Potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed HIV-1 infection into a chronic manageable disease; however drug resistance remains a common problem that limits the effectiveness and clinical benefits of this type of treatment. The discovery of viral reservoirs in the body, in which HIV-1 may persist, has helped to explain why therapeutic eradication of HIV-1 has proved so difficult. In the current study we utilized a combination of structure based analysis of Cyclin/CDK complexes with our previously published Tat peptide derivatives. We modeled the Tat peptide inhibitors with CDKs and found a particular pocket which showed the most stable binding site (Cavity 1) using in silico analysis. Furthermore, we were able to find peptide mimetics that bound to similar regions using in silico searches of a chemical library, followed by cell based biological assays. Using these methods we obtained the first generation mimetic drugs and tested these compounds on HIV-1 LTR activated transcription. Using biological assays followed by similar in silico analysis to find a 2nd generation drugs resembling the original mimetic, we found the new targets of Cavity 1 and Cavity 2 regions on CDK9. We examined the 2nd generation mimetic against various viral isolates, and observed a generalized suppression of most HIV-1 isolates. Finally, the drug inhibited viral replication in humanized mouse models of Rag2-/-γc-/- with no toxicity to the animals at tested concentrations. Our results suggest that it may be possible to model peptide inhibitors into available crystal structures and further find drug mimetics using in silico analysis.
ATP analog; CDK9; Cyclin T1; viral transactivator; inhibitors
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small ncRNAs that repress gene expression on the post-transcriptional level by the degradation or translation inhibition of target mRNA.
Three small RNA libraries from oyster haemocytes were sequenced on the Illumina platform to investigate the latent immunomodulation of miRNAs after bacteria challenge and heat stress. Totally, 10,498,663, 8,588,606 and 9,679,663 high-quality reads were obtained in the control, bacteria and bacteria+heat library, respectively, from which 199 oyster miRNAs including 71 known and 128 novel ones were identified. Among these miRNAs, 6 known and 23 novel ones were predicted to possess more than one precursor-coding region, and cgi-miR-10a, cgi-miR-184b, cgi-miR-100, cgi-miR-1984 and cgi-miR-67a were observed to be the most abundant miRNAs in the control library. The expression levels of 22 miRNAs in the bacteria library were significantly higher than those in the control library, while there were another 33 miRNAs whose expression levels were significantly lower than that in the control library. Meanwhile, the expression levels of 65 miRNAs in the bacteria+heat library changed significantly compared to those in the bacteria library. The target genes of these differentially expressed miRNAs were annotated, and they fell in immune and stress-related GO terms including antioxidant, cell killing, death, immune system process, and response to stimulus. Furthermore, there were 42 differentially expressed miRNAs detected in both control/bacteria and bacteria/bacteria+heat comparisons, among which 9 miRNAs displayed the identical pattern in the two comparisons, and the expression alterations of 8 miRNAs were confirmed using quantitative RT-PCR.
These results indicated collectively that immune challenge could induce the expression of immune-related miRNAs, which might modulate the immune response such as redox reaction, phagocytosis and apoptosis, and the expression of some immune-related miRNAs could be also regulated by heat stress to improve the environmental adaption of oyster.
Chronic coronary heart disease (cCHD) is characterized by atherosclerosis, which progressively narrows the coronary artery lumen and impairs myocardial blood flow. Restoration of occluded coronary vessels with newly formed collaterals remains an ideal therapeutic approach due to the need for redirecting blood flow into the ischemic heart. In this study, we investigated the effect of an active fraction isolated from Geum joponicum (AFGJ) on angiogenesis in cCHD hearts. Our results demonstrated that AFGJ not only enhanced capillary tube formation of endothelial cells, but also promoted the growth of new coronary collaterals (at the diameter 0.021–0.21 mm) in the ischemic region of hearts in rat cCHD model. Our study also indicated that the growth of new collaterals in ischemic hearts resulted in improved functional recovery of the cCHD hearts as demonstrated by ECG and echocardiography analyses. These data suggest that AFGJ may provide a novel therapeutic method for effective treatment of cCHD.
