Extreme weather conditions with negative impacts can strongly affect agricultural production. In the Danjiangkou reservoir area, citrus yields were greatly influenced by cold weather conditions and drought stress in 2011. Soil straw mulching (SM) practices have a major effect on soil water and thermal regimes. A two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate whether the SM practices can help achieve favorable citrus fruit yields. Results showed that the annual total runoff was significantly (P<0.05) reduced with SM as compared to the control (CK). Correspondingly, mean soil water storage in the top 100 cm of the soil profile was increased in the SM as compared to the CK treatment. However, this result was significant only in the dry season (Jan to Mar), and not in the wet season (Jul to Sep) for both years. Interestingly, the SM treatment did not significantly increase citrus fruit yield in 2010 but did so in 2011, when the citrus crop was completely destroyed (zero fruit yield) in the CK treatment plot due to extremely low temperatures during the citrus overwintering stage. The mulch probably acted as an insulator, resulting in smaller fluctuations in soil temperature in the SM than in the CK treatment. The results suggested that the small effects on soil water and temperature changes created by surface mulch had limited impact on citrus fruit yield in a normal year (e.g., in 2010). However, SM practices can positively impact citrus fruit yield in extreme weather conditions.
Recent data have redefined the concept of inflammation as a critical component of tumor progression. However, there has been little development on cases where inflammation on or near a wound and a tumor exist simultaneously. Therefore, this pilot study aims to observe the impact of a wound on a tumor, to build a new mouse tumor model with a manufactured surgical wound representing acute inflammation, and to evaluate the relationship between acute inflammation or wound healing and the process of tumor growth. We focus on the two phases that are present when acute inflammation influences tumor. In the early phase, inhibitory effects are present. The process that produces these effects is the functional reaction of IFN-γ secretions from a wound inflammation. In the latter phase, the inhibited tumor is made resistant to IFN-γ through the release of TGF-β to balance the inflammatory factor effect on the tumor cells. A pair of cytokines IFN-γ/TGF-β established a new balance to protect the tumor from the interference effect of the inflammation. The tumor was made resistant to IFN-γ through the release of TGF-β to balance the inflammatory effect on the tumor cells. This balance mechanism that occurred in the tumor cells increased proliferation and invasion. In vitro and in vivo experiments have confirmed a new view of clinical surgery that will provide more detailed information on the evaluation of tumors after surgery. This study also provides a better understanding of the relationship between tumor and inflammation, as well as tumor cell attacks on inflammatory factors.
bafilomycin; plecomacrolide; polyketide; biosynthesis; secondary metabolite
We provide a new approach to identify the substrate influence on graphene surface. Distinguishing the substrate influences or the doping effects of charged impurities on graphene can be realized by optically probing the graphene surfaces, included the suspended and supported graphene. In this work, the line scan of Raman spectroscopy was performed across the graphene surface on the ordered square hole. Then, the bandwidths of G-band and 2D-band were fitted into the Voigt profile, a convolution of Gaussian and Lorentzian profiles. The bandwidths of Lorentzian parts were kept as constant whether it is the suspended and supported graphene. For the Gaussian part, the suspended graphene exhibits much greater Gaussian bandwidths than those of the supported graphene. It reveals that the doping effect on supported graphene is stronger than that of suspended graphene. Compared with the previous studies, we also used the peak positions of G bands, and I2D/IG ratios to confirm that our method really works. For the suspended graphene, the peak positions of G band are downshifted with respect to supported graphene, and the I2D/IG ratios of suspended graphene are larger than those of supported graphene. With data fitting into Voigt profile, one can find out the information behind the lineshapes.
Substrate influence; Graphene; Raman lineshapes; Voigt fitting
Little is known about the clinical features and treatment of Chinese patients with Parkinson disease (PD).
A large cross-sectional survey of clinical features, medication use, and motor complications was conducted in 901 consecutive PD patients, from 42 randomly selected university-affiliated hospitals in four urban economic regions of China, between December 2006 and May 2007.
