Lamivudine (LAM) plus adefovir (ADV) combination therapy has been accepted as one of the best treatments for LAM-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of this combination therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients.
The medical records of CHB patients who developed LAM resistance and were treated with LAM plus ADV combination therapy for more than 6 months were reviewed. Their virological response (VR; undetectable HBV DNA) and biochemical response (BR; alanine aminotransferase normalization) were evaluated, and the findings of HCC and non-HCC patients were compared.
The data from 104 patients (19 with HCC and 85 without HCC) were analyzed. The VR rates did not differ significantly between the HCC and non-HCC groups: 33.3% vs. 55.6% at 12 months (P=0.119), 58.3% vs. 67.2% at 24 months (P=0.742), 50% vs. 69.8% at 36 months (P=0.280), and 66.7% vs. 71.0% at 48 months (P=1.000). The BR rates also did not differ significantly between the groups: 55.6% vs. 84.0% at 12 months (P=0.021), 58.3% vs. 83.8% at 24 months (P=0.057), 70.0% vs. 77.8% at 36 months (P=0.687), and 66.7% vs. 80.6% at 48 months (P=0.591).
The efficacy of LAM plus ADV combination therapy is comparable in HCC and non-HCC patients.
Chronic hepatitis B; Lamivudine; Adefovir; Resistance; Hepatocellular carcinoma
Background. Mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) overproduction plays important roles in stone formation and recurrence of hepatolithiasis. We aim to investigate the involved mechanism and the potential target to block this process. Methods. 42 bile duct samples from hepatolithiasis and 15 normal bile duct samples from hemangioma patients were collected for detecting MUC5AC expression by immunohistochemistry. MUC5AC and phosphoepidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR) expressions in human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells (HIBECs) cultured with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were detected by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) secretion in HIBECs was detected by ELISA. Results. MUC5AC was overexpressed in bile ducts of hepatolithiasis samples compared with bile ducts from hemangioma samples. LPS upregulated MUC5AC expression in HIBECs. LPS promoted EGFR activation, and inhibiting EGFR activation by AG1478 significantly decreased LPS-induced MUC5AC overexpression in HIBECs. Moreover, LPS increased TGF-α secretion, and inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE), which has been implicated in ectodomain cleavage of TGF-α, significantly inhibited LPS-induced EGFR activation and subsequent MUC5AC overexpression in HIBECs. Conclusion. Our results suggested that LPS increases MUC5AC expression through the TACE/TGF-α/EGFR pathway in HIBECs. This new finding might give light to the prevention of stone formation and recurrence of hepatolithiasis.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the recurrence pattern after skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) and immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) using transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap in patients with invasive breast cancer.
From 1995 to 2010, patients with invasive breast cancer who underwent SSM followed by IBR using TRAM flap were retrospectively reviewed. The pattern of the first recurrence event was recorded.
We identified 249 consecutive patients with invasive breast cancer, two-thirds of whom (67.1%) were diagnosed with stage II or stage III disease. During a median follow-up period of 53 months, three (1.2%) local, 13 (5.2%) regional, 34 (13.7%) distant, and five (2.0%) concurrent locoregional and distant recurrences were observed. The median time to recurrences was 26 months (range, 2 to 70 months) for all recurrences, 23 months (range, 2 to 64 months) for locoregional recurrences, and 26 months (range, 8 to 70 months) for distant recurrences. All local recurrent lesions were detectable by careful physical examination, and detection of local recurrence suggested the presence of distant metastasis (60.0%). In contrast to distant metastasis, the risk of locoregional recurrence did not increase significantly with an increase in disease stage. The 5-year overall, locoregional relapse-free, and distant relapse-free survival rates were 89.7%, 90.8%, and 81.6%, respectively.
SSM followed by immediate reconstruction using TRAM flap is an oncologically safe procedure even in patients with advanced-stage disease. Detection of local recurrence is crucial and can be aided by a thorough physical examination.
