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1.  R-Spondin 3 Regulates Dorsoventral and Anteroposterior Patterning by Antagonizing Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Zebrafish Embryos 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e99514.
The Wnt/β-catenin or canonical Wnt signaling pathway plays fundamental roles in early development and in maintaining adult tissue homeostasis. R-spondin 3 (Rspo3) is a secreted protein that has been implicated in activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling in amphibians and mammals. Here we report that zebrafish Rspo3 plays a negative role in regulating the zygotic Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Zebrafish Rspo3 has a unique domain structure. It contains a third furin-like (FU3) domain. This FU3 is present in other four ray-finned fish species studied but not in elephant shark. In zebrafish, rspo3 mRNA is maternally deposited and has a ubiquitous expression in early embryonic stages. After 12 hpf, its expression becomes tissue-specific. Forced expression of rspo3 promotes dorsoanterior patterning and increases the expression of dorsal and anterior marker genes. Knockdown of rspo3 increases ventral-posterior development and stimulates ventral and posterior marker genes expression. Forced expression of rspo3 abolishes exogenous Wnt3a action and reduces the endogenous Wnt signaling activity. Knockdown of rspo3 results in increased Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity. Further analyses indicate that Rspo3 does not promote maternal Wnt signaling. Human RSPO3 has similar action when tested in zebrafish embryos. These results suggest that Rspo3 regulates dorsoventral and anteroposterior patterning by negatively regulating the zygotic Wnt/β-catenin signaling in zebrafish embryos.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0099514
PMCID: PMC4053527  PMID: 24918770
2.  Altered Contractile Phenotypes of Intestinal Smooth Muscle in Mice Deficient in Myosin Phosphatase Target Subunit 1 
Gastroenterology  2013;144(7):1456-1465.e5.
BACKGROUND & AIMS
The regulatory subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase, MYPT1, has been proposed to control smooth muscle contractility by regulating phosphorylation of the Ca2+-dependent myosin regulatory light chain. We generated mice with a smooth muscle–specific deletion of MYPT1 to investigate its physiologic role in intestinal smooth muscle contraction.
METHODS
We used the CreloxP system to establish Mypt1-floxed mice, with the promoter region and exon 1 of Mypt1 flanked by 2 loxP sites. These mice were crossed with SMA-Cre transgenic mice to generate mice with smooth muscle–specific deletion of MYPT1 (Mypt1SMKO mice). The phenotype was assessed by histologic, biochemical, molecular, and physiologic analyses.
RESULTS
Young adult Mypt1SMKO mice had normal intestinal motility in vivo, with no histologic abnormalities. On stimulation with KCl or acetylcholine, intestinal smooth muscles isolated from Mypt1SMKO mice produced robust and increased sustained force due to increased phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain compared with muscle from control mice. Additional analyses of contractile properties showed reduced rates of force development and relaxation, and decreased shortening velocity, compared with muscle from control mice. Permeable smooth muscle fibers from Mypt1SMKO mice had increased sensitivity and contraction in response to Ca2+.
CONCLUSIONS
MYPT1 is not essential for smooth muscle function in mice but regulates the Ca2+ sensitivity of force development and contributes to intestinal phasic contractile phenotype. Altered contractile responses in isolated tissues could be compensated by adaptive physiologic responses in vivo, where gut motility is affected by lower intensities of smooth muscle stimulation for myosin phosphorylation and force development.
doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2013.02.045
PMCID: PMC3782749  PMID: 23499953
Mouse Model; Development; Calcium Signaling; Phosphorylation
3.  Mono-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Induces Injury in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e97607.
Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), the active metabolite of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), is a widespread environmental contaminant and has been proved to have potential adverse effects on the reproductive system, carcinogenicity, liver, kidney and developmental toxicities. However, the effect of MEHP on vascular system remains unclear. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of MEHP on human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) and its possible molecular mechanism. HUVEC cells were treated with MEHP (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25,50 and 100 µM), and the cellular apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential as well as intracellular reactive oxygen species were determined. In present study, MEHP induced a dose-dependent cell injury in HUVEC cell via an apoptosis pathway as characterized by increased percentage of sub-G1, activation of caspase-3, -8and -9, and increased ratio of Bax/bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression as well as cytochrome C releasing. In addition, there was obvious oxidative stress, represented by decreased glutathione level, increased malondialdehyde level and superoxide dismutase activity. N-Acetylcysteine, as an antioxidant that is a direct reactive oxygen species scavenger, could effectively block MEHP-induced reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial membrane potential loss and cell apoptosis. These data indicated that MEHP induced apoptosis in HUVEC cells through a reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondria-dependent pathway.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097607
PMCID: PMC4024005  PMID: 24836450
4.  The Different Roles of Glucocorticoids in the Hippocampus and Hypothalamus in Chronic Stress-Induced HPA Axis Hyperactivity 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e97689.
Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hyperactivity is observed in many patients suffering from depression and the mechanism underling the dysfunction of HPA axis is not well understood. Chronic stress has a causal relationship with the hyperactivity of HPA axis. Stress induces the over-synthesis of glucocorticoids, which will arrive at all the body containing the brain. It is still complicated whether glucocorticoids account for chronic stress-induced HPA axis hyperactivity and in which part of the brain the glucocorticoids account for chronic stress-induced HPA axis hyperactivity. Here, we demonstrated that glucocorticoids were indispensable and sufficient for chronic stress-induced hyperactivity of HPA axis. Although acute glucocorticoids elevation in the hippocampus and hypothalamus exerted a negative regulation of HPA axis, we found that chronic glucocorticoids elevation in the hippocampus but not in the hypothalamus accounted for chronic stress-induced hyperactivity of HPA axis. Chronic glucocorticoids exposure in the hypothalamus still exerted a negative regulation of HPA axis activity. More importantly, we found mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) - neuronal nitric oxide synthesis enzyme (nNOS) - nitric oxide (NO) pathway mediated the different roles of glucocorticoids in the hippocampus and hypothalamus in regulating HPA axis activity. This study suggests that the glucocorticoids in the hippocampus play an important role in the development of HPA axis hyperactivity and the glucocorticoids in the hypothalamus can't induce hyperactivity of HPA axis, revealing new insights into understanding the mechanism of depression.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097689
PMCID: PMC4022669  PMID: 24831808
5.  Role of Unfolded Protein Response Dysregulation in Oxidative Injury of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells 
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling  2014;20(14):2091-2106.
Abstract
Aims: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a major cause of legal blindness in the elderly, is associated with genetic and environmental risk factors, such as cigarette smoking. Recent evidence shows that cigarette smoke (CS) that contains high levels of potent oxidants preferably targets retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) leading to oxidative damage and apoptosis; however, the mechanisms are poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in CS-related RPE apoptosis. Results: ER stress and proapoptotic gene C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) were induced in the RPE/choroid complex from mice exposed to CS for 2 weeks and in human RPE cells treated with hydroquinone, a potent oxidant found at high concentrations in CS. Suppressing ER stress or inhibiting CHOP activation by pharmacological chaperones or genetic approaches attenuated hydroquinone-induced RPE cell apoptosis. In contrast to enhanced CHOP activation, protein level of active X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), a major regulator of the adaptive UPR, was reduced in hydroquinone-treated cells. Conditional knockout of XBP1 gene in the RPE resulted in caspase-12 activation, increased CHOP expression, and decreased antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2. Furthermore, XBP1-deficient RPE cells are more sensitive to oxidative damage induced by hydroquinone or NaIO3, a CS-unrelated chemical oxidant. Conversely, overexpressing XBP1 protected RPE cells and attenuated oxidative stress-induced RPE apoptosis. Innovation and Conclusion: These findings provide strong evidence suggesting an important role of ER stress and the UPR in CS-related oxidative injury of RPE cells. Thus, the modulation of the UPR signaling may provide a promising target for the treatment of AMD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2091–2106.
doi:10.1089/ars.2013.5240
PMCID: PMC3995121  PMID: 24053669
7.  Evaluation of the Antihyperuricemic Activity of Phytochemicals from Davallia formosana by Enzyme Assay and Hyperuricemic Mice Model 
Abnormal serum urate levels are recognized as a critical factor in the progression of several chronic diseases. To evaluate the antihyperuricemic effect of Davallia formosana, the inhibitory activities of 15 isolated phytochemicals, including five novel compounds of 6,8-dihydroxychromone-7-C-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), 6,8,3′,4′-tetrahydroxyflavanone-7-C-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), 6,8,4′-trihydroxyflavanone-7-C-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), 8-(2-pyrrolidinone-5-yl)-catechin-3-O-β-d-allopyranoside (4), and epiphyllocoumarin-3-O-β-d-allopyranoside (5), were examined against xanthine oxidase (XOD) and in a potassium oxonate-(PTO-) induced acute hyperuricemic mice model. The results indicated that compounds 3 and 5 significantly inhibited XOD activity in vitro and reduced serum uric acid levels in vivo. This is the first report providing new insights into the antihyperuricemic activities of flavonoid glycosides which can possibly be developed into potential hypouricemic agents.
