Mitochondrial overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in diabetic hearts during ischemia/reperfusion injury and the anti-oxidative role of glutamine have been demonstrated. However, in diabetes mellitus the role of glutamine in cardiomyocytes during ischemia/reperfusion injury has not been explored. To examine the effects of glutamine and potential mechanisms, in the present study, rat cardiomyoblast H9C2 cells were exposed to high glucose (33 mM) and hypoxia-reoxygenation. Cell viability, apoptosis, intracellular glutamine, and mitochondrial and intracellular glutathione were determined. Moreover, ROS formation, complex I activity, membrane potential and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content were also investigated. The levels of S-glutathionylated complex I and mitochondrial apoptosis-related proteins, including cytochrome c and caspase-3, were analyzed by western blot. Data indicated that high glucose and hypoxia-reoxygenation were associated with a dramatic decline of intercellular glutamine and increase in apoptosis. Glutamine supplementation correlated with a reduction in apoptosis and increase of glutathione and glutathione reduced/oxidized ratio in both cytoplasm and mitochondria, but a reduction of intracellular ROS. Glutamine supplementation was also associated with less S-glutathionylation and increased the activity of complex I, leading to less mitochondrial ROS formation. Furthermore, glutamine supplementation prevented from mitochondrial dysfunction presented as mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels and attenuated cytochrome c release into the cytosol and caspase-3 activation. We conclude that apoptosis induced by high glucose and hypoxia-reoxygenation was reduced by glutamine supplementation, via decreased oxidative stress and inactivation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.
Increasing evidences suggest that p120 catenin (p120ctn) exerts important functions in the regulation of pro-inflammatory molecules. However, the relationship among p120ctn, inflammatory responses and blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction as they are the initiator of sepsis is not unknown. In this study, we found that p120ctn expression was correlated with an increase in the permeability of BBB and a decrease in the expression of tight-junction proteins in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) after LPS challenge. Transfection with p120ctn small interfering RNA (siRNA) induced disruption of BBB integrity, monocyte migration across BBB and inflammatory responses at basal level and after LPS treatment. Conversely, over-expression of p120ctn with adenovirus significantly ameliorated BBB disruption and inflammatory responses in LPS-treated cells. Mechanistically, up-regulation of p120ctn inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation by suppressing IKKβ and IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation. Therefore, we conclude that p120ctn improves the BBB dysfunction and inflammatory responses through the inhibition of NF-κB activation, suggesting that forced p120ctn expression may provide a novel therapeutic strategy to attenuate LPS-induced BBB compromise and sepsis.
p120ctn; LPS; BBB; HBMECs; inflammatory response
The purpose of this study was to describe nurse burnout, job satisfaction, and intention to leave, and to explore the relationship of work environment to nurse outcomes in a sample of 9,698 nurses from 181 hospitals in China. Nurses reported moderate levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and high levels of reduced personal accomplishment. Nearly one fifth of the nurses reported high levels of burnout on all three dimensions. Forty-five percent of the nurses were dissatisfied with their current job; these nurses were most dissatisfied with their salary. Five percent of nurses reported intention to leave. Nurses reporting mixed and good work environments were less likely to report high burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intention to leave compared with those in poor work environments. The results suggest that high burnout and low job satisfaction are prominent problems for Chinese nurses, and improving work environment might be an effective strategy for better nurse outcomes in Chinese hospitals.
burnout; job satisfaction; retention; turnover; nurse; work environment; nursing in China
We conducted a joint (pooled) analysis of three genome-wide association studies (GWAS) 1-3 of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in ethnic Chinese (5,337 ESCC cases and 5,787 controls) with 9,654 ESCC cases and 10,058 controls for follow-up. In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, study, and two eigenvectors, two new loci achieved genome-wide significance, marked by rs7447927 at 5q31.2 (per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 0.85, 95% CI 0.82-0.88; P=7.72x10−20) and rs1642764 at 17p13.1 (per-allele OR= 0.88, 95% CI 0.85-0.91; P=3.10x10−13). rs7447927 is a synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in TMEM173 and rs1642764 is an intronic SNP in ATP1B2, near TP53. Furthermore, a locus in the HLA class II region at 6p21.32 (rs35597309) achieved genome-wide significance in the two populations at highest risk for ESSC (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.22-1.46; P=1.99x10−10). Our joint analysis identified new ESCC susceptibility loci overall as well as a new locus unique to the ESCC high risk Taihang Mountain region.
