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1.  Molecular Evolution of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2014;20(12):2023-2033.
Sequence data will increase understanding of virus evolution, adaptability, and pathogenicity.
Despite safe and efficacious vaccines against peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), this virus has emerged as the cause of a highly contagious disease with serious economic consequences for small ruminant agriculture across Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. We used complete and partial genome sequences of all 4 lineages of the virus to investigate evolutionary and epidemiologic dynamics of PPRV. A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of all PPRV lineages mapped the time to most recent common ancestor and initial divergence of PPRV to a lineage III isolate at the beginning of 20th century. A phylogeographic approach estimated the probability for root location of an ancestral PPRV and individual lineages as being Nigeria for PPRV, Senegal for lineage I, Nigeria/Ghana for lineage II, Sudan for lineage III, and India for lineage IV. Substitution rates are critical parameters for understanding virus evolution because restrictions in genetic variation can lead to lower adaptability and pathogenicity.
PMCID: PMC4257836  PMID: 25418782
peste des petits ruminants virus; PPRV; rinderpest virus; measles virus; viruses; emergence; Bayesian phylogenetics; phylogeography; nucleotide substitution rates; time to most recent common ancestor; TMRCA; divergence; evolution; selection pressure; small ruminants; wildlife
2.  Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Variant Strain of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus, China/XJYL/2013 
Genome Announcements  2014;2(5):e00762-14.
Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of a novel variant strain of peste des petits ruminants virus, termed China/XJYL/2013. The genome is 15,954 nucleotides long with a 6-nucleotide insertion in the 5′ untranslated region of the F gene. This strain is phylogenetically classified as a lineage IV virus.
PMCID: PMC4192371  PMID: 25301639
3.  Complete Genome Sequence of a Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Recovered from an Alpine Goat during an Outbreak in Morocco in 2008 
Genome Announcements  2013;1(3):e00096-13.
Here, we announce the first complete genome sequence of a field isolate of a peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) from northern Africa. This isolate is derived from an Alpine goat that suffered from severe clinical disease during the 2008 outbreak in Morocco. The full genome sequence of this isolate clusters phylogenetically with the lineage IV isolates of PPRV, sharing high levels of sequence identity with other lineage IV isolates.
PMCID: PMC3650429  PMID: 23661470
4.  Complete Genome Sequence of a Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Recovered from Wild Bharal in Tibet, China 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(19):10885-10886.
For the first time, here we announce the complete genome sequence of a field isolate of Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) derived from macerated rectal tissue of a free living bharal (Pseudois nayaur) that displayed clinical disease consistent with severe infection with PPRV. Further, we compare the full genome of this isolate, termed PPRV Tibet/Bharal/2008, with previously available PPRV genomes, including those of virus isolates from domestic small ruminants local to the area where the reported isolate was collected. The current sequence is phylogenetically classified as a lineage IV virus, sharing high levels of sequence identity with previously described Tibetan PPRV isolates. Indeed, across the entire genome, only 26 nucleotide differences (0.16% nucleotide variation) and, consequently, 9 amino acid changes were present compared to sequences of locally derived viruses.
PMCID: PMC3457324  PMID: 22966182
5.  Consistent deregulation of gene expression between human and murine MLL-rearrangement leukemias 
Cancer research  2009;69(3):1109-1116.
Important biological and pathological properties are often conserved across species. Although several mouse leukemia models have been well established, the genes deregulated in both human and murine leukemia cells have not been studied systematically. We performed a serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) analysis on gene expression in both human and murine MLL-ELL or MLL-ENL leukemia cells, and identified 88 genes that appeared to be significantly deregulated in both types of leukemia cells, including 57 genes not reported previously as being deregulated in MLL-associated leukemias. These changes were validated by quantitative PCR. The most up-regulated genes include several HOX genes (e.g., HOX A5, HOXA9 and HOXA10) and MEIS1 that are the typical hallmark of MLL-rearrangement leukemia. The most down-regulated genes include LTF, LCN2, MMP9, S100A8, S100A9, PADI4, TGFBI and CYBB. Notably, the up-regulated genes are enriched in Gene Ontology terms such as “gene expression” and “transcription”, whereas the down-regulated genes are enriched in “signal transduction” and “apoptosis”. We showed that the CpG islands of the down-regulated genes are hypermethylated. We also showed that seven individual microRNAs from the mir-17-92 cluster, which are known to be overexpressed in human MLL-rearrangement leukemias, are also consistently overexpressed in mouse MLL-rearrangement leukemia cells. Nineteen possible targets of these microRNAs were identified and two of them (i.e., APP and RASSF2) were confirmed further by luciferase reporter and mutagenesis assays. The identification and validation of consistent changes of gene expression in human and murine MLL-rearrangement leukemias provides important insights into the genetic base for MLL-associated leukemogenesis.
PMCID: PMC2633429  PMID: 19155294
MLL-rearrangement leukemia; evolutionarily conservation; gene expression; gene ontology; DNA methylation
6.  Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Tibet, China 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2009;15(2):299-301.
Serologic and molecular evidence indicates that peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) infection has emerged in goats and sheep in the Ngari region of southwestern Tibet, People’s Republic of China. Phylogenetic analysis confirms that the PPRV strain from Tibet is classified as lineage 4 and is closely related to viruses currently circulating in neighboring countries of southern Asia.
PMCID: PMC2657621  PMID: 19193278
Peste des petits ruminants virus; prevalence; ruminants; Tibet; China; dispatch
7.  DNA Microarray Analysis of Genome Dynamics in Yersinia pestis: Insights into Bacterial Genome Microevolution and Niche Adaptation 
Journal of Bacteriology  2004;186(15):5138-5146.