doi:10.1155/2014/873607
PMCID: PMC4026843  PMID: 24883071
8.  Overexpressed miRNA-137 Inhibits Human Glioma Cells Growth by Targeting Rac1 
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that miR-137 functions as a tumor suppressor in various cancers, but its role in the initiation and development of gliomas is still unknown. Currently, we found that miR-137 exhibited the most significant increase in normal brain tissues compared with glioma specimens, and the miR-137 expression was greatly decreased with the ascending of tumor pathological grades. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-137 in vitro by chemically synthesized miR-137 mimics suppressed the proliferation, inhibited cell cycle arrest in the G1/G0 phase, and induced cell apoptosis. The tumor-suppressive effects of miR-137 were indeed induced by Rac1, which was verified as a direct target of miR-137. These findings indicate that miR-137 inhibits the growth of gliomas cells by directly targeting Rac1, suggesting that miR-137 could be a new important therapeutic strategy for glioma treatment and warrants further investigation.
doi:10.1089/cbr.2012.1380
PMCID: PMC3653372
glioblastoma; miR-137; Rac1
9.  Clinical Evidence for the Role of Trichomonas vaginalis in Regulation of Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor in the Female Genital Tract 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2013;207(9):1462-1470.
Background. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) is responsible for regulating inflammatory damage to and innate and adaptive immune responses in the vaginal mucosa. Depressed cervicovaginal SLPI levels have been correlated with both Trichomonas vaginalis infection and poor reproductive health outcomes.
Methods. We measured levels of SLPI in 215 vaginal specimens collected from adolescent and young adult females aged 14–22 years. Log-transformed SLPI values were compared by analysis of variance or by an unpaired t test before and after adjustment for confounding effects through the propensity score method.
Results. Females receiving hormonal contraceptives and those with an abnormal vaginal pH had lower SLPI levels as compared to their peers. After propensity score adjustment for race, behavioral factors, hormonal use, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), SLPI levels were lower in females with a positive T. vaginalis antigen test result, a vaginal pH >4.5, vaginal leukocytosis, and recurrent (vs initial) T. vaginalis infection, with the lowest levels observed in those with the highest T. vaginalis loads.
Conclusions. The SLPI level was reduced by >50% in a T. vaginalis load–dependent manner. Future research should consider whether identifying and treating females with low levels of T. vaginalis infection (before they become wet mount positive) would prevent the loss of SLPI and impaired vaginal immunity. The SLPI level could be used as a vaginal-health marker to evaluate interventions and vaginal products.
doi:10.1093/infdis/jit039
PMCID: PMC3610423  PMID: 23355743
SLPI protein; human; Trichomonas vaginalis; Vaginosis; Bacterial; Sexually Transmitted Diseases; Adolescent
10.  Indole-3-carbinol inhibits nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell growth in vivo and in vitro through inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway 
Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is an active component of cruciferous vegetables and has been shown to markedly inhibit the growth of a variety of tumors. However, the role of I3C in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibition of NPC cells by I3C in vitro and in vivo. The human CNE2 NPC cell line was treated with various concentrations (0, 100, 200 and 300 μM) of I3C and analysis of cell proliferation after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, apoptosis after 48 h and expression levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway-associated proteins in vitro was performed. BALB/c nude mice were divided into the following groups: Prevention, treatment and control. In vivo, all the nude mice were inoculated with CNE2 NPC cells and the mice in the prevention and treatment groups were administered a diet containing 0.5% I3C prior to and following inoculation, respectively. The tumoricidal effect of I3C was investigated in the nude mice. After eight weeks, the expression levels of PI3K/Akt pathway-associated proteins were analyzed in the tumors from the nude mice in each group. The results demonstrated that with increasing I3C concentrations, cell proliferation decreased and apoptosis increased significantly. In addition, the expression levels of PI3K/Akt pathway-associated proteins decreased. In the animal experiments, the prevention and treatment groups developed smaller tumors and the expression levels of PI3K/Akt pathway-associated proteins were reduced when compared with those in the control group. In addition, very few changes to the heart, liver and kidney tissues were observed with hematoxylin and eosin staining in all the groups. Therefore, the results of the present study indicated that I3C inhibited the growth of NPC cells and induced apoptosis effectively in vivo and in vitro. The underlying mechanism may be that I3C suppresses the PI3K/Akt pathway.
doi:10.3892/etm.2014.1696
PMCID: PMC4061183  PMID: 24944623
nasopharyngeal carcinoma; indole-3-carbinol; apoptosis; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway
11.  Genome-wide microRNA expression profiles in hippocampus of rats with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:4734.