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection causes a myriad of diseases from mild hand-foot-and-mouth disease or herpangina to fatal brain stem encephalitis complicated with pulmonary edema. Several severe EV71 endemics have occurred in Asia-Pacific region, including Taiwan, and have become a serious threat to children’s health. EV71 infection is initiated by the attachment of the virion to the target cell surface. Although this process relies primarily upon interaction between viruses and cell surface receptors, soluble factors may also influence the binding of EV71 to host cells.Galectin-1 has been reported to participate in several virus infections, but is not addressed in EV71. In this study, we found that the serum levels of galectin-1 in EV71-infected children were higher than those in non-infected people. In EV71 infected cells, galectin-1 was found to be associated with the EV71 VP1 and VP3 via carbohydrate residues and subsequently released and bound to another cell surface along with the virus. EV71 propagated from galectin-1 knockdown SK-N-SH cells exhibited lower infectivity in cultured cells and less pathogenicity in mice than the virus propagated from parental cells. In addition, this galectin-1-free EV71 virus was sensitive to high temperature and lost its viability after long-term storage, which could be restored following supplement of recombinant galectin-1. Taken together, our findings uncover a new role of galectin-1 in facilitating EV71 virus infection.
Interleukin-27 (IL-27) is a multifunctional cytokine with both pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory functions. At present, the role of IL-27 in pulmonary fibrosis remains unknown.
In this study, we observed the expression of IL-27/IL-27R in a mouse model of bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. We verified the role of IL-27 using hematoxylin and eosin as well as Masson’s staining methods and measuring the content of hydroxyproline as well as collagen I and III. We assessed the differentiation of T lymphocytes in the spleen and measured the concentration of cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the expression level of relevant proteins in the JAK/STAT and TGF-ß/Smad signaling pathways in lung tissue.
Increased IL-27 expression in BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis was noted. IL-27 treatment may alleviate pulmonary fibrosis and increase the survival of mice. IL-27 inhibited the development of CD4+ IL-17+, CD4+ IL-4+ T, and CD4+ Foxp3+ cells and the secretion of IL-17, IL-4, IL-6, and TGF-ß. IL-27 induced the production of CD4+ IL-10+ and CD4+ INF-γ+ T cells. IL-27 decreased the levels of phosphorylated STAT1, STAT3, STAT5, Smad1, and Smad3 but increased the level of SOCS3.
This study demonstrates that IL-27 potentially attenuates BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis by regulating Th17 differentiation and cytokine secretion.
Interleukin 27; Pulmonary fibrosis; Th17 cells; Animal model; Signaling pathway
Aims: Our previous studies showed that expression and functional profile of voltage-dependent potassium channels Kv1.3 were increased in lymphocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) compared to normotensive rats, suggesting a crucial role for lymphocyte Kv1.3 in the development of hypertension. Here, we further investigated whether the expression and functional profile of Kv1.3 was related to increased blood pressure in SHR with age of 4, 8, 16 and 24 wk. Methods: Systolic blood pressure was measured through pressure device around the tail. mRNA and protein expression were assessed by real-time PCR and western blot in lymphocytes of SHR. Current density of Kv channels in lymphocytes was measured by patch-clamp. Results: Systolic blood pressure was elevated in an age-dependent manner (ANOVA P < 0.05). mRNA and protein level of Kv1.3 were significantly increased in an age-dependent manner in lymphocyte of SHR (ANOVA P < 0.05). Moreover, the current density of Kv was dramatically enhanced in an age-dependent manner (ANOVA P < 0.05). Conclusion: The systolic blood pressure positively correlated with expression as well as current density of potassium channels in lymphocytes of SHR at age of 8, 16 and 24 wk. In conclusion, Kv1.3 channels were upregulated in an age-dependent manner in SHR and correlates with systolic blood pressure during aging. The present study implies that Kv1.3 blockers may be applied as a therapeutic treatment for the development of hypertension during aging.