Classical genetic studies show the heritability of cigarette smoking is 0.4–0.6, and that multiple genes confer susceptibility and resistance to smoking. Despite recent advances in identifying genes associated with smoking behaviors, the major source of this heritability and its impact on susceptibility and resistance are largely unknown. Operant self-administration (SA) of intravenous nicotine is an established model for smoking behavior. We recently confirmed that genetic factors exert strong control over nicotine intake in isogenic rat strains. Because the processing of afferent dopaminergic signals by nucleus accumbens shell (AcbS) is critical for acquisition and maintenance of motivated behaviors reinforced by nicotine, we hypothesized that differential basal gene expression in AcbS accounts for much of the strain-to-strain variation in nicotine SA. We therefore sequenced the transcriptome of AcbS samples obtained by laser capture microdissection from 10 isogenic adolescent rat strains and compared all RNA transcript levels with behavior. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis, a systems biology method, found 12 modules (i.e., unique sets of genes that covary across all samples) that correlated (p<0.05) with amount of self-administered nicotine; 9 of 12 correlated negatively, implying a protective role. PCR confirmed selected genes from these modules. Chilibot, a literature mining tool, identified 15 genes within 1 module that were nominally associated with cigarette smoking, thereby providing strong support for the analytical approach. This is the first report demonstrating that nicotine intake by adolescent rodents is associated with the expression of specific genes in AcbS of the mesolimbic system, which controls motivated behaviors. These findings provide new insights into genetic mechanisms that predispose or protect against tobacco addiction.
Nodal, a TGF-β-related embryonic morphogen, is involved in multiple biologic processes. However, the expression of Nodal in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its correlation with tumor angiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and prognosis is unclear.
We used real-time PCR and Western blotting to investigate Nodal expression in 6 HCC cell lines and 1 normal liver cell line, 16 pairs of tumor and corresponding paracarcinomatous tissues from HCC patients. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine Nodal expression in HCC and corresponding paracarcinomatous tissues from 96 patients. CD34 and Vimentin were only examined in HCC tissues of patients mentioned above. Nodal gene was silenced by shRNA in MHCC97H and HCCLM3 cell lines, and cell migration and invasion were detected. Statistical analyses were applied to evaluate the prognostic value and associations of Nodal expression with clinical parameters.
Nodal expression was detected in HCC cell lines with high metastatic potential alone. Nodal expression is up-regulated in HCC tissues compared with paracarcinomatous and normal liver tissues. Nodal protein was expressed in 70 of the 96 (72.9%) HCC tumors, and was associated with vascular invasion (P = 0.000), status of metastasis (P = 0.004), AFP (P = 0.049), ICGR15 (indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min) (P = 0.010) and tumor size (P = 0.000). High Nodal expression was positively correlated with high MVD (microvessal density) (P = 0.006), but not with Vimentin expression (P = 0.053). Significantly fewer migrated and invaded cells were seen in shRNA group compared with blank group and negative control group (P<0.05). High Nodal expression was found to be an independent factor for predicting overall survival of HCC.
Our study demonstrated that Nodal expression is associated with aggressive characteristics of HCC. Its aberrant expression may be a predictive factor of unfavorable prognosis for HCC after surgery.
The responses of litter decomposition to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) additions were examined in an old-growth tropical forest in southern China to test the following hypotheses: (1) N addition would decrease litter decomposition; (2) P addition would increase litter decomposition, and (3) P addition would mitigate the inhibitive effect of N addition. Two kinds of leaf litter, Schima superba Chardn. & Champ. (S.S.) and Castanopsis chinensis Hance (C.C.), were studied using the litterbag technique. Four treatments were conducted at the following levels: control, N-addition (150 kg N ha−1 yr−1), P-addition (150 kg P ha−1 yr−1) and NP-addition (150 kg N ha−1 yr−1 plus 150 kg P ha−1 yr−1). While N addition significantly decreased the decomposition of both litters, P addition significantly inhibited decomposition of C.C., but did not affect the decomposition of S.S. The negative effect of N addition on litter decomposition might be related to the high N-saturation in this old-growth tropical forest; however, the negative effect of P addition might be due to the suppression of “microbial P mining”. Significant interaction between N and P addition was found on litter decomposition, which was reflected by the less negative effect in NP-addition plots than those in N-addition plots. Our results suggest that P addition may also have negative effect on litter decomposition and that P addition would mitigate the negative effect of N deposition on litter decomposition in tropical forests.