The expression and functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) in chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most common type of refractory epilepsy in adults, are poorly understood currently. In this study, status epilepticus evoked by amygdala stimulation was used to establish rat chronic TLE model. Two months later, high-throughput sequencing was employed to investigate miRNA expression profile in rat hippocampus, and six miRNAs were confirmed to be differentially expressed. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis indicated that most of the target genes for these six miRNAs were associated with neuronal apoptosis. Meanwhile, the levels of miR-423-3p and miR-296-5p were correlated with the activity of caspase-3, an apoptosis indicator. Additionally, the loading of miR-423-3p was increased in RNA-induced silencing complex whilst caspase-6, a target of miR-423-3p, was reduced in chronic TLE rats. Collectively, our findings suggest that miRNAs may exert anti-apoptotic effects in chronic TLE.
doi:10.1038/srep04734
PMCID: PMC3994440  PMID: 24751812
12.  Protective Effects of the Polyphenol Sesamin on Allergen-Induced TH2 Responses and Airway Inflammation in Mice 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e96091.
Allergic asthma is a lifelong airway condition that affects people of all ages. In recent decades, asthma prevalence continues to increase globally, with an estimated number of 250,000 annual deaths attributed to the disease. Although inhaled corticosteroids and β-adrenergic receptor agonists are the primary therapeutic avenues that effectively reduce asthma symptoms, profound side effects may occur in patients with long-term treatments. Therefore, development of new therapeutic strategies is needed as alternative or supplement to current asthma treatments. Sesamin is a natural polyphenolic compound with strong anti-oxidative effects. Several studies have reported that sesamin is effective in preventing hypertension, thrombotic tendency, and neuroinflammation. However, it is still unknown whether sesamin can reduce asthma-induced allergic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Our study has revealed that sesamin exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effects in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine asthma model. We found that treatments with sesamin after OVA sensitization and challenge significantly decreased expression levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-13, and serum IgE. The numbers of total inflammatory cells and eosinophils in BALF were also reduced in the sesamin-treated animals. Histological results demonstrated that sesamin attenuated OVA-induced eosinophil infiltration, airway goblet cell hyperplasia, mucus occlusion, and MUC5AC expression in the lung tissue. Mice administered with sesamin showed limited increases in AHR compared with mice receiving vehicle after OVA challenge. OVA increased phosphorylation levels of IκB-α and nuclear expression levels of NF-κB, both of which were reversed by sesamin treatments. These data indicate that sesamin is effective in treating allergic asthma responses induced by OVA in mice.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096091
PMCID: PMC3996011  PMID: 24755955
13.  Expression and Clinical Significance of YAP, TAZ, and AREG in Hepatocellular Carcinoma 
Journal of Immunology Research  2014;2014:261365.
Purpose. Yes-associated protein (YAP) and PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) are two important effectors of Hippo pathway controlling the balance of organ size and carcinogenesis. Amphiregulin (AREG) is a member of the epidermal growth factor family, a direct target gene of YAP and TAZ. The role of these proteins in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. Methods. The expression of YAP, TAZ, and AREG in HCC was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining. The level of secreted serum AREG was also assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assay. Results. YAP, TAZ, and AREG were expressed in 69.2% (27/39), 66.7% (26/39), and 61.5% (24/39) of HCC patients. The expression of YAP was significantly correlated with Edmondson stage (P > 0.05), serum AFP level (P > 0.05), and HCC prognosis (P > 0.05). AREG expression was also significantly correlated with Edmondson stage (P > 0.05) and serum AFP level (P > 0.05). In addition, the expression of serum AREG was higher than serum AFP in HCC patients. Further multivariate analysis showed that YAP expression was an independent prognostic factor that significantly affected the overall survival of HCC patients. Conclusions. YAP maybe an independent prognostic indicator for HCC patients and serum AREG may be a serological biomarker of HCC.
doi:10.1155/2014/261365
PMCID: PMC4016924  PMID: 24860833
14.  Serum SALL4 Is a Novel Prognosis Biomarker with Tumor Recurrence and Poor Survival of Patients in Hepatocellular Carcinoma 
Journal of Immunology Research  2014;2014:262385.