Spontaneously hypertensive rat; lymphocyte; Kv1.3; blood pressure; aging
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been indicated to be correlated with Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) susceptibility. However, the results of these studies on the association remain inconsistent. This meta-analysis was conducted to derive a more accuracy estimation of the association between the common SNPs (rs1800890, rs1800896, rs1800871 and rs1800872) in IL-10 and NHL risk. Meta-analyses were performed on 21 studies with 7,749 cases and 8584 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the NHL risk. Meta-analyses showed that rs1800890, rs1800871 and rs1800872 polymorphisms had no association with NHL risk. However, rs1800896 polymorphism has association with NHL risk based on the following comparison models (G vs. A: OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.00-1.29; AG vs. AA: OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.05-1.37; GG+AG vs. AA: OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.08-1.39). In the ethnic subgroup analysis, rs1800896 had an increased NHL risk in Caucasians based on the heterozygote model (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.04-1.41) and dominant model (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.00-1.48). When stratified by subtypes, rs1800890, rs1800896 and rs1800872 polymorphisms were found significant association with an increased risk of diffuse large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) in different comparison models, whereas negative results were obtained for Follicular Lymphoma (FL) and chronic lymphocytic Leukemia/small lymphocytic Lymphoma (CLL/SLL) in all genetic models. Our meta-analysis suggested that the rs1800896 polymorphism had an increased risk with NHL susceptibility, where as the rs1800890, rs1800871 and rs1800872 had no association with NHL risk. Among the common subtypes of NHL, three polymorphisms (rs1800890, rs1800896 and rs1800872) had significant association with DLBCL risk.
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; interleukin-10; polymorphism; meta-analysis
A miniature pig model of ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) was developed by posterior mitral chordae tendinae rupture and implantation of an ameroid constrictor. A 2.5-mm ameroid constrictor was placed around the left circumflex coronary artery (LCX) of male Tibetan miniature pigs to induce ischemia, while the posterior mitral chordae tendinae was also ruptured. X-ray coronary angiography, ECG analysis, echocardiography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to evaluate heart structure and function in pigs at baseline and one, two, four and eight weeks after the operation. Blood velocity of the mitral regurgitation was found to be between medium and high levels. Angiographic analyses revealed that the LCX closure was 10–20% at one week, 30–40% at two weeks and 90–100% at four weeks subsequent ameroid constrictor implantation. ECG analysis highlighted an increase in the diameter of the left atria (LA) at two weeks post-operation as well as ischemic changes in the left ventricle (LV) and LA wall at four weeks post-operation. Echocardiography and MRI further detected a gradual increase in LA and LV volumes from two weeks post-operation. LV end diastolic and systolic volumes as well as LA end diastolic and systolic volume were also significantly higher in pig hearts post-operation when compared to baseline. Pathological changes were observed in the heart, which included scar tissue in the ischemic central area of the LV. Transmission electron microscopy highlighted the presence of contraction bands and edema surrounding the ischemia area, including inflammatory cell infiltration within the ischemic area. We have developed a pig model of IMR using the posterior mitral chordae tendineae rupture technique and implantation of an ameroid constrictor. The pathological features of this pig IMR model were found to mimic the natural history and progression of IMR in patients.