Invasive breast cancer; Skin-sparing mastectomy; Immediate breast reconstruction; Transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap; Recurrence
2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME), an endogenous derivative of 17β-estradiol, has been reported to elicit antiproliferative responses in various tumors. In this study, we investigated the effects of 2-ME on cell viability, proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in human urothelial carcinoma (UC) cell lines. We used two high-grade human bladder UC cell lines (NTUB1 and T24). After treatment with 2-ME, the cell viability and apoptosis were measured by MTT assay and flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorting), with annexin V-FITC staining and propidium iodide (PI) labeling. DNA fragmentation was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Flow cytometry with PI labeling was used for the cell cycle analyses. The protein levels of caspase activations, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, phospho-histone H2A.X, phospho-Bad, and cell cycle regulatory molecules were measured by Western blot. The effects of the drug combinations were analyzed using the computer software, CalcuSyn. We demonstrated that 2-ME effectively induces dose-dependent cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human UC cells after 24 h exposure. DNA fragmentation, PARP cleavage, and caspase-3, 7, 8, 9 activations can be observed with 2-ME-induced apoptosis. The decreased phospho-Bad (Ser136 and Ser155) and mitotic arrest of the cell cycle in the process of apoptosis after 2-ME treatment was remarkable. In response to mitotic arrest, the mitotic forms of cdc25C, phospho-cdc2, cyclin B1, and phospho-histone H3 (Ser10) were activated. In combination with arsenic trioxide (As2O3), 2-ME elicited synergistic cytotoxicity (combination index <1) in UC cells. We concluded that 2-ME significantly induces apoptosis through decreased phospho-Bad and arrests bladder UC cells at the mitotic phase. The synergistic antitumor effect with As2O3 provides a novel implication in clinical treatment of UC.
Reduced sensitivity of prostate cancer (PC) cells to radiation therapy poses a significant challenge in the clinic. Activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R), and crosstalk between these two signaling pathways have been implicated in the development of radiation resistance in PC. This study assessed the effects of targeting both receptors on the regulation of radio-sensitivity in PC cells. Specific inhibitors of EGFR and IGF1R, Erlotinib and AG1024, as well as siRNA targeting EGFR and IGF1R, were used to radio-sensitize PC cells. Our results showed that co-inhibiting both receptors significantly dampened cellular growth and DNA damage repair, and increased radio-sensitivity in PC cells. These effects were carried out through synergistic inhibition of homologous recombination-directed DNA repair (HRR), but not via inhibition of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Furthermore, the compromised HRR capacity was caused by reduced phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and its subsequent interaction with Rad51. The synergistic effect of the EGFR and IGF1R inhibitors was also confirmed in nude mouse xenograft assay. This is the first study testing co-inhibiting EGFR and IGF1R signaling in the context of radio-sensitivity in PC and it may provide a promising adjuvant therapeutic approach to improve the outcome of PC patients to radiation treatment.
The objective of this study was to prepare baicalin solid nanocrystals (BCN-SNS) to enhance oral bioavailability of baicalin. A Box–Behnken design approach was used for process optimization. The physicochemical properties and pharmacokinetics of the optimal BCN-SNS were investigated. Multiple linear regression analysis for process optimization revealed that the fine BCN-SNS was obtained wherein the optimal values of homogenization pressure (bar), homogenization cycles (cycles), amount of TPGS to drug (w/w), and amount of MCCS to drug (w/w) were 850 bar, 25 cycles, 10%, and 10%, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy results indicated that no significant aggregation or crystal growth could be observed in the redispersed freeze-dried BCN-SNS. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction results showed that BCN remained in a crystalline state. Dissolution velocity of the freeze-dried BCN-SNS powder was distinctly superior compared to those of the crude powder and physical mixture. The bioavailability of BCN in rats was increased remarkably after oral administration of BCN-SNS (P < 0.05), compared with those of BCN or the physical mixture. The SNS might be a good choice for oral administration of poorly soluble BCN, due to an improvement of the bioavailability and dissolution velocity of BCN-SNS.