Aim. Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4), is reexpressed in tissues of a subgroup of HCC associated with poor prognosis. Reports of SALL4 serological levels linked to HCC patients are meager and unclear in the prognosis of this malignancy. Methods. Immunohistochemistry and optical microscopy protocols were used to examine the presence of SALL4 in liver tissues from the following patients: 38 HCC, 11 chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV), 13 liver cirrhosis, and 12 healthy controls. Additionally, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the SALL4 levels in serum samples isolated from patients as follows: 127 with HCC, 27 with HBV, 24 with liver cirrhosis, and 23 normal controls. Results. Analysis of liver tissues sections from HCC patients (18 out 38; 47.4%) showed positive staining for SALL4 and its expression did no correlate with any of the clinicopathologic characteristics. HCC patients displayed higher levels (50.4%) of SALL4 protein in serum, compared with the three control groups. Moreover, SALL4 concentration reached the maximum level after one week after treatment and dropped quickly after one month. These HCC patients showing high SALL4 serum levels had poor prognosis, evidenced by both tumor recurrence and overall survival rate. Conclusions. High SALL4 serum levels are a novel biomarker in the prognosis of HCC patients.
doi:10.1155/2014/262385
PMCID: PMC4016881  PMID: 24860834
15.  CXCL12 in astrocytes contributes to bone cancer pain through CXCR4-mediated neuronal sensitization and glial activation in rat spinal cord 
Background
Previous studies have demonstrated that chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 are critical for pain sensitization, but the mechanisms involved are not clear. In this study, we investigated the specific cellular mechanisms of CXCL12/CXCR4 chemokine signaling in the development and maintenance of bone cancer pain after tumor cell implantation (TCI).
Methods
TCI in the tibial cavity of rats was used to establish a bone cancer pain model. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were determined by measuring the paw withdrawal threshold and latency, respectively. The protein expression and cellular localization of CXCL12 and CXCR4 were detected by western blot and immunofluorescence staining. The sensitization of neurons, activation of astrocytes and microglia were examined by observing the immunofluorescence intensity of c-Fos, GFAP and IBA1.
Results
Our results demonstrated that CXCL12 was upregulated in a time-related manner, both in the dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord after TCI. Spinal CXCL12 was predominately expressed in astrocytes, and an intrathecal injection of astrocyte metabolic inhibitor fluorocitrate or selective JNK inhibitor SP600125 abolished TCI-induced CXCL12 production. A single intrathecal injection of a CXCL12 neutralizing antibody (10 μg/10 μl) at day 10 after TCI transiently reversed bone cancer pain in a dose-dependent manner. Whereas repetitive intrathecal administration of a CXCL12 neutralizing antibody (10 μg/10 μl, once a day from day 3 to 5 after TCI) significantly delayed the onset of TCI-induced pain behaviors for nearly five days. Spinal CXCR4 was also upregulated after TCI and colocalized with neurons, astrocytes and microglia. Blocking CXCR4 suppressed TCI-induced activation of neurons, astrocytes and microglia in the spinal cord at day 14. Repeated intrathecal administration of AMD3100 (5 μg/10 μl, once a day for three days) significantly delayed and suppressed the initiation and persistence of bone cancer pain in the early phase (at day 5, 6 and 7 after TCI) and in the late phase (at day 12, 13 and 14 after TCI) of bone cancer, respectively.
Conclusions
Taken together, these results demonstrate that CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling contributed to the development and maintenance of bone cancer pain via sensitizing neurons and activating astrocytes and microglia. Additionally, this chemokine signaling may be a potential target for treating bone cancer pain.
doi:10.1186/1742-2094-11-75
PMCID: PMC3996502  PMID: 24735601
CXCL12; CXCR4; Chemokine; Neurons; Astrocytes; Microglia; Spinal cord; Bone cancer pain
16.  Research on Grading Detection of the Wheat Seeds 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:702906.
Evaluating the merits of the wheat seed is an important significance for wheat breeding. We studied analytic hierarchy process (AHP) for seeds grading by digital image processing techniques in the paper. Firstly, preprocess the collected wheat seed images; extract some parameters, such as area, plumpness, rectangular, and elongation of the seed, and then build the level model. Experiments showed the model is right, and level accuracy rate is more than 95%.
doi:10.1155/2014/702906
PMCID: PMC4032770  PMID: 24892073
17.  Modulation of the Human T Cell Response by a Novel Non-Mitogenic Anti-CD3 Antibody 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e94324.