A crucial question in post-ischemic cell therapy refers to the ideal method of cell delivery to the heart. We hypothesized that epicardial implantation of subamnion-cord-lining mesenchymal stem cells (CL-MSC) angiogenic spheroids embedded within fibrin grafts (SASG) facilitates donor cell survival and enhances cardiac function in failing rat hearts. Furthermore, we compared the efficacy of this approach applied through two delivery methods. Spheroids made of 1.5×104 human CL-MSC coated with 2×103 human umbilical vein endothelial cells were self-assembled in hanging drops. SASG were constructed by embedding 150 spheroids in fibrin matrix. Except for untreated rats (MI, n=8), grafts were implanted 2 weeks after myocardial infarction upon confirmation of ensued heart failure through thoracotomy: SASG (n=8) and fibrin graft (FG, n=8); or video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS): SASG-VATS (n=8) and FG-VATS (n=7). In vivo CL-MSC survival was comparable between both SASG-treated groups throughout the study. SASG and SASG-VATS animals had decreased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure relative to untreated animals, and increased fractional shortening compared to MI and FG controls, 4 weeks after treatment. A 14.1% and 6.2% enhancement in ejection fraction from week 2 to 6 after injury was observed in SASG/SASG-VATS, paralleled by improvement in cardiac output. Treated hearts had smaller scar size, and more blood vessels than MI, while donor CL-MSC contributed to arteriogenesis within the graft and infarct areas. Taken together, our data suggest that SASG treatment has the potential to restore failing hearts by preserving cardiac function and inducing myocardial revascularization, while attenuating cardiac fibrosis. Furthermore, we introduce a method for minimally invasive in situ graft assembly.
11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and type 2 (11β-HSD2) are expressed in rat testis, where they regulate the local concentrations of glucocorticoids. Here, we investigated the expression and localization of 11β-HSD in rat testis during postnatal development, and the regulation of these genes by luteinizing hormone (LH) and androgens. mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively, in testes collected from rats at postnatal day (PND) 7, 14, 21, 35, and 90, and from rats treated with LH, 7α-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT) and testosterone at PND 21 and PND 90. Immunohistochemical staining was used to identify the localization of the 11β-HSD in rat testis at PND 7, 14, and 90. We found that 11β-HSD1 expression was restricted to the interstitial areas, and that its levels increased during rat testis development. In contrast, whereas 11β-HSD2 was expressed in both the interstitial areas and seminiferous tubules at PND 7, it was present only in the interstitial areas at PND 90, and its levels declined during testicular development. Moreover, 11β-HSD1 mRNA was induced by LH in both the PND 21 and 90 testes and by MENT at PND 21, whereas 11β-HSD2 mRNA was induced by testosterone and MENT in the PND 21 testis and by LH in the PND 90 testis. In conclusion, our study indicates that the 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 genes have distinct patterns of spatiotemporal expression and hormonal regulation during postnatal development of the rat testis.
11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1; 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2; development; Leydig cell; testis
Immune cells are involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). CD4+ T cells were activated during the onset of OA and induced macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1γ expression and subsequent osteoclast formation. We evaluated the effects of local knockdown of MIP-1γ in a mouse OA model induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection. The mouse macrophage cell lines and osteoclast-like cells generated from immature hematopoietic monocyte/macrophage progenitors of murine bone marrow were cocultured with either receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL) or CD4+ T cells. The levels of MIP-1γ and RANKL in cells and mice were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The osteoclastogenesis was evaluated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and cathepsin K staining. OA was induced in one hind-leg knee joint of B6 mice. Lentiviral vector encoding MIP-1γ small hairpin RNA (shRNA) and control vector were individually injected intra-articularly into the knee joints, which were histologically assessed for manifestations of OA. The expression of MIP-1γ and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and the infiltration of CD4+ T cells, macrophages, and osteoclastogenesis in tissues were examined using immunohistochemistry. CD4+ T cells were involved in OA by inducing MIP-1γ expression in osteoclast progenitors and the subsequent osteoclast formation. Neutralizing MIP-1γ with a specific antibody abolishes RANKL-stimulated and CD4+ T-cell-stimulated osteoclast formation. MIP-1γ levels were significantly higher in synovium and the chondro-osseous junction of joints 90 days postsurgery. The number of infiltrated CD4+ T cells and macrophages and IL-1β expression were reduced in the synovial tissues of mice treated with MIP-1γ shRNA. Histopathological examinations revealed that mice treated with MIP-1γ shRNA had less severe OA than control mice had, as well as decreased osteoclast formation and MMP-13 expression. Locally inhibiting MIP-1γ expression may ameliorate disease progression and provide a new OA therapy.