The 901 PD patients had age range 30 to 88, and median disease duration 50 months. Most (737, 81.8%) used L-dopa (median 375 mg/day), and often added low doses of other antiparkinsonian agents. Among L-dopa-treated patients, the prevalence of motor complications was low (dyskinesias: 8.5%; motor fluctuations: 18.6%), even among patients with disease duration ≥11 years (dyskinesias: 18.1%; motor fluctuations: 42.2%). Higher L-dopa use was associated with higher occurrence of dyskinesias (OR 2.44; 95% CI 1.20-5.13) and motor fluctuations (OR 2.48; 95% CI 1.49-4.14). Initiating PD treatment with L-dopa alone (OR 0.46; 95% CI 0.22-0.95) or in combination with other medications (OR 0.41; 95% CI 0.19-0.87) was associated with less dyskinesia than treatment initiated with non-L-dopa medication.
Many Chinese PD patients are treated with low-dose L-dopa and added low-dose antiparkinsonian agents, with a low prevalence of motor complications, which might be influenced by Chinese culture.
Parkinson disease; Treatment, Dyskinesias; Motor fluctuations, China
crystal structure; biosynthesis; prenyltransferase; enzyme-ligand interactions; TIM barrel
A large and sudden increase in radiocarbon (14C) around AD 773 are documented in coral skeletons from the South China Sea. The 14C increased by ~ 15‰ during winter, and remain elevated for more than 4 months, then increased and dropped down within two months, forming a spike of 45‰ high in late spring, followed by two smaller spikes. The 14C anomalies coincide with an historic comet collision with the Earth's atmosphere on 17 January AD 773. Comas are known to have percent-levels of nitrogen by weight, and are exposed to cosmic radiation in space. Hence they may be expected to contain highly elevated 14C/12C ratios, as compared to the Earth's atmosphere. The significant input of 14C by comets may have contributed to the fluctuation of 14C in the atmosphere throughout the Earth's history, which should be considered carefully to better constrain the cosmic ray fluctuation.
Ginsenosides are the primary bioactive components of ginseng, which is a popular medicinal plant that exhibits diverse pharmacological activities. Protopanaxadiol, protopanaxatriol and oleanolic acid are three basic aglycons of ginsenosides. Producing aglycons of ginsenosides in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was realized in this work and provides an alternative route compared to traditional extraction methods. Synthetic pathways of these three aglycons were constructed in S. cerevisiae by introducing β-amyrin synthase, oleanolic acid synthase, dammarenediol-II synthase, protopanaxadiol synthase, protopanaxatriol synthase and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from different plants. In addition, a truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, squalene synthase and 2,3-oxidosqualene synthase genes were overexpressed to increase the precursor supply for improving aglycon production. Strain GY-1 was obtained, which produced 17.2 mg/L protopanaxadiol, 15.9 mg/L protopanaxatriol and 21.4 mg/L oleanolic acid. The yeast strains engineered in this work can serve as the basis for creating an alternative way for producing ginsenosides in place of extractions from plant sources.
Fusobacterium nucleatum is one of the most abundant gram-negative bacilli colonizing the subgingival plaque and closely associated with periodontal disease. However it is unclear whether F. nucleatum is involved in gingival inflammation under orthodontic appliance. A novel adhesin, FadA, which is unique to oral Fusobacteria, is required for F. nucleatum binding and invasion to epithelial cells and thus may play an important role in colonization of Fusobacterium in the host. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of F. nucleatum and its virulence factor FadA adhesion gene (fadA) in 169 subgingival biofilm samples from 55 cases of gingivitis patients with orthodontic appliances, 49 cases of gingivitis patients without orthodontic treatment, 35 cases of periodontitis patients and 30 cases of periodontally healthy people via PCR. The correlations between the F. nucleatum/fadA and gingivitis index(GI)was also analyzed. The detection rate of F. nucleatum/fadA in periodontitis group and non-orthodontic gingivitis group was higher than the other two groups (p<0.01) while it was higher in orthodontic gingivitis group than in health people (p<0.05). An obviously positive correlation was observed between the prevalence of F. nucleatum/fadA and GI. F. nucleatum carrying fadA may be more closely related to the development of gingivitis and periodontal disease compared with orthodontic gingivitis.