AIM: To analyze the expression of kallikrein gene 10 (KLK10) in gastric cancer and to determine whether KLK10 has independent prognostic value in gastric cancer.
METHODS: We studied KLK10 expression in 80 histologically confirmed gastric cancer samples using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and hK10 expression using immunohistochemistry. Correlations with clinicopathological variables (lymph node metastasis, depth of invasion and histology) and with outcomes (disease-free survival and overall survival) during a median follow-up period of 31 mo were assessed. Gastric cancer tissues were then classified as KLK10 positive or negative.
RESULTS: KLK10 was found to be highly expressed in 57/80 (70%) of gastric cancer samples, while its expression was very low in normal gastric tissues. Positive relationships between KLK10 expression and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.048), depth of invasion (P = 0.034) and histology (P = 0.015) were observed. Univariate survival analysis revealed that gastric cancer patients with positive KLK10 expression had an increased risk for relapse/metastasis and death (P = 0.005 and 0.002, respectively). Cox multivariate analysis indicated that KLK10 was an independent prognostic indicator of disease-free survival and overall survival in patients with gastric cancer.
CONCLUSION: KLK10 expression is an independent biomarker of unfavorable prognosis in patients with gastric cancer.
Kallikrein gene 10; Gastric cancer; Survival analysis; Prognostic biomarkers
Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two tembusu virus strains, ZC-1 and LQ-1, isolated from ducks and geese, respectively, in 2012. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the two strains are closely related to those of the TMUV isolates around Shandong province. The full-length genome sequences of two waterfowl-origin TMUVs provided herein will help to understand the molecular epidemiology of tembusu virus in China, which deserves further investigation.
Recent years, although great efforts have been made to improve its performance, few Histogram equalization (HE) methods take human visual perception (HVP) into account explicitly. The human visual system (HVS) is more sensitive to edges than brightness. This paper proposes to take use of this nature intuitively and develops a perceptual contrast enhancement approach with dynamic range adjustment through histogram modification. The use of perceptual contrast connects the image enhancement problem with the HVS. To pre-condition the input image before the HE procedure is implemented, a perceptual contrast map (PCM) is constructed based on the modified Difference of Gaussian (DOG) algorithm. As a result, the contrast of the image is sharpened and high frequency noise is suppressed. A modified Clipped Histogram Equalization (CHE) is also developed which improves visual quality by automatically detecting the dynamic range of the image with improved perceptual contrast. Experimental results show that the new HE algorithm outperforms several state-of-the-art algorithms in improving perceptual contrast and enhancing details. In addition, the new algorithm is simple to implement, making it suitable for real-time applications.
Clipped histogram equalization; Difference of Gaussian; Human visual system; Image enhancement; Perceptual contrast
An ELISA assay with monoclonal antibody (MELISA) was used to type serotype O of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). All FMDV serotype O reference strains were positive by MELISA, while other viruses such as FMDV serotypes Asia 1, C, A and classical swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus remained negative. Further, FMDV serotype O positive samples were able to be detected by MELISA. This assay may be particularly suitable for diagnosis of FMDV serotype O infection in field stations.
Background and Purpose
Recent evidence has supported the neuroprotective effect of bpV (pic), an inhibitor of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), in models of ischemic stroke. However, whether PTEN inhibitors improve long-term functional recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and whether PTEN affects blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability need further elucidation. The present study was performed to address these issues.
Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to fluid percussion injury (FPI) after treatment with a well-established PTEN inhibitor bpV (pic) or saline starting 24 h before FPI. Western blotting, real-time quantitative PCR, or immunostaining was used to measure PTEN, p-Akt, or MMP-9 expression. We determined the presence of neuron apoptosis by TUNEL assay. Evans Blue dye extravasation was measured to evaluate the extent of BBB disruption. Functional recovery was assessed by the neurological severity score (NSS), and Kaplan-Meier analysis was used for survival analysis.
PTEN expression was up-regulated after TBI. After bpV (pic) treatment, p-Akt was also up-regulated. We found that bpV (pic) significantly decreased BBB permeability and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells. We further demonstrated that PTEN inhibition improved neurological function recovery in the early stage after TBI.
These data suggest that treatment with the PTEN inhibitor bpV (pic) has a neuroprotective effect in TBI rats.
The actin cytoskeleton plays a crucial role for the spreading of cells, but is also a key element for the structural integrity and internal tension in cells. In fact, adhesive cells and their actin stress fiber–adhesion system show a remarkable reorganization and adaptation when subjected to external mechanical forces. Less is known about how mechanical forces alter the spreading of cells and the development of the actin–cell-matrix adhesion apparatus. We investigated these processes in fibroblasts, exposed to uniaxial cyclic tensile strain (CTS) and demonstrate that initial cell spreading is stretch-independent while it is directed by the mechanical signals in a later phase. The total temporal spreading characteristic was not changed and cell protrusions are initially formed uniformly around the cells. Analyzing the actin network, we observed that during the first phase the cells developed a circumferential arc-like actin network, not affected by the CTS. In the following orientation phase the cells elongated perpendicular to the stretch direction. This occurred simultaneously with the de novo formation of perpendicular mainly ventral actin stress fibers and concurrent realignment of cell-matrix adhesions during their maturation. The stretch-induced perpendicular cell elongation is microtubule-independent but myosin II-dependent. In summary, a CTS-induced cell orientation of spreading cells correlates temporary with the development of the acto-myosin system as well as contact to the underlying substrate by cell-matrix adhesions.
Dengue is the most common arthropod-borne viral (Arboviral) illness in humans. The genetic features concerning the codon usage of dengue virus (DENV) were analyzed by the relative synonymous codon usage, the effective number of codons and the codon adaptation index. The evolutionary distance between DENV and the natural hosts (Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti) was estimated by a novel formula. Finally, the synonymous codon usage preference for the translation initiation region of this virus was also analyzed. The result indicates that the general trend of the 59 synonymous codon usage of the four genotypes of DENV are similar to each other, and this pattern has no link with the geographic distribution of the virus. The effect of codon usage pattern of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti on the formation of codon usage of DENV is stronger than that of the two primates. Turning to the codon usage preference of the translation initiation region of this virus, some codons pairing to low tRNA copy numbers in the two primates have a stronger tendency to exist in the translation initiation region than those in the open reading frame of DENV. Although DENV, like other RNA viruses, has a high mutation to adapt its hosts, the regulatory features about the synonymous codon usage have been ‘branded’ on the translation initiation region of this virus in order to hijack the translational mechanisms of the hosts.
Thienopyridine-derivatives (ticlopidine, clopidogrel, and prasugrel) are the primary antiplatelet agents. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare drug-associated syndrome, with the thienopyridines being the most common drugs implicated in this syndrome. We reviewed 20 years of information on clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory findings for thienopyridine-associated TTP. Four, 11, and 11 cases of thienopyridine-associated TTP were reported in the first year of marketing of ticlopidine (1989), clopidogrel (1998), and prasugrel (2010), respectively. As of 2011, the FDA received reports of 97 ticlopidine-, 197 clopidogrel-, and 14 prasugrel-associated TTP cases. Severe deficiency of ADAMTS-13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13) was present in 80% and antibodies to 100% of these TTP patients on ticlopidine, 0% of the patients with clopidogrel-associated TTP (p < 0.05), and an unknown percentage of patients with prasugrel-associated TTP. TTP is associated with use of each of the three thienopyridines, although the mechanistic pathways may differ.
thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; ticlopidine; clopidogrel; prasugrel; adverse event
Eukaryotic genomes encode hundreds of RNA-binding proteins, yet the functions of most of these proteins are unknown. In a genetic study of stress signal transduction in Arabidopsis, we identified a K homology (KH)-domain RNA-binding protein, HOS5 (High Osmotic Stress Gene Expression 5), as required for stress gene regulation and stress tolerance. HOS5 was found to interact with FIERY2/RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) carboxyl terminal domain (CTD) phosphatase-like 1 (FRY2/CPL1) both in vitro and in vivo. This interaction is mediated by the first double-stranded RNA-binding domain of FRY2/CPL1 and the KH domains of HOS5. Interestingly, both HOS5 and FRY2/CPL1 also interact with two novel serine-arginine (SR)-rich splicing factors, RS40 and RS41, in nuclear speckles. Importantly, FRY2/CPL1 is required for the recruitment of HOS5. In fry2 mutants, HOS5 failed to be localized in nuclear speckles but was found mainly in the nucleoplasm. hos5 mutants were impaired in mRNA export and accumulated a significant amount of mRNA in the nuclei, particularly under salt stress conditions. Arabidopsis mutants of all these genes exhibit similar stress-sensitive phenotypes. RNA-seq analyses of these mutants detected significant intron retention in many stress-related genes under salt stress but not under normal conditions. Our study not only identified several novel regulators of pre-mRNA processing as important for plant stress response but also suggested that, in addition to RNAP II CTD that is a well-recognized platform for the recruitment of mRNA processing factors, FRY2/CPL1 may also recruit specific factors to regulate the co-transcriptional processing of certain transcripts to deal with environmental challenges.
Pre-mRNA processing, including 5′ capping, splicing, and 3′ polyadenylation, is critical for gene expression and is closely coupled with transcription. Phosphorylated carboxyl terminal domain (CTD) of RNA Polymerase II (RNAP II) serves as a platform for the recruitment of pre-mRNA processing factors, yet other components involved in the recruitment are less known. In a genetic study of stress signal transduction in Arabidopsis, we isolated a KH-domain RNA-binding protein HOS5 that plays important roles in stress gene regulation and stress tolerance. We found that HOS5 interacts with FIERY2/CTD phosphatase-like 1 (FRY2/CPL1) and they both also interact with two novel splicing factors, RS40 and RS41, in nuclear speckles. In fry2 mutants, HOS5 was unable to be recruited to nuclear speckles but rather was mainly localized in the nucleoplasm. Mutants in these genes have similar stress-sensitive phenotypes. Transcriptome analyses identified significant intron retention in many stress-related genes in these mutants under salt stress conditions. Our study reveals that, in addition to RNAP II, the CTD phosphatase may also recruit specific splicing factors and RNA binding proteins to regulate the co-transcriptional processing of certain transcripts to deal with environmental stresses.
Mouse renal transplantation is a technically challenging procedure. Although the first kidney transplants in mice were performed over 34 years ago and refined some years later, the classical techniques of mouse renal transplantation required clamping both vena cava and aorta simultaneously and carry out suture anastomoses of the renal artery and vein in a heterotopic position. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed mouse orthotopic kidney transplantation for the first time, using a rapid “cuffed” renal vein technique for vessel anastomosis, wherein the donor’s renal vein was inserted through an intravenous catheter, folded back and tied. During grafting, the cuffed renal vein was directly inserted into the recipient’s renal vein without the need for the clamping vena cava and suturing of renal vein. This technique allowed for the exact transplantation of the kidney into the original position, compared to the classical technique, and has significantly shortened the clamping time due to a quicker and precise anastomosis of renal vein as described. This also allowed for a quicker recovery of the lower extremity activity, reduction in myoglobinuria with resultant kidney graft survival of 88.9%. Thus we believe that the cuffed renal vein technique simplifies microvascular anastomoses and affords important additional benefits.