Shen and colleagues reveal that CD4+ T cells are involved in osteoarthritis via induction of MIP-1γ in osteoclast progenitors, which leads to osteoclast formation. They demonstrate that shRNA-mediated knockdown of MIP-1γ leads to decreased osteoclast formation and reduced osteoarthritis in mice.
After being polio free for more than 10 years, an outbreak following importation of wild poliovirus (WPV) was confirmed in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, in 2011.
A cross-sectional study was conducted prior to supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), immediately after the confirmation of the WPV outbreak. In selected prefectures, participants aged ≤60 years old who visited hospitals at county-level or above to have their blood drawn for reasons not related to the study, were invited to participate in our study. Antibody titers ≥8 were considered positive.
Among the 2,611 participants enrolled, 2,253 (86.3%), 2,283 (87.4%), and 1,989 (76.2%) were seropositive to P1, P2 and P3 respectively, and 1744 (66.8%) participants were seropositive to all the three serotypes. Lower antibody seropositivities and geometric mean titers were observed in children <1 year of age and in adults aged 15–39 years.
Serosurveys to estimate population immunity in districts at high risk of polio importation might be useful to gauge underlying population immunity gaps to polio and possibly to guide preparedness and response planning. Consideration should be given to older children and adults during polio risk assessment planning and outbreak response.
This study proposed a quenching protocol for metabolite analysis of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. Microbial cells were quenched with 60% methanol/water, 80% methanol/glycerol, or 80% methanol/water. The effect of the quenching process was assessed by the optical density (OD)-based method, flow cytometry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were employed for metabolite identification. The results indicated that quenching with 80% methanol/water solution led to less damage to the L. bulgaricus cells, characterized by the lower relative fraction of prodium iodide (PI)-labeled cells and the higher OD recovery ratio. Through GC-MS analysis, higher levels of intracellular metabolites (including focal glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, and AMP) and a lower leakage rate were detected in the sample quenched with 80% methanol/water compared with the others. In conclusion, we suggested a higher concentration of cold methanol quenching for L. bulgaricus metabolomics due to its decreasing metabolite leakage.
Metabolomics; Quenching method; Lactobacillus bulgaricus; Leakage
A traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, Zuo Jin Wan (ZJW), has been found as an anticancer drug in human cancer. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of ZJW extracts on DDP-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer SGC-7901/DDP cells. Our results demonstrated that ZJW extracts could increase the sensitivity of SGC-7901/DDP cells to DDP by increasing the concentration of DDP in cytoplasm and enhance the proapoptosis of DDP by upregulating the JNK and Bax expression, downregulating the Bcl-2 expression, increasing the accumulation of Cytochrome C in cytoplasm, and promoting the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9. In vivo, ZJW extracts enhanced the inhibiting effect of DDP on tumor growth in SGC-7901/DDP xenograft model and upregulated the expression of p-JNK and Bax but downregulated the Bcl-2 expression in xenograft tumors. In conclusion, in vitro and in vivo, ZJW extracts could enhance the proapoptotic effect of DDP by promoting the activation of JNK and the expression of Bcl-2, inhibiting the Bax expression, followed by increasing the release of Cytochrome C from mitochondria to cytoplasm, and finally activating the caspase cade reaction. Our results implied that ZJW might serve as a synergistic drug with chemotherapeutic drugs DDP in the treatment of gastric cancer.