The agonistic anti-human CD3ε antibody (Ab), OKT3, has been used to control acute transplant rejection. The in vivo administration of OKT3 was previously shown to induce the partial depletion of T cells and unresponsiveness (anergy) in the remaining CD4+ T cells. However, this therapy is also associated with the systemic release of several cytokines, which leads to a series of adverse side effects. We established a novel anti-human CD3ε Ab, 20-2b2, which recognized a close, but different determinant on the CD3ε molecule from that recognized by OKT3. 20-2b2 was non-mitogenic for human CD4+ T cells, could inhibit the activation of T cells in vitro, and induced T cell anergy in in vivo experiments using humanized mice. Cytokine release in humanized mice induced by the administration of 20-2b2 was significantly less than that induced by OKT3. Our results indicated that the CD3ε molecule is still an attractive, effective, and useful target for the modulation of T cell responses. The establishment of other Abs that recognize CD3ε, even though the determinant recognized by those Abs may be close to or different from that recognized by OKT3, may represent a novel approach for the development of safer Ab therapies using anti-CD3 Abs, in addition to the modification of OKT3 in terms of the induction of cytokine production.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094324
PMCID: PMC3978038  PMID: 24710513
18.  Association of Clinical Symptomatic Hypoglycemia With Cardiovascular Events and Total Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(4):894-900.
OBJECTIVE
Hypoglycemia is associated with serious health outcomes for patients treated for diabetes. However, the outcome of outpatients with type 2 diabetes who have experienced hypoglycemia episodes is largely unknown.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
The study population, derived from the National Health Insurance Research Database released by the Taiwan National Health Research Institutes during 1998–2009, comprised 77,611 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. We designed a prospective study consisting of randomly selected hypoglycemic type 2 diabetic patients and matched type 2 diabetic patients without hypoglycemia. We investigated the relationships of hypoglycemia with total mortality and cardiovascular events, including stroke, coronary heart disease, cardiovascular diseases, and all-cause hospitalization.
RESULTS
There were 1,844 hypoglycemic events (500 inpatients and 1,344 outpatients) among the 77,611 patients. Both mild (outpatient) and severe (inpatient) hypoglycemia cases had a higher percentage of comorbidities, including hypertension, renal diseases, cancer, stroke, and heart disease. In multivariate Cox regression models, including diabetes treatment adjustment, diabetic patients with hypoglycemia had a significantly higher risk of cardiovascular events during clinical treatment periods. After constructing a model adjusted with propensity scores, mild and severe hypoglycemia still demonstrated higher hazard ratios (HRs) for cardiovascular diseases (HR 2.09 [95% CI 1.63–2.67]), all-cause hospitalization (2.51 [2.00–3.16]), and total mortality (2.48 [1.41–4.38]).
CONCLUSIONS
Symptomatic hypoglycemia, whether clinically mild or severe, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, all-cause hospitalization, and all-cause mortality. More attention may be needed for diabetic patients with hypoglycemic episodes.
doi:10.2337/dc12-0916
PMCID: PMC3609481  PMID: 23223349
19.  Small Interfering RNA Targeting Nerve Growth Factor Alleviates Allergic Airway Hyperresponsiveness 
Airway hyperresponsiveness is the hallmark of allergic asthma and caused by multiple factors. Nerve growth factor (NGF), a neurotrophin, is originally known for regulation of neural circuit development and function. Recent studies indicated that NGF contributes to airway hyperresponsiveness and pathogenesis of asthma. The objective of this study is to develop a small interfering RNA against NGF to attenuate airway hyperresponsiveness and further elucidate the underlying mechanism. In a murine model of allergic asthma, the ovalbumin-sensitized mice were intratracheally delivered small interfering RNA against NGF or administered an inhibitor targeting NGF receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase A, as a positive treatment control. In this study, knockdown NGF derived from pulmonary epithelium significantly reduced airway resistance in vivo. The levels of NGF, proinflammatory cytokines and infiltrated eosinophils in airway were decreased in small interfering RNA against NGF group but not in tropomyosin-related kinase A inhibitor and mock siRNA group. Furthermore, induction of neuropeptide (substance P) and airway innervation were mediated by NGF/tropomyosin-related kinase A pathway. These findings suggested that NGF targeting treatment holds the potential therapy for antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness via attenuation of airway innervation and inflammation in asthma.
doi:10.1038/mtna.2014.11
PMCID: PMC4011123  PMID: 24714423
siRNA; asthma; lentivirus; nerve growth factor
20.  3,3′-Diindolylmethane inhibits the invasion and metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo by regulation of epithelial mesenchymal transition 
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is characterized by silent progression and atypical early symptoms. Early metastasis to the neck lymph nodes is common. However, conventional chemoradiotherapy is limited and unable to effectively control cervical lymph node metastasis of NPC. In addition, toxicities caused by chemoradiotherapy often induce damage to normal tissues and organs. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the ability of 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) to inhibit the invasion and metastasis of NPC cells in vitro and in vivo. The migration and invasive abilities of the 5–8F human NPC cell line were detected using a Transwell assay. Lymph node metastasis in nude mice was observed following the implantation of xenograft tumors for 8 weeks. In addition, western blot analysis was used to detect the expression levels of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated key proteins in NPC cells treated with DIM in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that DIM effectively inhibited the migration and invasion of NPC cells in vitro and the effect was concentration-dependent. In addition, DIM significantly delayed and reduced the occurrence of lymph node metastasis in the animal model. The expression levels of a number of key proteins associated with EMT were affected by DIM treatment. In the animal model, there were no signs of toxicity in the vital organs, including the heart, liver and kidney, of animals fed a diet containing DIM. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that DIM affects the expression levels of a number of EMT-associated key proteins and induces the inhibition of invasion and metastasis of NPC cells in vitro and in vivo.