baicalin; solid nanocrystals; optimization; in vivo/vitro evaluation
Essential tremor (ET), which is one of the most common movement disorders, may lead to severe interference in quality of life. The first genome-wide association study (GWAS) has identified an association of the LINGO1 variant (rs9652490) with ET in Americans and Europeans. Recently, a second GWAS that was performed in a European population has discovered a new variant (rs3794087) of the main glial glutamate transporter (SLC1A2) that increases the risk of ET with an odds ratio of about 1.4. SLC1A2 encodes for the major glial high-affinity glutamate reuptake transporter in the brain and is a potential ET susceptibility gene. Because replication in a different ethnic population is important for validating a finding, we conducted a case-control study to investigate the SLC1A2 variant in an Asian cohort with ET in Taiwan. A total of 542 subjects (273 ET patients and 269 controls) were included. The results showed that rs3794087 was associated with ET among the Taiwanese. The odds ratio was 1.37. Our results were similar to those of the second GWAS of ET in Europeans, and this confirms that SLC1A2 may be a good functional candidate gene for ET. A replication study in another independent population is of importance to validate this association.
LM23, a gene expressed specifically in the testis in a stage-specific manner, has a diverse range of functions that are important in both the life and death of spermatogenic cells. The aim of this study was to further investigate the expression of LM23 in the developing rat testis and the biological function of LM23 in proliferation and antiapoptosis in vitro. Semiquantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and real-time PCR were used to examine the expression of LM23 in testis at different developmental stages. The results suggested that LM23 mRNA levels in the testis increased progressively after birth. The role of LM23 in proliferation was analyzed with cell counting kit-8 (CCK8), colony-forming efficiency (CFE) and flow cytometry assays. The results indicated that ectopic expression of LM23 in 293T cells significantly promoted cell proliferation by increasing cell numbers in S phase. Several methods were used, including CCK8, annexin V and propidium iodide staining and western blotting, to determine the role of LM23 in apoptosis. The results showed that LM23 played a protective role in H2O2-induced apoptosis of 293T cells, mediated at least in part through the Akt/PI3K signal pathway. Taken together, these results provide new insights into the role of LM23 in the development of the testes and spermatogenesis.
apoptosis; LM23; proliferation; rat testis
Objective. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a dual-lumen forward-viewing endoscope for ERCP in patients with prior Billroth II gastrectomy. Methods. The records of 46 patients treated with ERCP by a dual-lumen forward-viewing endoscope after Billroth II gastrectomy from 2007 to 2012 were reviewed. Results. The success rate of selective cannulation was 82.6% (38/46). Of the 38 cases with successful selective cannulation, endoscopic sphincterotomy was achieved in 23 cases by placing the needle knife through the 2nd lumen, while endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation was conducted in the other 15 cases. Of the 8 failed cases of selective cannulation, 6 had failed afferent loop intubation, and 3 of these 6 patients had Braun's anastomosis. The safety and efficacy of catheter-assisted endoscopic sphincterotomy were increased by placing the needle knife through the 2nd lumen without altering the conventional endoscopic sphincterotomy procedure. Conclusions. A dual-lumen forward-viewing endoscope can be safely and effectively used to perform ERCP in patients with a Billroth II gastrectomy, except for patients with additional Braun's anastomosis.
Antibodies against spliceosome Sm proteins (anti-Sm autoantibodies) are specific to the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Anti-Sm autosera have been reported to specifically recognize Sm D1 and D3 with symmetric di-methylarginines (sDMA). We investigated if anti-Sm sera from local SLE patients can differentially recognize Sm proteins or any other proteins due to their methylation states.