The rising incidence of diabetes and its negative impact on quality of life highlights the urgent need to develop biomarkers of early nerve damage. Measurement of total vitamin B12 has some limitations. We want to determine the levels of urinary methylmalonic acid and its relationships with serum vitamin B12 and polyneuropathy. The 176 Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were divided into 3 groups according to the levels of vitamin B12. A gas chromatography mass spectrometric technique was used to determine blood methylmalonic acid and urinary methylmalonic acid. The diagnosis of distal diabetic polyneuropathy was based on the determination of bilateral limb sensory and motor nerve conduction velocity and amplitude with electromyogram. Multiple regression analysis revealed that urinary methylmalonic acid/creatinine, blood methylmalonic acid, and so forth were variables that influenced diabetic polyneuropathy significantly. Nerve sensory conduction velocity and nerve amplitude in the group of urinary methylmalonic acid/creatinine >3.5 mmol/mol decreased significantly. Superficial peroneal nerve sensory and motor conduction velocity and ulnar nerve compound motor active potential amplitude were inversely correlated with urinary methylmalonic acid/creatinine. Urinary methylmalonic acid correlates with serum vitamin B12 levels in person with diabetes and is a sensitive marker of early polyneuropathy.
TLR4, a membrane receptor that functions in complex with its accessory protein myeloid differentiation factor-2 (MD-2), is a therapeutic target for bacterial infections. Taiwanofungus camphoratus is highly valued as a medicinal mushroom for cancer, hypertension, and inflammation in traditional medicine. Zhankuic acid A (ZAA) is the major pharmacologically active compound of T. camphoratus. The mechanism of action of T. camphoratus or ZAA has not been fully elucidated. We analyzed the structure of human TLR4/MD-2 complex with ZAA by X-score and HotLig modeling approaches. Two Abs against MD-2 were used to verify the MD-2/ZAA interaction. The inflammation and survival of the mice pretreated with ZAA and injected with LPS were monitored. The modeling structure shows that ZAA binds the MD-2 hydrophobic pocket exclusively via specific molecular recognition; the contact interface is dominated by hydrophobic interactions. Binding of ZAA to MD-2 reduced Ab recognition to native MD-2, similar to the effect of LPS binding. Furthermore, ZAA significantly ameliorated LPS-induced endotoxemia and Salmonella-induced diarrhea in mice. Our results suggest that ZAA, which can compete with LPS for binding to MD-2 as a TLR4/MD-2 antagonist, may be a potential therapeutic agent for gram-negative bacterial infections.
MADS-box genes are important transcription factors for plant development, especially floral organogenesis. Brachypodium distachyon is a model for biofuel plants and temperate grasses such as wheat and barley, but a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box family proteins in Brachypodium is still missing. We report here a genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family in Brachypodium distachyon. We identified 57 MADS-box genes and classified them into 32 MIKCc-type, 7 MIKC*-type, 9 Mα, 7 Mβ and 2 Mγ MADS-box genes according to their phylogenetic relationships to the Arabidopsis and rice MADS-box genes. Detailed gene structure and motif distribution were then studied. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that Brachypodium MADS-box genes distributed evenly across five chromosomes. In addition, five pairs of type II MADS-box genes were found on synteny blocks derived from whole genome duplication blocks. We then performed a systematic expression analysis of Brachypodium MADS-box genes in various tissues, particular floral organs. Further detection under salt, drought, and low-temperature conditions showed that some MADS-box genes may also be involved in abiotic stress responses, including type I genes. Comparative studies of MADS-box genes among Brachypodium, rice and Arabidopsis showed that Brachypodium had fewer gene duplication events. Taken together, this work provides useful data for further functional studies of MADS-box genes in Brachypodium distachyon.
Prothymosin α (ProT) is involved in regulating expression of the oxidative stress-protective genes and it also exerts immunomodulatory activities. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of ProT gene transfer on atherosclerosis in endothelial cells and in ApoE-deficient mice. Adenoviruses encoding mouse ProT (AdProT) were used for the management of atherosclerosis. In vitro, the effects of ProT on antioxidant gene expressions and the protection effect against oxidant-mediated injury in endothelial cells were examined. In vivo, AdProT were administered intraventricularly into the heart of ApoE-/- mice. Histopathological and immunohistochemical assessments of the aortic tissues were performed. Expressions of HO-1 and antioxidant genes in the aortic tissues were also determined. Our results demonstrated that ProT gene transfer increased antioxidant gene expressions, eNOS expression and NO release, as well as reduced the reactive oxygen species production in endothelial cells. Intraventricular administration of AdProT reduced the lesion formation, increased expressions of HO-1 and SOD genes, and reduced infiltrating macrophages in the aorta of ApoE-/- mice. This study suggests that ProT gene transfer may have the therapeutic potential for the management of atherosclerosis via inducing antioxidant gene expressions, eNOS expression and NO release, reducing ROS production and macrophage infiltration in endothelium.