doi:10.3892/etm.2014.1649
PMCID: PMC4043566  PMID: 24926357
3,3′-diindolylmethane; nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell; invasion; metastasis; epithelial mesenchymal transition
21.  Crystal Structure of ORF210 from E. coli O157:H1 Phage CBA120 (TSP1), a Putative Tailspike Protein 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e93156.
Bacteriophage tailspike proteins act as primary receptors, often possessing endoglycosidase activity toward bacterial lipopolysaccharides or other exopolysaccharides, which enable phage absorption and subsequent DNA injection into the host. Phage CBA120, a contractile long-tailed Viunalikevirus phage infects the virulent Escherichia coli O157:H7. This phage encodes four putative tailspike proteins exhibiting little amino acid sequence identity, whose biological roles and substrate specificities are unknown. Here we focus on the first tailspike, TSP1, encoded by the orf210 gene. We have discovered that TSP1 is resistant to protease degradation, exhibits high thermal stability, but does not cleave the O157 antigen. An immune-dot blot has shown that TSP1 binds strongly to non-O157:H7 E. coli cells and more weakly to K. pneumoniae cells, but exhibits little binding to E. coli O157:H7 strains. To facilitate structure-function studies, we have determined the crystal structure of TSP1 to a resolution limit of 1.8 Å. Similar to other tailspikes proteins, TSP1 assembles into elongated homotrimers. The receptor binding region of each subunit adopts a right-handed parallel β helix, reminiscent yet not identical to several known tailspike structures. The structure of the N-terminal domain that binds to the virion particle has not been seen previously. Potential endoglycosidase catalytic sites at the three subunit interfaces contain two adjacent glutamic acids, unlike any catalytic machinery observed in other tailspikes. To identify potential sugar binding sites, the crystal structures of TSP1 in complexes with glucose, α-maltose, or α-lactose were determined. These structures revealed that each sugar binds in a different location and none of the environments appears consistent with an endoglycosidase catalytic site. Such sites may serve to bind sugar units of a yet to be identified bacterial exopolysaccharide.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0093156
PMCID: PMC3966878  PMID: 24671238
22.  Cognitive function, body mass index and mortality in a rural elderly Chinese cohort 
Background
Previous studies have shown that poor cognition and low body mass index were associated with increased mortality. But few studies have investigated the association between cognition and mortality across the entire cognitive spectrum while adjusting for BMI. The objective of this study is to examine the associations between cognitive function, BMI and 7-year mortality in a rural elderly Chinese cohort.
Methods
A prospective cohort of 2,000 Chinese age 65 and over from four rural counties in China were followed for 7-years. Cognitive function, BMI and other covariate information were obtained at baseline. Cox’s proportional hazard models were used to determine the effects of cognitive function and BMI on mortality risk.
Results
Of participants enrolled, 473 (23.7%) died during follow-up. Both lower cognitive function (HR = 1.48, p = 0.0049) and lower BMI (HR = 1.6, p < 0.0001) were independently associated with increased mortality risk compared to individuals with average cognitive function and normal weight. Higher cognitive function was associated with lower mortality risk (HR = 0.69, p = 0.0312). We found no significant difference in mortality risk between overweight/obese participants and those with normal weight.
Conclusions
Cognitive function and BMI were independent predictors of mortality risk. Intervention strategies for increasing cognitive function and maintaining adequate BMI may be important in reducing morality risk in the elderly population.
doi:10.1186/2049-3258-72-9
PMCID: PMC3974191  PMID: 24666663
23.  Cationised gelatin and hyaluronic acid coating enhances polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligament graft osseointegration in porcine bone tunnels 
International Orthopaedics  2012;37(3):507-513.
Purpose
The aim of this study was to investigate whether cationised gelatin and hyaluronic acid (CH) coating could induce polyethylene terephthalate (PET) artificial ligament graft osseointegration in the bone tunnel.