We prepared HeLa cell proteins at normal or hypomethylation states (treated with an indirect methyltransferase inhibitor adenosine dialdehyde, AdOx). A few signals detected by the anti-Sm positive sera from typical SLE patients decreased consistently in the immunoblots of hypomethylated cell extracts. The differentially detected signals by one serum (Sm1) were pinpointed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. Three identified proteins: splicing factor, proline- and glutamine-rich (SFPQ), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D-like (hnRNP DL) and cellular nucleic acid binding protein (CNBP) are known to contain methylarginines in their glycine and arginine rich (GAR) sequences. We showed that recombinant hnRNP DL and CNBP expressed in Escherichia coli can be detected by all anti-Sm positive sera we tested. As CNBP appeared to be differentially detected by the SLE sera in the pilot study, differential recognition of arginine methylated CNBP protein by the anti-Sm positive sera were further examined. Hypomethylated FLAG-CNBP protein immunopurified from AdOx-treated HeLa cells was less recognized by Sm1 compared to the CNBP protein expressed in untreated cells. Two of 20 other anti-Sm positive sera specifically differentiated the FLAG-CNBP protein expressed in HeLa cells due to the methylation. We also observed deferential recognition of methylated recombinant CNBP proteins expressed from E. coli by some of the autosera.
Our study showed that hnRNP DL and CNBP are novel antigens for SLE patients and the recognition of CNBP might be differentiated dependent on the level of arginine methylation.
SLE; Anti-Sm; Arginine methylation; CNBP; hnRNP DL
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy (PMCT) followed by 125I seed brachytherapy for VX2 liver cancer in rabbits. Eighty New Zealand rabbits were injected with suspensions of VX2 tumor cells to create an animal model. The rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=20); the control, PMCT, 125I seed brachytherapy and combination groups. Group A was treated with PMCT at 40 W for 120 sec, group B was treated with 125I seed brachytherapy and group C was treated with PMCT followed by 125I seed brachytherapy. Group D were not treated and served as the control group. At 21 days after treatment, the rabbits were sacrificed for pathological assessment. The complete tumor necrosis rate was 19 out of 20 tumors (95%) in group C, 6 (30%) in group A, 0 (0%) in group B and 0 (0%) in the control group. The complete tumor necrosis rate was observed to be significantly different between groups C and A, and between groups C and B (P<0.01). No intraheptic metastasis occurred in group C, compared with an incidence of 7 (35%) in group A, 2 (10%) in group B and 20 (100%) in the control group. Between groups C and A, and between groups C and D, the intraheptic metastasis rate was statistically significant (P<0.01). PMCT followed by 125I seed brachytherapy increased the rate of carcinoma necrosis and decreased carcinoma metastasis in the VX2 rabbit model. This combined treatment is a safe, effective and minimally invasive therapeutic option for liver cancer.
liver cancer; microwave; 125I seed; computed tomography; animal model
To determine the prevalence and risk factors for eye diseases, blindness, and low vision in Tibet, and to assist the development of eye disease prevention and treatment schemes.
We carried out a survey of eye diseases among a population living at high altitude. A total of 1 115 Tibetan permanent residents aged 40 years or older from the towns and villages of Qushui County, Lhasa Prefecture, Tibet Autonomous Region, participated in this study. All participants completed a detailed questionnaire, and underwent presenting and pinhole visual acuity tests, and a comprehensive ophthalmic examination.
There were 187 blind eyes (8.43%), 231 eyes with low vision (10.41%). The leading cause of visual impairment was cataract of 55.0% (101/187) blindness and of 50.2% (116/231) low vision, followed by fundus lesions of 22.9% blindness and 23.8% low vision, while only a low prevalence of glaucoma of 9.6% blindness and 1.7% low vision was observed. The analysis of 2 219 eyes showed that the most common external eye disease was pterygium (27.2%) in Tibet.
The high prevalence of blindness and low vision in the Tibetan population at high altitude is a serious public health issue. There is a need to establish and maintain an appropriate effective eye care program in Tibet.