It is well known that human beings do not always change opinions or attitudes, since the duration of interaction with others usually has a significant impact on one's decision-making. Based on this observation, we introduce a freezing period into the voter model, in which the frozen individuals have a weakened opinion switching ability. We unfold the presence of an optimal freezing period, which leads to the fastest consensus, using computation simulations as well as theoretical analysis. We demonstrate that the essence of an accelerated consensus is attributed to the biased random walk of the interface between adjacent opinion clusters. The emergence of an optimal freezing period is robust against the size of the system and the number of distinct opinions. This study is instructive for understanding human collective behavior in other relevant fields.
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) comprise a heterogeneous population of postnatal progenitor cells with profound immunomodulatory properties, such as upregulation of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and downregulation of Th17 cells. However, it is unknown whether different MSC subpopulations possess the same range of immunomodulatory function. Here, we show that a subset of single colony-derived MSCs producing IL-17 is different from bulk MSC population in that it cannot upregulate Tregs, downregulate Th17 cells, or ameliorate disease phenotypes in a colitis mouse model. Mechanistically, we reveal that IL-17, produced by these MSCs, activates the NFκB pathway to downregulate TGF-β production in MSCs, resulting in abolishment of MSC-based immunomodulation. Furthermore, we show that NFκB is able to directly bind to TGF-β promoter region to regulate TGF-β expression in MSCs. Moreover, these IL-17+ MSCs possess anti-Candida albicans growth effects in vitro and therapeutic effect in C. albicans-infected mice. In summary, this study shows that MSCs contain an IL-17+ subset capable of inhibiting C. albicans growth, but attenuating MSC-based immunosuppression via NFκB-mediated downregulation of TGF-β.
stem cell biology; development; immunity; molecular pathogenesis
To evaluate the effects of proanthocyanidins (PA) and photoinitiator type on the degree of conversion (DC) and polymerization rate (PR) of a model dental adhesive.
Three types of photo-initiation systems were introduced into the Bis-GMA/HEMA co-monomer mixture, resulting in four resin formulations including CQ/A (0.5 wt% CQ and EDMAB), CQ/A/I-1 (0.5 wt% CQ, EDMAB and DPIHP), CQ/A/I-2 (1.0 wt% CQ, EDMAB and DPIHP), and TPO (2.1 wt% TPO). For each resin formulation, adhesives containing 0, 2.5%, 5% and 10% of PA with respect to the weight of resin were produced after mixing the resin with various amount of PA/ethanol solution. When light-cured, the RP and DC of each adhesive was determined using ATR- FTIR spectroscopy.
Across and within the initiator groups, the DC followed the general trend of CQ/A < CQ/A/I-1 < CQ/A/I-2 < TPO and 0-PA > 2.5-PA > 5-PA > 10-PA, respectively. The change of PR with respect to photo-initiation systems and PA content was in a similar but less pronounced pattern.
PA hampered the polymerization of all adhesives regardless of photoinitiators used. The initiator formulations CQ/A/I-2 and TPO are better fit for PA-containing adhesives, both leading to > 65% DC in the presence of 5% PA.
The inclusion of PA in dental adhesives has been limited by its interference with the light-curing of adhesive resins. This study found photo-initiation formulations that could maintain a satisfactory degree of monomer conversion while a significant amount of PA is incorporated.
Dental adhesive; Proanthocyanidins; Degree of conversion; ATR-FTIR
A homogenous chemiluminescent immunoassay of thyroxine (T4) present in serum samples is described. The proposed method deployed the competitive immunoreaction of T4 and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled T4 (HRP–T4) with anti-T4 mouse monoclonal antibody (Ab). HRP–T4 and the HRP–T4–Ab complex were separated and quantified by using microchip electrophoresis (MCE) with chemiluminescence (CL) detection. The MCE separation was accomplished within 60 sec. Highly sensitive CL detection was achieved by means of HPR-catalyzed luminol-H2O2 reaction. The linear range for T4 were 5 −250 nM with a detection limit of 2.2 nM (S/N = 3).