atherosclerosis; gene transfer; antioxidant gene expressions; prothymosin α.
The purpose of this study was to develop a docetaxel microemulsion containing an anti-tumor synergistic ingredient (Brucea javanica oil) and to investigate the characteristics of the microemulsion. Brucea javanica oil contains oleic acid and linoleic acids that have been shown by animal and human studies to inhibit tumor formation. The microemulsion containing Brucea javanica oil, medium-chain triglyceride, soybean lecithin, Solutol®HS 15, PEG 400, and water was developed for docetaxel intravenous administration. A formulation with higher drug content, lower viscosity, and smaller particle size was developed. The droplet size distribution of the dispersed phase of the optimized microemulsion was 13.5 nm, determined using a dynamic light scattering technique. The small droplet size enabled the microemulsion droplets to escape from uptake and phagocytosis by the reticuloendothelial system and increased the circulation time of the drug. The zeta potential was −41.3 mV. The optimized microemulsion was pale yellow, transparent, and non-opalescent in appearance. The value of the combination index was 0.58, showing that there was a synergistic effect when docetaxel was combined with Brucea javanica oil. After a single intravenous infusion dose (10 mg/kg) in male Sprague Dawley rats, the area under the curve of the microemulsion was higher and the half-time was longer compared with that of docetaxel solution alone, and showed superior pharmacokinetic characteristics. These results indicate that this preparation of docetaxel in emulsion is likely to provide an excellent prospect for clinical tumor treatment.
microemulsion; docetaxel; synergistic ingredient; formulation; pharmacokinetic
Despites the fact that T cells are involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) little is known about the roles of CD8+ T cells in this disease. We investigated the effects of CD8+ T cells and the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) on joint pathology. Using anterior cruciate ligament-transection (ACLT), OA was induced in mice. The knee joints were histologically assessed for manifestations of OA. The CD8+ T cells from splenocytes and synovium were flow-cytometrically and immunochemically evaluated, respectively. Local expression of TIMP-1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, and VEGF were examined. Cartilage degeneration was slower in CD8+ T cell knockout mice than in control mice. CD8+ T cells were activated once OA was initiated and expanded during OA progression. More CD8+ T cells from splenocytes expressed TIMP-1 in ACLT-group mice than in Sham-group mice. The number of TIMP-1-expressing CD8+ T cells in OA mice correlated with the disease severity. TIMP-1 expression in cartilage was co-localized with that of MMP-13 and VEGF. TIMP-1 protein was detected in synovium in which angiogenesis occurred. During the pathogenesis of OA, the expression of TIMP-1, VEGF and MMP-13 accompanying with CD8+ T cells activation were increased. Furthermore, inhibiting the expression of TIMP-1 in joints could retard the progression of OA.