Gastric cancer (GC) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and there is therefore a clear need to search for more sensitive early diagnostic biomarkers. We performed a systematic review of eight published miRNA profiling studies that compared GC tissues with adjacent noncancerous tissues. A miRNA ranking system was used that took the frequency of comparisons, direction of differential expression and total sample size into consideration. We identified five miRNAs that were most consistently reported to be upregulated (miR-21, miR-106b, miR-17, miR-18a and miR-20a) and two miRNAs that were downregulated (miR-378 and miR-638). Six of these were further validated in 32 paired sets of GC and adjacent noncancerous tissue samples using real-time PCR. MiR-21, miR-106b, miR-17, miR-18a and miR-20a were confirmed to be upregulatedin GC tissues, while the expression of miR-378 was decreased. Moreover, we found a significant association between expression levels of miR-21, miR-106b, miR-17, miR-18a and miR-20a and clinicopathological features of GC. These miRNAs may be used for diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers for GC and therefore warrant further investigation.
Recent studies have suggested that endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor endostatin/collagen XVIII might play an important role in the secondary brain injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study, we measured endostatin/collagen XVIII concentrations serially for 1 week after hospitalization by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 30 patients with TBI and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 8 or less on admission. There was a significant trend toward increased CSF levels of endostatin after TBI versus control from 72 h after injury. In patients with GCS score of 3–5, CSF endostatin concentration was substantially higher at 72 h after injury than that in patients with GCS score of 6–8 (P < 0.05) and peaked rapidly at day 5 after injury, but decreased thereafter. The CSF endostatin concentration in 12 patients with an unfavorable outcome was significantly higher than that in 18 patients with a favorable outcome at day 5 (P = 0.043) and day 7 (P = 0.005) after trauma. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggested a reliable operating point for the 7-day CSF endostatin concentration predicting poor prognosis to be 67.29 pg/mL. Our preliminary findings provide new evidence that endostatin/collagen XVIII concentration in the CSF increases substantially in patients with sTBI. Its dynamic change may have some clinical significance on the judgment of brain injury severity and the assessment of prognosis. This trial is registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
UHRF1 (ubiquitin-like, with PHD and RING finger domains 1) is a critical epigenetic player involved in the maintenance of DNA methylation patterns during DNA replication. Dysregulation of the UHRF1 level is implicated in cancer onset, metastasis, and tumor recurrence. Previous studies demonstrated that UHRF1 can be stabilized through USP7-mediated deubiquitylation, but the mechanism through which UHRF1 is ubiquitylated is still unknown. Here we show that proteasomal degradation of UHRF1 is mediated by the SCFβ-TrCP E3 ligase. Through bioinformatic and mutagenesis studies, we identified a functional DSG degron in the UHRF1 N terminus that is necessary for UHRF1 stability regulation. We further show that UHRF1 physically interacts with β-TrCP1 in a manner dependent on phosphorylation of serine 108 (S108UHRF1) within the DSG degron. Furthermore, we demonstrate that S108UHRF1 phosphorylation is catalyzed by casein kinase 1 delta (CK1δ) and is important for the recognition of UHRF1 by SCFβ-TrCP. Importantly, we demonstrate that UHRF1 degradation is accelerated in response to DNA damage, coincident with enhanced S108UHRF1 phosphorylation. Taken together, our data identify SCFβ-TrCP as a bona fide UHRF1 E3 ligase important for regulating UHRF1 steady-state levels both under normal conditions and in response to DNA damage.
