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1.  Ethyl pyruvate attenuated coxsackievirus B3-induced acute viral myocarditis by suppression of HMGB1/RAGE/NF-ΚB pathway 
SpringerPlus  2016;5:215.
Inflammation plays important roles in the pathogenesis of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced acute viral myocarditis (AVMC). Ethyl pyruvate (EP) has been shown to be an anti-inflammatory agent. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)/receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE)/nuclear factor (NF)-ΚB pathway has close relation with inflammatory responses. Here, we investigated the effects of EP on CVB3-induced AVMC and potential mechanisms. The mice with AVMC were treated with EP (40 or 80 mg/kg/day) from day 5 to day 7 post-infection. EP significantly decreased the mortality of mice with AVMC. H&E staining and immunohistochemistry for HMGB1 demonstrated less inflammatory lesions and fewer abnormal location of HMGB1 in the hearts of AVMC mice receiving EP. Immuoblot showed that EP significantly inhibited the levels of HMGB1, RAGE, phospho(p)-NF-ΚB and p-I-ΚBα, and raised I-ΚBα expression in the hearts of AVMC mice. Furthermore, real-time PCR and Elisa displayed decreased levels of HMGB1, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-17 and increased levels of IL-10 in the hearts and serum of AVMC mice treated with EP. Our findings suggest that EP protects against CVB3-induced AVMC that is associated with inhibition of HMGB1/RAGE/NF-ΚB pathway.
PMCID: PMC4771665  PMID: 27026909
Ethyl pyruvate; Coxsackievirus B3; Myocarditis; High mobility group box 1; Receptor for advanced glycation end product; Nuclear factor-ΚB
2.  Changing community health service delivery in economically less-developed rural areas in China: impact on service use and satisfaction 
BMJ Open  2014;4(2):e004148.
To evaluate the impact of a model of rural community health service (CHS) on the use and acceptability of primary healthcare services.
Two adjacent rural counties in China.
5842 residents in 2009 and 3807 in 2010 from 980 households in 7 intervention townships and 49 villages; 2232 residents in 2009 and 2315 in 2010 from 628 households in 3 comparison townships and 9 villages. All residents were approached to participate, with no significant differences in age or sex between groups.
Multilevel intervention in 2009 including training rural practitioners, encouraging clinic improvements, providing clinical guidelines, standards and subsidies.
Data collection
Surveys of community members from randomly sampled households in 2009 and 2010.
Primary outcome measures
Satisfaction with and utilisation of outpatient and public health services.
Factor analysis confirmed two components of satisfaction. Univariate and multilevel analysis was used.
Satisfaction scores for intervention county respondents increased from 21.4 (95% CI 21.1 to 21.7) to 22.1 (95% CI 21.7 to 22.4) with no change in comparison area. In multilevel analysis, satisfaction with patient-centred care was associated with chronic disease, shorter waiting times and county. Satisfaction with clinic environment and cost was associated with female gender, shorter waiting times but not county. The proportion of children receiving immunisation in intervention village clinics increased from 42.5% (95% CI 27.9% to 47.1%) to 59.2% (95% CI 53.8% to 64.6%) whereas this decreased in comparison villages (16.5%; 95% CI 10.3% to 22.7% to 6.0%; 95% CI 1.3% to 10.7%). Antenatal visits increased in intervention villages (from 69.0%, 95% CI 65.8% to 73.1% to 75.8%, 95% CI 72.2% to 79.4%) with no change in comparison villages.
Introduction of a CHS model adapted to economically less-developed rural areas was associated with some improvements in satisfaction with care and use of some village-based public health services. Further research is needed to determine its public health impact and application to other areas.
PMCID: PMC3939668  PMID: 24583760
Primary Care; Public Health
3.  Sudden cardiac arrest in a patient with epilepsy induced by chronic inflammation on the cerebral surface★ 
Neural Regeneration Research  2012;7(6):470-474.
The present study analyzed a patient with epilepsy due to chronic inflammation on the cerebral surface underwent sudden cardiac arrest. Paradoxical brain discharge, which occurred prior to epileptic seizures, induced a sudden cardiac arrest. However, when the focal brain pressure was relieved, cardiac arrest disappeared. A 27-year-old male patient underwent pre-surgical video-electroencephalogram monitoring for 160 hours. During monitoring, secondary tonic-clonic seizures occurred five times. A burst of paradoxical brain discharges occurred at 2–19 seconds (mean 8 seconds) prior to epileptic seizures. After 2–3 seconds, sudden cardiac arrest occurred and lasted for 12–22 seconds (average 16 seconds). The heart rate subsequently returned to a normal rate. Results revealed arachnoid pachymenia and adhesions, as well as mucus on the focal cerebral surface, combined with poor circulation and increased pressure. Intracranial electrodes were placed using surgical methods. Following removal of the arachnoid adhesions and mucus on the local cerebral surface, paradoxical brain discharge and epileptic seizures occurred three times, but sudden cardiac arrest was not recorded during 150-hour monitoring. Post-surgical histological examination indicated meningitis. Experimental findings suggested that paradoxical brain discharge led to cardiac arrest instead of epileptic seizures; the insult was associated with chronic inflammation on the cerebral surface, which subsequently led to hypertension and poor blood circulation in focal cerebral areas.
PMCID: PMC4350135  PMID: 25774191
chronic inflammation; epilepsy; sudden cardiac arrest; sudden death; video-electroencephalogram
4.  Transcription analysis on response of porcine alveolar macrophages to Haemophilus parasuis 
BMC Genomics  2012;13:68.
Haemophilus parasuis (H. parasuis) is the etiological agent of Glässer's disease in pigs. Currently, the molecular basis of this infection is largely unknown. The innate immune response is the first line of defense against the infectious disease. Systematical analysis on host innate immune response to the infection is important for understanding the pathogenesis of the infectious microorganisms.
A total of 428 differentially expressed (DE) genes were identified in the porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) 6 days after H. parasuis infection. These genes were principally related to inflammatory response, immune response, microtubule polymerization, regulation of transcript and signal transduction. Through the pathway analysis, the significant pathways mainly concerned with cell adhesion molecules, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, complement and coagulation cascades, toll-like receptor signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, suggesting that the host took different strategies to activate immune and inflammatory response upon H. parasuis infection. The global interactions network and two subnetworks of the proteins encoded by DE genes were analyzed by using STRING. Further immunostimulation analysis indicated that mRNA levels of S100 calcium-binding protein A4 (S100A4) and S100 calcium-binding protein A6 (S100A6) in porcine PK-15 cells increased within 48 h and were sustained after administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Poly (I:C) respectively. The s100a4 and s100a6 genes were found to be up-regulated significantly in lungs, spleen and lymph nodes in H. parasuis infected pigs. We firstly cloned and sequenced the porcine coronin1a gene. Phylogenetic analysis showed that poCORONIN 1A belonged to the group containing the Bos taurus sequence. Structural analysis indicated that the poCORONIN 1A contained putative domains of Trp-Asp (WD) repeats signature, Trp-Asp (WD) repeats profile and Trp-Asp (WD) repeats circular profile at the N-terminus.
Our present study is the first one focusing on the response of porcine alveolar macrophages to H. parasuis. Our data demonstrate a series of genes are activated upon H. parasuis infection. The observed gene expression profile could help screening the potential host agents for reducing the prevalence of H. parasuis and further understanding the molecular pathogenesis associated with H. parasuis infection in pigs.
PMCID: PMC3296652  PMID: 22330747

Results 1-4 (4)