Tibet; eye diseases; blindness; low vision; risk factors
Recently, several reports issued clevudine induced myopathy in the long term use.
The aim of this study was to investigate antiviral effects and adverse events of clevudine monotherapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).
Patients and Methods
The subjects were 110 treatment-naïve CHB patients. They were treated with 30 mg clevudine/day for more than six months. Virological and biochemical tests, including that for serum creatine kinase (CK), were monitored at baseline and at 3-month intervals during treatment period.
In HBeAg-positive patients, the cumulative rates of virological response were 74.0 %, 68.5 %, and 67.3 % after one, two, and three years of clevudine treatment, respectively. Cumulative rates of HBeAg loss or seroconversion were 17.8 %, 30 %, and 31.5 % after one, two and, three years of clevudine treatment, respectively. In HBeAg-negative patients, the cumulative rates of virological response were 97.3 %, 100 %, and 94.6 %, respectively. Virological breakthrough occurred in 27 patients. The rtM204I mutation in HBV polymerase was predominantly detected. Muscular adverse events were observed in 15 patients. All patients with myopathy recovered after the cessation of clevudine monotherapy. Fluctuations in CK level during the clevudine treatment period were frequently observed irrespective of development of myopathy. Multiple episodes of CK elevation were significantly related to the development of myopathy.
Long-term clevudine monotherapy is effective for suppression of serum HBV DNA level and normalization of serum alanine amino transaminase levels, but associated with occurrence of rtM204I mutation. Clevudine-induced muscular adverse events are not uncommon, although they are totally reversible after cessation of the treatment. Muscular adverse events and serum CK level should be carefully monitored during long-term treatment with clevudine.
Hepatitis B, Chronic; 2'-fluoro-5-methylarabinosyluracil; Response Elements; Adverse Effect; Hepatitis B, Chronic; 2'-fluoro-5-methylarabinosyluracil; Response Elements; Adverse Effect
p53 is a powerful tumor suppressor and is an attractive cancer therapeutic target. A breakthrough in cancer research came from the discovery of the drugs which are capable of reactivating p53 function. Most anti-cancer agents, from traditional chemo- and radiation therapies to more recently developed non-peptide small molecules exert their effects by enhancing the anti-proliferative activities of p53. Small molecules such as nutlin, RITA, and PRIMA-1 that can activate p53 have shown their anti-tumor effects in different types of hematological malignancies. Importantly, nutlin and PRIMA-1 have successfully reached the stage of phase I/II clinical trials in at least one type of hematological cancer. Thus, the pharmacological activation of p53 by these small molecules has a major clinical impact on prognostic use and targeted drug design. In the current review, we present the recent achievements in p53 research using small molecules in hematological malignancies. Anticancer activity of different classes of compounds targeting the p53 signaling pathway and their mechanism of action are discussed. In addition, we discuss how p53 tumor suppressor protein holds promise as a drug target for recent and future novel therapies in these diseases.
