Angelica roots were being prepared in a Chinese herbal decoction together with Astragali Radix as Danggui Buxue Tang. In contrast, the herbal decoction prepared from A. sinensis roots showed better responses in cell cultures. In addition, the extracts of A. gigas roots showed strong cell toxicity both as single herb and as Danggui Buxue Tang. This result revealed the distinct properties of Angelica roots from China and Korea suggesting the specific usage of herb in preparing a unique herbal decoction.