Thyroxine; Immunoassay; Microchip electrophoresis; Chemiluminescence detection
Many studies have shown that microglia in the activated state may be neurotoxic. It has been proven that uncontrolled or over-activated microglia play an important role in many neurodegenerative disorders. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been shown in many animal models to have a therapeutic effect on neural damage. Such a therapeutic effect is attributed to the fact that BMSCs have the ability to differentiate into neurons and to produce trophic factors, but there is little information available in the literature concerning whether BMSCs play a therapeutic role by affecting microglial activity. In this study, we triggered an inflammatory response situation in vitro by stimulating microglia with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and then culturing these microglia with BMSC-conditioned medium (BMSC-CM). We found that BMSC-CM significantly inhibited proliferation and secretion of pro-inflammatory factors by activated microglia. Furthermore, we found that the phagocytic capacity of microglia was also inhibited by BMSC-CM. Finally, we investigated whether the induction of apoptosis and the production of nitric oxide (NO) were involved in the inhibition of microglial activation. We found that BMSC-CM significantly induced apoptosis of microglia, while no apoptosis was apparent in the LPS-stimulated microglia. Our study also provides evidence that NO participates in the inhibitory effect of BMSCs. Our experimental results provide evidence that BMSCs have the ability to maintain the resting phenotype of microglia or to control microglial activation through their production of several factors, indicating that BMSCs could be a promising therapeutic tool for treatment of diseases associated with microglial activation.
Postmastectomy breast reconstruction is widely used in breast cancer patients for its aesthetic effect. Although several studies have casted suspicion upon the oncological safety of immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy, the potential impact of different reconstruction methods on patient survival remains unclear.
Patients and Methods
We identified 35,126 female patients diagnosed with breast cancer from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2002 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and overall survival (OS) were compared among patients who underwent mastectomy with or without immediate breast reconstruction (autologous reconstruction or implant reconstruction) using Cox proportional hazard regression models.
In multivariate analysis unadjusted for family income, patients undergoing immediate postmastectomy reconstruction exhibited improved BCSS [pooled reconstruction (any types of reconstruction): hazard ratio (HR) = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80–0.95, P = 0.001] and OS (pooled reconstruction: HR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.65–0.75, P<0.001) compared to patients who underwent mastectomy alone. However, after stratifying by family income, patients receiving reconstruction showed limited advantage in BCSS and OS compared with those undergoing mastectomy alone. When comparing between the two reconstruction methods, no significant differences were observed in either BCSS (implant versus autologous reconstruction: HR = 1.11, 95%CI 0.90–1.35, P = 0.330) or OS (implant versus autologous reconstruction: HR = 1.07, 95% 0.90–1.28, P = 0.424).
Compared to mastectomy alone, immediate postmastectomy reconstruction had limited advantage in survival after adjusting for confounding factor of family income. Our findings, if validated in other large databases, may help to illustrate the actual effect of immediate postmastectomy reconstruction on patient survival.
Fusarium is a common soil mold. In severely immunocompromised patients, this fungus may cause disseminated disease and is often confused with Aspergillus, as the two pathogens have similar histopathological appearances. Disseminated Fusarium infection may cause significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The current case report presents a 20-year-old male with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed disseminated Fusarium infection during induction chemotherapy. Early diagnosis and treatment is extremely important since the mortality rate is extremely high in such patients. The clinician must consider that the clinical presentation of Fusarium infection resembles that of Aspergillus. There is no optimal treatment for patients with Fusarium infection; however, combination antifungal therapy may have benefit without significant toxicity.