Genomics research provides an unprecedented opportunity for us to probe into the pathogenicity and evolution of the world's most deadly pathogenic bacterium, Yersinia pestis, in minute detail. In our present work, extensive microarray analysis in conjunction with PCR validation revealed that there are considerable genome dynamics, due to gene acquisition and loss, in natural populations of Y. pestis. We established a genomotyping system to group homologous isolates of Y. pestis, based on profiling or gene acquisition and loss in their genomes, and then drew an outline of parallel microevolution of the Y. pestis genome. The acquisition of a number of genomic islands and plasmids most likely induced Y. pestis to evolve rapidly from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis to a new, deadly pathogen. Horizontal gene acquisition also plays a key role in the dramatic evolutionary segregation of Y. pestis lineages (biovars and genomovars). In contrast to selective genome expansion by gene acquisition, genome reduction occurs in Y. pestis through the loss of DNA regions. We also theorized about the links between niche adaptation and genome microevolution. The transmission, colonization, and expansion of Y. pestis in the natural foci of endemic plague are parallel and directional and involve gradual adaptation to the complex of interactions between the environment, the hosts, and the pathogen itself. These adaptations are based on the natural selections against the accumulation of genetic changes within genome. Our data strongly support that the modern plague originated from Yunnan Province in China, due to the arising of biovar orientalis from biovar antiqua rather than mediaevalis.
PMCID: PMC451624  PMID: 15262950
8.  The Genomes of Oryza sativa: A History of Duplications 
Yu, Jun | Wang, Jun | Lin, Wei | Li, Songgang | Li, Heng | Zhou, Jun | Ni, Peixiang | Dong, Wei | Hu, Songnian | Zeng, Changqing | Zhang, Jianguo | Zhang, Yong | Li, Ruiqiang | Xu, Zuyuan | Li, Shengting | Li, Xianran | Zheng, Hongkun | Cong, Lijuan | Lin, Liang | Yin, Jianning | Geng, Jianing | Li, Guangyuan | Shi, Jianping | Liu, Juan | Lv, Hong | Li, Jun | Wang, Jing | Deng, Yajun | Ran, Longhua | Shi, Xiaoli | Wang, Xiyin | Wu, Qingfa | Li, Changfeng | Ren, Xiaoyu | Wang, Jingqiang | Wang, Xiaoling | Li, Dawei | Liu, Dongyuan | Zhang, Xiaowei | Ji, Zhendong | Zhao, Wenming | Sun, Yongqiao | Zhang, Zhenpeng | Bao, Jingyue | Han, Yujun | Dong, Lingli | Ji, Jia | Chen, Peng | Wu, Shuming | Liu, Jinsong | Xiao, Ying | Bu, Dongbo | Tan, Jianlong | Yang, Li | Ye, Chen | Zhang, Jingfen | Xu, Jingyi | Zhou, Yan | Yu, Yingpu | Zhang, Bing | Zhuang, Shulin | Wei, Haibin | Liu, Bin | Lei, Meng | Yu, Hong | Li, Yuanzhe | Xu, Hao | Wei, Shulin | He, Ximiao | Fang, Lijun | Zhang, Zengjin | Zhang, Yunze | Huang, Xiangang | Su, Zhixi | Tong, Wei | Li, Jinhong | Tong, Zongzhong | Li, Shuangli | Ye, Jia | Wang, Lishun | Fang, Lin | Lei, Tingting | Chen, Chen | Chen, Huan | Xu, Zhao | Li, Haihong | Huang, Haiyan | Zhang, Feng | Xu, Huayong | Li, Na | Zhao, Caifeng | Li, Shuting | Dong, Lijun | Huang, Yanqing | Li, Long | Xi, Yan | Qi, Qiuhui | Li, Wenjie | Zhang, Bo | Hu, Wei | Zhang, Yanling | Tian, Xiangjun | Jiao, Yongzhi | Liang, Xiaohu | Jin, Jiao | Gao, Lei | Zheng, Weimou | Hao, Bailin | Liu, Siqi | Wang, Wen | Yuan, Longping | Cao, Mengliang | McDermott, Jason | Samudrala, Ram | Wang, Jian | Wong, Gane Ka-Shu | Yang, Huanming
PLoS Biology  2005;3(2):e38.
We report improved whole-genome shotgun sequences for the genomes of indica and japonica rice, both with multimegabase contiguity, or almost 1,000-fold improvement over the drafts of 2002. Tested against a nonredundant collection of 19,079 full-length cDNAs, 97.7% of the genes are aligned, without fragmentation, to the mapped super-scaffolds of one or the other genome. We introduce a gene identification procedure for plants that does not rely on similarity to known genes to remove erroneous predictions resulting from transposable elements. Using the available EST data to adjust for residual errors in the predictions, the estimated gene count is at least 38,000–40,000. Only 2%–3% of the genes are unique to any one subspecies, comparable to the amount of sequence that might still be missing. Despite this lack of variation in gene content, there is enormous variation in the intergenic regions. At least a quarter of the two sequences could not be aligned, and where they could be aligned, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rates varied from as little as 3.0 SNP/kb in the coding regions to 27.6 SNP/kb in the transposable elements. A more inclusive new approach for analyzing duplication history is introduced here. It reveals an ancient whole-genome duplication, a recent segmental duplication on Chromosomes 11 and 12, and massive ongoing individual gene duplications. We find 18 distinct pairs of duplicated segments that cover 65.7% of the genome; 17 of these pairs date back to a common time before the divergence of the grasses. More important, ongoing individual gene duplications provide a never-ending source of raw material for gene genesis and are major contributors to the differences between members of the grass family.
Comparative genome sequencing of indica and japonica rice reveals that duplication of genes and genomic regions has played a major part in the evolution of grass genomes
PMCID: PMC546038  PMID: 15685292

Results 1-8 (8)