This paper presents an area-efficient time-domain CMOS smart temperature sensor using a curvature compensation oscillator for linearity enhancement with a −40 to 120 °C temperature range operability. The inverter-based smart temperature sensors can substantially reduce the cost and circuit complexity of integrated temperature sensors. However, a large curvature exists on the temperature-to-time transfer curve of the inverter-based delay line and results in poor linearity of the sensor output. For cost reduction and error improvement, a temperature-to-pulse generator composed of a ring oscillator and a time amplifier was used to generate a thermal sensing pulse with a sufficient width proportional to the absolute temperature (PTAT). Then, a simple but effective on-chip curvature compensation oscillator is proposed to simultaneously count and compensate the PTAT pulse with curvature for linearization. With such a simple structure, the proposed sensor possesses an extremely small area of 0.07 mm2 in a TSMC 0.35-μm CMOS 2P4M digital process. By using an oscillator-based scheme design, the proposed sensor achieves a fine resolution of 0.045 °C without significantly increasing the circuit area. With the curvature compensation, the inaccuracy of −1.2 to 0.2 °C is achieved in an operation range of −40 to 120 °C after two-point calibration for 14 packaged chips. The power consumption is measured as 23 μW at a sample rate of 10 samples/s.
curvature compensation; smart temperature sensor; oscillator; time-domain; delay line
To investigate the bilateral symmetry of the global corneal topography in normal corneas with a wide range of curvature, astigmatism and thickness values
Topography images were recorded for the anterior and posterior surfaces of 342 participants using a Pentacam. Elevation data were fitted to a general quadratic model that considered both translational and rotational displacements. Comparisons between fellow corneas of estimates of corneal shape parameters (elevation, radius in two main directions, Rx and Ry, and corresponding shape factors, Qx and Qy) and corneal position parameters (translational displacements: x0, y0 and z0, and rotational displacements: α, β and γ) were statistically analyzed.
The general quadratic model provided average RMS of fit errors with the topography data of 1.7±0.6 µm and 5.7±1.3 µm in anterior and posterior corneal surfaces. The comparisons showed highly significant bilateral correlations with the differences between fellow corneas in Rx, Ry, Qx and Qy of anterior and posterior surfaces remaining insignificantly different from zero. Bilateral differences in elevation measurements at randomly-selected points in both corneal central and peripheral areas indicated strong mirror symmetry between fellow corneas. The mean geometric center (x0, y0, z0) of both right and left corneas was located on the temporal side and inferior-temporal side of the apex in anterior and posterior topography map, respectively. Rotational displacement angle α along X axis had similar distributions in bilateral corneas, while rotation angle β along Y axis showed both eyes tilting towards the nasal side. Further, rotation angle γ along Z axis, which is related to corneal astigmatism, showed clear mirror symmetry.
Analysis of corneal topography demonstrated strong and statistically-significant mirror symmetry between bilateral corneas. This characteristic could help in detection of pathological abnormalities, disease diagnosis, measurement validation and surgery planning.
Although familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) is characterized as cardiac disease in the absence of overt stressors, disease penetrance, and pathological progression largely depend on modifying factors. Accordingly, pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) was induced in 2-month-old, male mice with and without a FHC (R403Q) mutation in α-myosin heavy chain. A significantly greater number of FHC mice (n = 8) than wild-type (WT) mice (n = 5) died during the 9-week study period. TAC induced a significant increase in cardiac mass whether measured at 2 or 9 weeks post-TAC in both WT and FHC mice, albeit to a different extent. However, the temporal and morphological trajectory of ventricular remodeling was impacted by the FHC transgene. Both WT and FHC hearts responded to TAC with an early (2 weeks post-TAC) and significant augmentation of the relative wall thickness (RWT) indicative of concentric hypertrophy. By 9 weeks post-TAC, RWT decreased in WT hearts (eccentric hypertrophy) but remained elevated in FHC hearts. WT hearts following TAC demonstrated enhanced cardiac function as measured by the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship, pre-load recruitable stroke work (PRSW), and myocardial relaxation indicative of compensatory hypertrophy. Similarly, TAC induced differential histological and cellular remodeling; TAC reduced expression of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (2a) (SERCA2a; 2 and 9 weeks) and phospholamban (PLN; 2 weeks) but increased PLN phosphorylation (2 weeks) and β-myosin heavy chain (β-MyHC; 9 weeks) in WT hearts. FHC-TAC hearts showed increased β-MyHC (2 and 9 weeks) and a late (9 weeks) decrease in PLN expression concomitant with a significant increase in PLN phosphorylation. We conclude that FHC hearts respond to TAC induced pressure overload with increased premature death, severe concentric hypertrophy, and a differential ability to undergo morphological, functional, or cellular remodeling compared to WT hearts.