CD8+ T cells; osteoarthritis; TIMP-1; VEGF; MMP-13
Genome-wide association studies have identified susceptibility loci for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We conducted a meta-analysis of all single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that showed nominally significant P-values in two previously published genome-wide scans that included a total of 2961 ESCC cases and 3400 controls. The meta-analysis revealed five SNPs at 2q33 with P< 5 × 10−8, and the strongest signal was rs13016963, with a combined odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 1.29 (1.19–1.40) and P= 7.63 × 10−10. An imputation analysis of 4304 SNPs at 2q33 suggested a single association signal, and the strongest imputed SNP associations were similar to those from the genotyped SNPs. We conducted an ancestral recombination graph analysis with 53 SNPs to identify one or more haplotypes that harbor the variants directly responsible for the detected association signal. This showed that the five SNPs exist in a single haplotype along with 45 imputed SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium, and the strongest candidate was rs10201587, one of the genotyped SNPs. Our meta-analysis found genome-wide significant SNPs at 2q33 that map to the CASP8/ALS2CR12/TRAK2 gene region. Variants in CASP8 have been extensively studied across a spectrum of cancers with mixed results. The locus we identified appears to be distinct from the widely studied rs3834129 and rs1045485 SNPs in CASP8. Future studies of esophageal and other cancers should focus on comprehensive sequencing of this 2q33 locus and functional analysis of rs13016963 and rs10201587 and other strongly correlated variants.
The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) has become one of the hotspots for phylogeographical studies due to its high species diversity. However, most previous studies have focused on the effects of the Quaternary glaciations on phylogeographical structures and the locations of glacial refugia, and little is known about the effects of the aridization of interior Asia on plant population structure and speciation. Here the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) trnT-trnF and trnS-trnfM sequences were used to investigate the differentiation and phylogeographical history of 14 Ephedra species from the QTP and northern China, based on a sampling of 107 populations. The phylogeographical analysis, together with phylogenetic reconstruction based on combined four cpDNA fragments (rbcL, rpl16, rps4, and trnS-trnfM), supports three main lineages (eastern QTP, southern QTP, and northern China) of these Ephedra species. Divergence of each lineage could be dated to the Middle or Late Miocene, and was very likely linked to the uplift of the QTP and the Asian aridification, given the high drought and/or cold tolerance of Ephedra. Most of the Ephedra species had low intraspecific variation and lacked a strong phylogeographical structure, which could be partially attributed to clonal reproduction and a relatively recent origin. In addition, ten of the detected 25 cpDNA haplotypes are shared among species, suggesting that a wide sampling of species is helpful to investigate the origin of observed haplotypes and make reliable phylogeographical inference. Moreover, the systematic positions of some Ephedra species are discussed.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was recently identified as a factor produced by multiple myeloma (MM) cells, which may contribute to bone resorption and disease progression in MM, though the molecular mechanism of this process is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of BDNF on bone disease and growth of MM cells both in vitro and in vivo. Co- and triple-culture systems were implemented. The in vitro results demonstrate that BDNF augmented receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) expression in human bone marrow stromal cells, thus contributing to osteoclast formation. To further clarify the effect of BDNF on myeloma bone disease in vivo, ARH-77 cells were stably transfected with an antisense construct to BDNF (AS-ARH) or empty vector (EV-ARH) to test their capacity to induce MM bone disease in SCID–rab mice. Mice treated with AS-ARH cells were preserved, exhibited no radiologically identifiable lytic lesions and, unlike the controls treated with EV-ARH cells, lived longer and showed reduced tumor burden. Consistently, bones harboring AS-ARH cells showed marked reductions of RANKL expression and osteoclast density compared to the controls harboring EV-ARH cells. These results provide further support for the potential osteoclastogenic effects of BDNF, which may mediate stromal–MM cell interactions to upregulate RANKL secretion, in myeloma bone diseases.
Anthocyanin biosynthesis in various plants is affected by environmental conditions and controlled by the transcription level of the corresponding genes. In pears (Pyrus communis cv. ‘Wujiuxiang’), anthocyanin biosynthesis is significantly induced during low temperature storage compared with that at room temperature. We further examined the transcriptional levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in ‘Wujiuxiang’ pears during developmental ripening and temperature-induced storage. The expression of genes that encode flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, anthocyanidin synthase, UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase, and R2R3 MYB transcription factor (PcMYB10) was strongly positively correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in ‘Wujiuxiang’ pears in response to both developmental and cold-temperature induction. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed the expression patterns of the set of target genes, of which PcMYB10 and most anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were related to the same cluster. The present work may help explore the molecular mechanism that regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis and its response to abiotic stress at the transcriptional level in plants.