Methods
Surface modification of PET artificial ligament graft was performed by layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly CH coating. Six pigs underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction on the right knees, with three pigs receiving the CH-coated PET grafts and the other three pigs non-CH-coated PET grafts as controls. They were sacrificed at three months after surgery and the graft-bone complexes were acquired for computed tomography (CT) scan and histological examination.
Results
CT scans showed a significant difference at the distal femoral site (p = 0.031) or at the distal tibial site (p = 0.0078), but no significant difference in the bone tunnel areas’ enlargement at other sites (p > 0.05) between the CH group and the control group. Histologically, application of CH coating induced new bone formation between graft and bone at three months compared with the controls at the distal site. The interface width of the CH group was significantly lower than that of the control group at the distal femoral site (p = 0.0327) and at the distal tibial site (p = 0.0047).
Conclusions
The study has shown that CH coating on the PET artificial ligament surface has a positive biological effect in the induction of artificial ligament osseointegration within the bone tunnel at the distal site of the bone tunnel.
doi:10.1007/s00264-012-1694-3
PMCID: PMC3580098  PMID: 23132501
24.  Identification of Coxiella burnetii Type IV Secretion Substrates Required for Intracellular Replication and Coxiella-Containing Vacuole Formation 
Journal of Bacteriology  2013;195(17):3914-3924.
Coxiella burnetii, the etiological agent of acute and chronic Q fever in humans, is a naturally intracellular pathogen that directs the formation of an acidic Coxiella-containing vacuole (CCV) derived from the host lysosomal network. Central to its pathogenesis is a specialized type IVB secretion system (T4SS) that delivers effectors essential for intracellular replication and CCV formation. Using a bioinformatics-guided approach, 234 T4SS candidate substrates were identified. Expression of each candidate as a TEM-1 β-lactamase fusion protein led to the identification of 53 substrates that were translocated in a Dot/Icm-dependent manner. Ectopic expression in HeLa cells revealed that these substrates trafficked to distinct subcellular sites, including the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrion, and nucleus. Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae identified several substrates that were capable of interfering with yeast growth, suggesting that these substrates target crucial host processes. To determine if any of these T4SS substrates are necessary for intracellular replication, we isolated 20 clonal T4SS substrate mutants using the Himar1 transposon and transposase. Among these, 10 mutants exhibited defects in intracellular growth and CCV formation in HeLa and J774A.1 cells but displayed normal growth in bacteriological medium. Collectively, these results indicate that C. burnetii encodes a large repertoire of T4SS substrates that play integral roles in host cell subversion and CCV formation and suggest less redundancy in effector function than has been found in the comparative Legionella Dot/Icm model.
doi:10.1128/JB.00071-13
PMCID: PMC3754607  PMID: 23813730
25.  Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid-stimulated proliferation in cancer cells involves EGF-R phosphorylation mediated by activation of metalloproteinases and release of HB-EGF 
Acta pharmacologica Sinica  2010;31(2):211-218.
Arachidonic acid is metabolized to biologically active epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) by cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases. Previous studies showed that CYP epoxygenases promote neoplastic growth and induce potent mitogenic effects in human carcinoma cells; however, the exact molecular mechanisms involved in EET-induced tumor cell proliferation remain unclear. Exogenous 14,15-EET was added or a mutant CYP epoxygenase (CYP102 F87V, an active 14,15-epoxygenase) was transfected into three human derived cancer cell lines; Tca-8113, A549, HepG2 and MDA-MB-231. The effects of elevated EETs on tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGF receptor and ERK1/2 activation were then assessed. In this study, we found that addition of 14,15-EET and CYP102 F87V transfection markedly increased tyrosine phosphorylation of EGF-R and ERK1/2, an effect that was blocked by a selective EGF-R tyrosine kinase inhibitor (tyrphostin AG1478), a broad-spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor (1,10-phenanthroline) and an inhibitor of HB-EGF release (CRM197) in Tca-8113 cells. In addition, AG1478, 1,10-phenanthroline and CRM197 also inhibited the tyrosine phosphorylation of EGF-R and ERK1/2 induced by 14,15-EET in A549, HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell lines. These data suggest that EET-induced transactivation of EGF-R depends on activation of metalloproteinases and subsequent release of HB-EGF in cancer cells.
doi:10.1038/aps.2009.184
PMCID: PMC3938287  PMID: 20139904
arachidonic acid; cytochrome P450 epoxygenase; epoxyeicosatrienoic acids; tumor cell proliferation; EGF-R; ERK1/2; AG1478; phenanthroline; CRM197

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