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1.  Identification of urinary proteins potentially associated with diabetic kidney disease 
Indian Journal of Nephrology  2016;26(6):434-445.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease. Although several parameters are used to evaluate renal damage, in many instances, there is no pathological change until damage is already advanced. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is a novel tool to identify newer diagnostic markers. To identify urinary proteins associated with renal complications in diabetes, we collected urine samples from 10 type 2 diabetes patients each with normoalbuminuria, micro- and macro-albuminuria and compared their urinary proteome with that of 10 healthy individuals. Urinary proteins were concentrated, depleted of albumin and five other abundant plasma proteins and in-gel trypsin digested after prefractionation on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The peptides were analyzed using a nanoflow reverse phase liquid chromatography system coupled to linear trap quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. We identified large number of proteins in each group, of which many were exclusively present in individual patient groups. A total of 53 proteins were common in all patients but were absent in the controls. The majority of the proteins were functionally binding, biologically involved in metabolic processes, and showed enrichment of alternative complement and blood coagulation pathways. In addition to identifying reported proteins such as α2-HS-glycoprotein and Vitamin D binding protein, we detected novel proteins such as CD59, extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1), factor H, and myoglobin in the urine of macroalbuminuria patients. ECM1 and factor H are known to influence mesangial cell proliferation, and CD59 causes microvascular damage by influencing membrane attack complex deposition, suggestive their biological relevance to DN. Thus, we have developed a proteome database where various proteins exclusively present in the patients may be further investigated for their role as stage-specific markers and possible therapeutic targets.
PMCID: PMC5131383  PMID: 27942176
Biomarker; diabetic nephropathy; liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; microalbuminuria; Orbitrap; urinary proteomics
2.  Associations of FTO and MC4R Variants with Obesity Traits in Indians and the Role of Rural/Urban Environment as a Possible Effect Modifier 
Journal of Obesity  2011;2011:307542.
Few studies have investigated the association between genetic variation and obesity traits in Indian populations or the role of environmental factors as modifiers of these relationships. In the context of rapid urbanisation, resulting in significant lifestyle changes, understanding the aetiology of obesity is important. We investigated associations of FTO and MC4R variants with obesity traits in 3390 sibling pairs from four Indian cities, most of whom were discordant for current dwelling (rural or urban). The FTO variant rs9939609 predicted increased weight (0.09 Z-scores, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.15) and BMI (0.08 Z-scores, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.14). The MC4R variant rs17782313 was weakly associated with weight and hip circumference (P < .05). There was some indication that the association between FTO and weight was stronger in urban than that in rural dwellers (P for interaction = .03), but no evidence for effect modification by diet or physical activity. Further studies are needed to investigate ways in which urban environment may modify genetic risk of obesity.
PMCID: PMC3139181  PMID: 21785715
3.  Association of cathepsin B gene polymorphisms with tropical calcific pancreatitis 
Gut  2006;55(9):1270-1275.
Background and aims
Tropical calcific pancreatitis (TCP) is a type of chronic pancreatitis unique to countries in the tropics. Mutations in pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (SPINK1) rather than cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) explain the disease in only 50% of TCP patients. As cathepsin B (CTSB) is known to activate cationic trypsinogen, we attempted to understand the role of CTSB mutations in TCP. Evidence of epistatic interaction was investigated with the previously associated N34S SPINK1 allele, a variant considered to be a modifier rather than a true susceptibility allele.
Subjects and methods
We sequenced the coding region of CTSB gene in 51 TCP patients and 25 controls and further genotyped 89 patients and 130 controls from the same cohort for Leu26Val, C595T, T663C, and Ser53Gly polymorphisms. The positive findings observed in the earlier cohort were re‐examined in an ethnically matched replication cohort comprising 166 patients and 175 controls. Appropriate statistical analyses were performed and Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was applied.
We found a statistically significant association of the Val26 allele at Leu26Val polymorphism with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.60–2.90 (p = 0.009)), after Bonferroni correction (corrected p value = 0.025). This significant association of Leu26Val with TCP was replicated in another cohort (OR 2.10 (95% CI 1.56–2.84); p = 0.013). Val26 allele also showed significantly higher frequency in N34S positive and N34S negative patients than in controls (p = 0.019 and 0.013, respectively). We also found significant differences in the mutant allele frequencies at Ser53Gly and C595T single nucleotide polymorphisms between N34S positive patients and controls (p = 0.008 and 0.001, respectively). Although haplotype analysis did not complement the results of allelic association, it did uncover a unique haplotype protective for TCP (p = 0.0035).
Our study suggests for the first time that CTSB polymorphisms are associated with TCP. As PRSS1 mutations are absent in TCP and the N34S SPINK1 mutation is proposed to play a modifier role, these variants may be critical as a trigger for cationic trypsinogen activation.
PMCID: PMC1860014  PMID: 16492714
tropical calcific pancreatitis; pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor; N34S SPINK1 mutation; cathepsin B; polymorphisms
4.  Association of genetic variation in FTO with risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes with data from 96,551 East and South Asians 
Diabetologia  2011;55(4):981-995.