pressure overload; cardiac hypertrophy; concentric hypertrophy; remodeling; myocardial relaxation; familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is defined as metaplastic conversion of esophageal squamous epithelium to intestinalized columnar epithelium. As a premalignant lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), it develops as a result of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Many studies have been conducted to undertand the molecular mechanism of this disease. This review summarizes recent results of involving squamous transcription factors, intestinal transcription factors, signaling pathways, stromal factors, microRNAs, and other factors in the development of BE. A conceptual framework is proposed to guide future studies. We expect elucidation of the molecular mechanism of BE will help us develop proper management of GERD, BE, and EAC.
Barrett’s esophagus; transcription factor; signaling pathway
Objective. This trial aims to look for the protein biomarker of “toxin syndrome” of CHD patients. Methods. We have performed two trials in this paper. The first trial was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the plasma proteome in unstable angina (UA) patients by Maldi-Tof Mass. The second trial was a nested case-control study in 1503 stable CHD patients with one-year followup for acute cardiovascular events (ACEs). Results. In the RCT study, 12 protein spots were found to be the differential protein for the significant differences between the difference of before and after treatment in group A and group B; 2 of them (3207.37 Da and 4279.95 Da) was considered to be unique to “toxin syndrome” for being differential proteins of group B but not group A. These 2 spots were identified as Isoform 1 of Fibrinogen alpha chain precursor (FGA, 3207.37 Da) and Isoform 2 of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4, 4279.95 Da), respectively. In the nested case-control study, the result of Western blot demonstrated that protein expression of ITIH4 in the group with followup ACEs was significantly lower than the matched group without followup ACEs (P = 0.027). Conclusion. ITIH4 might be a new potential biomarker of CHD “toxin syndrome” in TCM, indicating the potential role in early identifying high-risk CHD patients in stable period.
As an attempt to increase the resistance to Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and so further reduction of its risk on the poultry industry. This work aimed to build the eukaryotic gene co-expression plasmid of neuraminidase (NA) gene and myxo-virus resistance (Mx) and detect the gene expression in transfected mouse fibroblasts (NIH-3T3) cells, it is most important to investigate the influence of the recombinant plasmid on the chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) cells. cDNA fragment of NA and mutant Mx gene were derived from pcDNA3.0-NA and pcDNA3.0-Mx plasmid via PCR, respectively, then NA and Mx cDNA fragment were inserted into the multiple cloning sites of pVITRO2 to generate the eukaryotic co-expression plasmid pVITRO2-Mx-NA. The recombinant plasmid was confirmed by restriction endonuclease treatment and sequencing, and it was transfected into the mouse fibroblasts (NIH-3T3) cells. The expression of genes in pVITRO2-Mx-NA were measured by RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The recombinant plasmid was transfected into CEF cells then RT-PCR and the micro-cell inhibition tests were used to test the antiviral activity for NDV. Our results showed that co-expression vector pVITRO2-Mx-NA was constructed successfully; the expression of Mx and NA could be detected in both NIH-3T3 and CEF cells. The recombinant proteins of Mx and NA protect CEF cells from NDV infection until after 72 h of incubation but the individually mutagenic Mx protein or NA protein protects CEF cells from NDV infection till 48 h post-infection, and co-transfection group decreased significantly NDV infection compared with single-gene transfection group (P<0. 05), indicating that Mx-NA jointing contributed to delaying the infection of NDV in single-cell level and the co-transfection of the jointed genes was more powerful than single one due to their synergistic effects.