Hematological malignancies; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Myeloma; p53; Nutlin; RITA; PRIMA-1; MIRA-1; Apoptosis
This cross-sectional research study explored differences in health-promoting behavior and resilience among three groups of chronic kidney disease patients (high-risk, early chronic kidney disease; early CKD and pre-end stage renal disease; pre-ESRD) treated at the Nephrology outpatient clinic in northern Taiwan. A total of 150 CKD outpatients were interviewed using structured questionnaires including a CKD Health to Promote Lifestyle Scale, and resilience scale. We found that the pre-ESRD group had lower resilience than either high-risk or early CKD groups. Factors affecting pre-ESRD resilience were gender, occupational status, diabetes and health-promoting behaviors. Factors affecting resilience of the high-risk group included level of education and health-promoting behaviors while factors affecting resilience in the early CKD group involved whether they are employed and health promoting behaviors. A significant positive correlation was found between health promoting behavior and resilience in all study subjects. Multiple regression analysis found that factors which could effectively predict resilience in patients at high-risk for CKD were gender, whether the patient had a job, nutrition, self-actualization, and stress level, accounting for 69.7% of the variance. Therefore, nursing education should focus on health promotion advocacy throughout the life of not only patients but also their families.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a high-dose zinc sulfate and low-dose D-penicillamine combination in the treatment of pediatric Wilson’s disease (WD). A retropective chart review of 65 patients with WD was conducted. These patients received D-penicillamine (8–10 mg/kg/day) and zinc sulfate as the primary treatment. The pediatric dose of elemental zinc is 68–85 mg/day until 6 years of age, 85–136 mg/day until 8 years of age, 136–170 mg/day until 10 years of age and then 170 mg/day, in 3 divided doses 1 h before meals. After clinical and biochemical improvement or stabilization, zinc sulfate alone was administered as the maintenance therapy. Under treatment, the majority of patients (89.2%) had a favourable outcome and 3 patients succumbed due to poor therapy compliance. No penicillamine-induced neurological deterioration was noted and side-effects were observed in <11% of patients over the entire follow-up period. Benefical results on the liver and neurological symptoms were reported following extremely long-term treatment with a combination of low-dose D-penicillamine and high-dose zinc sulfate. Therefore, this regimen is an effective and safe treatment for children with WD.
Wilson’s disease; D-penicillamine; zinc sulfate; child
We report here the complete genome sequence of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strain CH/ZMDZY/11 isolated from central China. Our data, together with sequence data of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) isolates from other parts in China, will help to understand better the epidemiology and genetic diversity of PEDV field isolates in China.
Animal models have shown that regional anesthesia (combined with or without general anesthesia) would attenuate the surgical stress response by preserving immune function and result in better long-term outcome. In order to test the hypothesis that cancer patients who had surgery with epidural anesthesia (EA) would have better outcome (either overall survival [OS] or recurrence-free survival [RFS]) than those who were general anesthesia (GA), we performed this meta-analysis. By searching relevant literature, a total of 14 studies containing 18 sub-studies (seven in OS analysis and eleven in RFS analysis) were identified and meta-analyzed. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association. For OS, the random-effects model was used to analyze the data and demonstrated an OS benefit in favor of EA compared with GA alone (HR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.74–0.96, P = 0.013). The influence analysis showed the robustness of the results. Specifically, a significantly positive association between EA and improved OS was observed in colorectal cancer (HR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.43–0.99, P = 0.045). For RFS, the random-effects model was used to analyze the data and no significant relationship between RFS benefit and EA (HR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.64–1.22, P = 0.457) was detected. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggests that epidural anesthesia and/or analgesia might be associated with improved overall survival in patients with operable cancer undergoing surgery (especially in colorectal cancer), but it does not support an association between epidural anesthesia and cancer control. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether the association between epidural use and survival is causative.
To test a new program’s effectiveness in reducing depression’s work burden.
A brief telephonic program to improve work functioning was tested in an early-stage randomized controlled trial (RCT) involving 79 Maine State Government employees who screened-in for depression and at-work limitations (treatment group=59; usual care group=27). Group differences in baseline to follow-up change scores on The Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ), WLQ Absence Module and PHQ-9 depression severity scale were tested with analysis of covariance.
While there were no baseline group differences (p≥.05), by follow-up the treatment group had significantly better scores on every outcome and differences in the longitudinal changes were all statistically significant (p=.0.27 to .0001).
The new program was superior to usual care. The estimated productivity cost savings are $6041.70 per participant annually.