FTO harbours the strongest known obesity-susceptibility locus in Europeans. While there is growing evidence for a role for FTO in obesity risk in Asians, its association with type 2 diabetes, independently of BMI, remains inconsistent. To test whether there is an association of the FTO locus with obesity and type 2 diabetes, we conducted a meta-analysis of 32 populations including 96,551 East and South Asians.
All studies published on the association between FTO-rs9939609 (or proxy [r2 > 0.98]) and BMI, obesity or type 2 diabetes in East or South Asians were invited. Each study group analysed their data according to a standardised analysis plan. Association with type 2 diabetes was also adjusted for BMI. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to pool all effect sizes.
The FTO-rs9939609 minor allele increased risk of obesity by 1.25-fold/allele (p = 9.0 × 10−19), overweight by 1.13-fold/allele (p = 1.0 × 10−11) and type 2 diabetes by 1.15-fold/allele (p = 5.5 × 10−8). The association with type 2 diabetes was attenuated after adjustment for BMI (OR 1.10-fold/allele, p = 6.6 × 10−5). The FTO-rs9939609 minor allele increased BMI by 0.26 kg/m2 per allele (p = 2.8 × 10−17), WHR by 0.003/allele (p = 1.2 × 10−6), and body fat percentage by 0.31%/allele (p = 0.0005). Associations were similar using dominant models. While the minor allele is less common in East Asians (12–20%) than South Asians (30–33%), the effect of FTO variation on obesity-related traits and type 2 diabetes was similar in the two populations.
FTO is associated with increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes, with effect sizes similar in East and South Asians and similar to those observed in Europeans. Furthermore, FTO is also associated with type 2 diabetes independently of BMI.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-011-2370-7) contains peer-reviewed but unedited supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
PMCID: PMC3296006  PMID: 22109280
Asians; FTO; Meta-analysis; Obesity; Type 2 diabetes
5.  Association analysis of 31 common polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes and its related traits in Indian sib pairs 
Diabetologia  2011;55(2):349-357.
Evaluation of the association of 31 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-beta cell function (HOMA-β), HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and type 2 diabetes in the Indian population.
We genotyped 3,089 sib pairs recruited in the Indian Migration Study from four cities in India (Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore) for 31 SNPs in 24 genes previously associated with type 2 diabetes in European populations. We conducted within-sib-pair analysis for type 2 diabetes and its related quantitative traits.
The risk-allele frequencies of all the SNPs were comparable with those reported in western populations. We demonstrated significant associations of CXCR4 (rs932206), CDKAL1 (rs7756992) and TCF7L2 (rs7903146, rs12255372) with fasting glucose, with β values of 0.007 (p = 0.05), 0.01 (p = 0.01), 0.007 (p = 0.05), 0.01 (p = 0.003) and 0.08 (p = 0.01), respectively. Variants in NOTCH2 (rs10923931), TCF-2 (also known as HNF1B) (rs757210), ADAM30 (rs2641348) and CDKN2A/B (rs10811661) significantly predicted fasting insulin, with β values of −0.06 (p = 0.04), 0.05 (p = 0.05), −0.08 (p = 0.01) and −0.08 (p = 0.02), respectively. For HOMA-IR, we detected associations with TCF-2, ADAM30 and CDKN2A/B, with β values of 0.05 (p = 0.04), −0.07 (p = 0.03) and −0.08 (p = 0.02), respectively. We also found significant associations of ADAM30 (β = −0.05; p = 0.01) and CDKN2A/B (β = −0.05; p = 0.03) with HOMA-β. THADA variant (rs7578597) was associated with type 2 diabetes (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.04, 2.22; p = 0.03).
We validated the association of seven established loci with intermediate traits related to type 2 diabetes in an Indian population using a design resistant to population stratification.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-011-2355-6) contains peer-reviewed but unedited supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
PMCID: PMC3245821  PMID: 22052079
Association; India; Intermediate traits; Polymorphisms; Type 2 diabetes
6.  Low prevalence of GJB2 mutations in non-syndromic hearing loss in Western India 
To identify the prevalence of GJB2 (Cx 26)and GJB6 (Cx 30) mutations in hearing impaired individuals from Western and South India.
Study design
Cross-sectional study.
Families with hearing impaired individuals (prelingual, non-syndromic, sensori-neural hearing loss) were enrolled and genomic DNA was extracted. Primers were designed for amplifying the coding and non-coding exons including flanking splice sites of the Cx 26 gene. Probands heterozygous or negative for Cx 26 mutations were further analyzed for the 342Kb deletion encompassing D13S1830 microsatellite marker on Cx 30.