Fusarium; Aspergillus; acute leukemia; neutropenia
Brucella melitensis is a facultative intracellular bacterium that causes brucellosis, the most prevalent zoonosis worldwide. The Brucella intracellular replicative niche in macrophages and dendritic cells thwarts immune surveillance and complicates both therapy and vaccine development. Currently, host-pathogen interactions supporting Brucella replication are poorly understood. Brucella fuses with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to replicate, resulting in dramatic restructuring of the ER. This ER disruption raises the possibility that Brucella provokes an ER stress response called the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). In this study, B. melitensis infection up regulated expression of the UPR target genes BiP, CHOP, and ERdj4, and induced XBP1 mRNA splicing in murine macrophages. These data implicate activation of all 3 major signaling pathways of the UPR. Consistent with previous reports, XBP1 mRNA splicing was largely MyD88-dependent. However, up regulation of CHOP, and ERdj4 was completely MyD88 independent. Heat killed Brucella stimulated significantly less BiP, CHOP, and ERdj4 expression, but induced XBP1 splicing. Although a Brucella VirB mutant showed relatively intact UPR induction, a TcpB mutant had significantly compromised BiP, CHOP and ERdj4 expression. Purified TcpB, a protein recently identified to modulate microtubules in a manner similar to paclitaxel, also induced UPR target gene expression and resulted in dramatic restructuring of the ER. In contrast, infection with the TcpB mutant resulted in much less ER structural disruption. Finally, tauroursodeoxycholic acid, a pharmacologic chaperone that ameliorates the UPR, significantly impaired Brucella replication in macrophages. Together, these results suggest Brucella induces a UPR, via TcpB and potentially other factors, that enables its intracellular replication. Thus, the UPR may provide a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of brucellosis. These results also have implications for other intracellular bacteria that rely on host physiologic stress responses for replication.
Brucella melitensis is an intracellular bacterium that invades and replicates within macrophages and dendritic cells. With over 500,000 new infections per year, brucellosis is the most prevalent zoonosis worldwide and incurs significant human morbidity and economic loss. The intracellular location of Brucella renders the organism resistant to antibiotics. A safe and effective human vaccine does not exist. Thus, better understanding of the host-pathogen interactions supporting establishment of the intracellular replicative niche is critical. In this study, we found that infection of macrophages with Brucella induces a host stress response called the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR), a conserved stress response originating in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Full induction of the UPR requires live bacteria and expression of a microtubule modulating protein, TcpB. Inhibition of the UPR with the drug tauroursodeoxycholic acid significantly diminished Brucella replication. Together these results suggest Brucella induces the UPR to enable its own replication within host macrophages. Thus the UPR may represent a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of brucellosis.
Technetium-99 conjugated with methylene diphosphonate (99Tc-MDP) is a novel bisphosphonate derivative without radioactivity and has been successfully used to treat arthritis in China for years. Since bisphosphonate therapy has the potential to induce bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ), we examine whether 99Tc-MDP represents a new class of bisphosphonate for anti-resorptive therapy to ameliorate estrogen deficiency–induced bone resorption with less risk of causing BRONJ. We showed that 99Tc-MDP-treated ovariectomized (OVX) mice had significantly improved bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone volume in comparison to the untreated OVX group by inhibiting osteoclasts and enhancing osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). To determine the potential of inducing BRONJ, 99Tc-MDP/dexamethasone (Dex) or zoledronate/Dex were administered into C57BL/6J mice via the tail vein, followed by extraction of maxillary first molars. Interestingly, 99Tc-MDP treatment showed less risk to induce osteonecrosis in the maxillary bones compared to zoledronate treatment group, partially because 99Tc-MDP neither suppressed adaptive regulatory T cells (Tregs) nor activated the inflammatory T-helper-producing interleukin 17 cells (Th17). Taken together, our findings demonstrate that 99Tc-MDP therapy may be a promising approach in the treatment of osteoporosis with less risk of causing BRONJ.