Bladder cancer is the most common malignant urological disease in China. Hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) is a DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor, which has been utilized in chemotherapy for bladder cancer for nearly 40 years. Previous research has demonstrated that the isoflavone, genistein, can sensitize multiple cancer cell lines to HCPT treatment, such as prostate and cervical cancer. In this study, we investigated whether genistein could sensitize bladder cancer cell lines and bladder epithelial cell BDEC cells to HCPT treatment, and investigated the possible underlying molecular mechanisms. Genistein could significantly and dose-dependently sensitize multiple bladder cancer cell lines and BDEC cells to HCPT-induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Genistein and HCPT synergistically inhibited bladder cell growth and proliferation, and induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in TCCSUP bladder cancer cell and BDEC cell. Pretreatment with genistein sensitized BDEC and bladder cancer cell lines to HCPT-induced DNA damage by the synergistic activation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase. Genistein significantly attenuated the ability of HCPT to induce activation of the anti-apoptotic NF-κB pathway both in vitro and in vivo in a bladder cancer xenograft model, and thus counteracted the anti-apoptotic effect of the NF-κB pathway. This study indicates that genistein could act as a promising non-toxic agent to improve efficacy of HCPT bladder cancer chemotherapy.
Characterization of the human antibody (Ab) repertoire in mouse models of the human immune system is essential to establish their relevance in translational studies. Single human B-cells were sorted from bone marrow and periphery of humanized NOD/SCID γcnull mice at 8–10 months post-engraftment with human cord blood-derived CD34+ stem cells. Human immunoglobulin variable heavy (VH) and kappa (Vκ) genes were amplified, cognate VH-Vκ gene-pairs assembled as single-chain variable fragment-Fc antibodies (scFvFcs) and functional studies performed. Although overall distribution of VH genes approximated the normal human Ab repertoire, analysis of the VH-third complementarity determining regions (H-CDR3) in the mature B-cell subset demonstrated an increase in length and positive charges suggesting autoimmune characteristics. Additionally, >70% of Vκ sequences utilized Vκ4-1, a germline gene associated with autoimmunity. The mature B-cell subset-derived scFvFcs displayed the highest frequency of autoreactivity and polyspecificity, suggesting defects in checkpoint control mechanisms. Furthermore, these scFvFcs demonstrated binding to recombinant HIV envelope corroborating previous observations of poly/autoreactivity in anti-HIVgp140 antibodies. These data lend support to the hypothesis that anti-HIV BnAbs may be derived from auto/polyspecific Abs that escaped immune elimination and that the hNSG mouse could provide a new experimental platform for studying the origin of anti-HIV neutralizing Ab responses.
humanized mouse; single B-cell; antibody repertoire; autoreactive; checkpoint control
The relation between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome is observed not only with frank hyperuricemia but also with serum uric acid levels within the normal range. The current “normal” range set for hyperuricemia often fails to identify patients with potential metabolic disorders. We investigate the association between serum uric acid within the normal range and incident metabolic syndrome risk, and further to determine the optimal cut-off value of serum uric acid for the diagnosis or prediction of metabolic syndrome. A total of 7399 Chinese adults (2957 men and 4442 women; ≥20 years) free of metabolic syndrome were followed for 3 years. During the 3-year follow-up, 1190 normouricemic individuals developed metabolic syndrome (16.1%). After adjusting the associated variables, the top quartile of serum uric acid levels was associated with higher metabolic syndrome development compared with the bottom quartile in men (hazard ratio (HR), 1.29; p<0.05) and women (HR, 1.62; p<0.05). ROC curve analysis indicated that the optimal cut-off values for serum uric acid to identify metabolic syndrome were 6.3 mg/dl in men and 4.9 mg/dl in women. Our results suggested that high baseline serum uric acid levels within the normal range predict future development of metabolic syndrome after 3 y of follow-up.