Two hundred and eighty-eight patients were enrolled in the study and 116 (40.3%) were diagnosed to have mutations in the coding exon 2 of Cx 26 gene. Fifty-four (18.8%) probands were found to have mutations in both the alleles while the remaining 62 (21.5%) were heterozygous for Cx 26 mutations. W24X, and W77X were the common mutations identified. The prevalence of familial deafness was similar in both consanguineous and non-consanguineous families (33% and 34.9% respectively). Mutations in the non-coding exon 1 and intron 1 as well as the 342 kb deletion involving D13S1830 marker on Cx 30 were ruled out in two hundred and thirty-four deaf individuals carrying none or only one mutation in the exon 2 of Cx 26 gene.
Cx30 mutations do not contribute to the autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL) in the Indian population. Homozygous Cx26 mutations account only for about 1/5th (18.8%) of autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing implying the need to explore other contributory loci.
PMCID: PMC3450147  PMID: 23120683
Non-syndromic hearing loss; Genetics
7.  Mutations in anionic trypsinogen gene are not associated with tropical calcific pancreatitis 
Gut  2005;54(5):728-729.
PMCID: PMC1774499  PMID: 15831926
tropical calcific pancreatitis; anionic trypsinogen; trypsinogen; mutation
8.  Absence of PRSS1 mutations and association of SPINK1 trypsin inhibitor mutations in hereditary and non-hereditary chronic pancreatitis 
Gut  2004;53(5):723-728.
Background and aims: Mutations in the cationic trypsinogen (protease, serine, 1 (trypsin 1); PRSS1) gene are causally associated with recurrent acute and chronic pancreatitis. We investigated whether mutations in the PRSS1 gene are associated with hereditary and non-hereditary pancreatitis. As a modifier role has been proposed for trypsin inhibitor (serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type I; SPINK1) mutations, the role of SPINK1 mutations in these patients was also analysed.
Subjects and methods: The coding regions of PRSS1 and SPINK1 genes were sequenced in 290 controls and 198 patients, of whom 120 were diagnosed as idiopathic (ICP), 41 as alcoholic (ACP), and 37 as hereditary pancreatitis (HP). Twenty four unaffected relatives of HP probands were also analysed and genotype-phenotype correlations and statistical analyses were performed.
Results: No mutations in the PRSS1 gene were detected in any of the patients, including HP patients, while the N34S mutation was observed in the SPINK1 gene in the majority of HP patients (73%). Similarly, 26.8% of ACP (11 of 41) and 32.5% (39 of 120) of ICP patients also had SPINK1 mutations. The N34S mutation was observed in both homozygous and heterozygous conditions. In comparison, only 2.76% of the control population had the N34S allele (p<0.001). The P55S mutation was observed in one ICP and one ACP patient, and in three normal individuals. Genotype-phenotype correlations did not suggest any significant difference in the age of onset, severity of disease, or pancreatic endocrine insufficiency in patients with or without mutated SPINK1 and irrespective of the allelic status of N34S SPINK1.
Conclusions: Irrespective of the aetiology, mutations in the PRSS1 gene are not associated with chronic pancreatitis, including HP. In contrast, the N34S mutation in the SPINK1 gene shows a significant correlation in these patients. A comparable phenotype in terms of age of onset, diabetes mellitus, and other phenotypic features in patients with or without SPINK1 mutations and N34S homozygotes and heterozygotes suggests that there may still be involvement of other genetic or environmental factors.
PMCID: PMC1774044  PMID: 15082592
cationic trypsinogen gene; chronic pancreatitis; mutations; pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor; N34S SPINK1 mutation
9.  Remarkable Variation in the Informativeness of RFLP Markers Linked to Hemophilia B Locus in Indian Population Groups: Implication in the Strategy for Carrier Detection 
Disease markers  2007;22(5-6):327-334.
Hemophilia B, an X-linked recessive bleeding disorder, is caused by heterogeneous mutations in the factor IX (F9) gene. Hence, carriers of the disease are usually detected by F9 gene linked RFLP analysis. We aimed to test a set of RFLP markers (DdeI, XmnI, MnlI, TaqI & HhaI), used worldwide for carrier detection, to estimate its heterozygosity in different population groups of India, and identify additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) if necessary. A total of 8 population groups encompassing different regions of India, consisting of 107 unrelated normal females without any history of hemophilia B in the family and 13 unrelated obligate carriers were recruited in the study. Regions of F9 gene were amplified by PCR from genomic DNA of the donors followed by restriction enzyme digestion and/or sequencing as appropriate. Combined informativeness for the markers varied between 52–86% among normal females belonging to different geographical locations of India. Haplotype analysis revealed that the most prevalent haplotype lacked the restriction sites for all five RFLP markers. Screening regions of F9 gene that harbor 10 SNPs reported in dbSNP yielded only two SNPs, which increased the overall informativeness in each population group and heterozygosity in the obligate carriers for the disease from 38% to 69%. Our data show that heterozygosity of commonly used RFLP markers is remarkably variable across different regions of India. Thus prudent selection of the markers based on specific population groups including usage of additional markers is recommended for efficient carrier detection.
PMCID: PMC3850563  PMID: 17264403
Carrier detection; F9; hemophilia B; marker; RFLP

Results 1-9 (9)