serum uric acid; cutoff value; metabolic syndrome; follow-up
Porcine epidemic diarrhea has re-emerged with devastating impact in central China since October 2010. To investigate and analyze the reason of this outbreak, the M and ORF3 genes of 15 porcine epidemic diarrhea viruses (PEDV), which were collected from different areas of central China during October 2010 and December 2011, were amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, cloned, sequenced, and analyzed. Sequence analyses showed that the nucleotides and amino acids were changed at some sites in the M and ORF3 genes of the 15 PEDV strains compared with those genes of CV777 reference strain. Based on the phylogenetic analyses, PEDVs in central China and reference strains could be separated into three groups: G1, G2, and G3. The 15 PEDV strains belonged to G3 group and showed a close relationship with Korean strains (2007), Thai strains (2007–2008), and partial other Chinese strains (2010–2011), but differed genetically from European strains (Br1/87) and the vaccine strain (CV777 vs) being used in China. Furthermore, all 15 PEDV strains from central China and some other isolates in China from 2003 to 2007 (LJB-03, QH, and LZC) belonged to different group. Therefore, PEDV exhibits rapid variation and genetic evolution, and the currently prevailing PEDV strains in central China are a new genotype.
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus; Molecular epidemiology; Phylogenetic analysis; M gene; ORF3 gene
Hypertriglycedemic-waist (HTGW) phenotype is a simple and inexpensive screening parameter to identify people at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We evaluated whether the HTGW phenotype predicts prediabetes and diabetes in Chinese urban adults.
Two thousand nine hundred and eight (2908) subjects including 1957 men and 951 women, aged 20 years and older, free of prediabetes and diabetes at baseline were enrolled in 2008 and followed for 3 years. Meanwhile, new cases of prediabetes and diabetes were identified via annual physical examination. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association of HTGW phenotype with the incidence of prediabetes and diabetes.
One thousand five hundred and thirty-three (1533) new prediabetes and 90 new diabetes cases were diagnosed during the follow-up period. The accumulated incidence of prediabetes and diabetes was 52.7% and 3.1%, respectively. Compared with the normal waist normal triglyceride (NWNT) group, those in the HTGW group had higher incidence of prediabetes and diabetes for both men and women. The hazard ratio (HR) for developing prediabetes in the presence of HTGW phenotype at baseline was 1.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.04-2.19) in women, not in men (HR=1.01; 95% CI = 0.82-1.24), after adjusting for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol. The HR for developing diabetes were 4.46 (95% CI = 1.88-10.60) in men and 4.64 (95% CI = 1.20-17.97) in women for people who were HTGW phenotype at baseline, after adjusting for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol.
The HTGW phenotype can be used as a simple screening approach to predict diabetes. By using this approach, it is possible to identify individuals at high-risk for diabetes, which is of great significance in reducing the incidence of diabetes among Chinese urban adults.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs (approximately 22 nucleotides in length) that play important roles in breast cancer progression by downregulating gene expression. The detailed mechanisms and biological functions of miRNA molecules in breast carcinogenesis have yet to be fully elucidated. This study used bioinformatics and experimental approaches to conduct detailed analysis of the dysregulated miRNAs, arm selection preferences, 3' end modifications, and position shifts in isoforms of miRNAs (isomiRs) in breast cancer.
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) data on breast cancer was obtained from the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA). The miRNA expression profiles and isomiRs in normal breast and breast tumor tissues were determined by mapping the clean reads back to human miRNAs. Differences in miRNA expression and pre-miRNA 5p/3p arm usage between normal and breast tumor tissues were further investigated using stem-loop reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction.
The analysis identified and confirmed the aberrant expression of 22 miRNAs in breast cancer. Results from pathway enrichment analysis further indicated that the aberrantly expressed miRNAs play important roles in breast carcinogenesis by regulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Data also indicated that the position shifts in isomiRs and 3' end modifications were consistent in breast tumor and adjacent normal tissues, and that 5p/3p arm usage of some miRNAs displayed significant preferences in breast cancer.
Expression pattern and arm selection of miRNAs are significantly varied in breast cancers through analyzing NGS data and experimental approach. These miRNA candidates have high potential to play critical roles in the progression of breast cancer and could potentially provide as targets for future therapy.