99Tc-MDP; bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw; ovariectomized mice; bone mineral density; bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells
Objective. To investigate the current use of integrative therapies (IT) in the treatment of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods. A cross-sectional, multicenter clinical epidemiological survey was conducted in 12 hospitals in Shanghai. We investigated the type and frequency of IT use and determined whether the use of IT correlated with demographic, social, or disease-specific characteristics in our patient population. Results. A total of 231 (89.5%) of 258 patients with ALS were eligible for the study and 229 (99% of all) of 231 reported the use of at least one IT for the treatment of ALS. Vitamins and Chinese herb decoctions, Chinese herb compounds, massage therapy, and acupuncture were the 5 most commonly used therapies. There was a strong association between education level, income, and use of IT. A household income of more than 75,000 RMB ($49,995) correlated with multiple IT use, and married patients used IT more often than single individuals. The main reasons for using IT were to treat weakness and fatigue, muscle atrophy, the development of ALS, depression, insomnia, limb pain or numbness, and side effects associated with Riluzole. Conclusion. The use of IT is common in patients with ALS in Shanghai. Vitamins and TCM are the most used additional therapies and the widespread and largely unexamined use of IT for ALS requires more attention.
Applying in silico simulations and in vitro experiments, the amino acid proline was proved to have a profound influence on Streptomyces griseus trypsinogen, and the hydrogen bond between H57 and D102 was found to be crucial for trypsin activity. By introducing an artificial propeptide, IVEF, the titer of trypsin was increased 6.71-fold.
The relaxed complex scheme is an in silico drug
screening method that accounts for receptor flexibility by using molecular
dynamics simulations. Here, we used this approach combined with similarity
searches and experimental inhibition assays to identify several low micro-molar,
non-bisphosphonate inhibitors, bisamidines, of farnesyl diphosphate synthase
(FPPS), an enzyme targeted by some anti-cancer and anti-microbial agents and for
the treatment of bone resorption diseases. This novel class of FPPS inhibitors
have more drug-like properties than existing bisphosphonate inhibitors, making
them interesting pharmaceutical leads.
Broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies (bnAbs) are typically highly somatically mutated, raising doubts as to whether they can be elicited by vaccination. We used 454 sequencing and designed a novel phylogenetic method to model lineage evolution of the bnAbs PGT121–134 and found a positive correlation between the level of somatic hypermutation (SHM) and the development of neutralization breadth and potency. Strikingly, putative intermediates were characterized that show approximately half the mutation level of PGT121–134 but were still capable of neutralizing roughly 40–80% of PGT121–134 sensitive viruses in a 74-virus panel at median titers between 15- and 3-fold higher than PGT121–134. Such antibodies with lower levels of SHM may be more amenable to elicitation through vaccination while still providing noteworthy coverage. Binding characterization indicated a preference of inferred intermediates for native Env binding over monomeric gp120, suggesting that the PGT121–134 lineage may have been selected for binding to native Env at some point during maturation. Analysis of glycan-dependent neutralization for inferred intermediates identified additional adjacent glycans that comprise the epitope and suggests changes in glycan dependency or recognition over the course of affinity maturation for this lineage. Finally, patterns of neutralization of inferred bnAb intermediates suggest hypotheses as to how SHM may lead to potent and broad HIV neutralization and provide important clues for immunogen design.
A majority of the over 30 million HIV-1 infected individuals worldwide live in poorly resourced areas where multiple boost strategies, which are likely needed to generate highly mutated antibodies, present formidable logistical challenges. Accordingly, developing new vaccination strategies that are capable of generating highly mutated antibodies should be an active area of research. Another approach, that is not mutually exclusive, is to identify new bnAbs that are both broad and potent in neutralization, but are much less mutated than the bnAbs that currently exist. Here, we have identified bnAbs that are approximately half the mutation frequency of known bnAbs, but maintain high potency and moderate breadth. These less mutated bnAbs offer an important advantage in that they would likely be easier to induce through vaccination than more mutated antibodies. By characterizing these putative intermediates, we can also better estimate how affinity maturation proceeded to result in an antibody with broad and potent neutralization activity and offer more focused strategies for designing immunogens capable of eliciting these less mutated bnAbs.
Background. Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) are common in adults. Although the most common causes of IDA usually arise from the gastrointestinal tract, the association between chronic Helicobacter pylori infection and anemia remains unclear. Aim. To evaluate the association of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection and IDA. Materials and Methods. We enrolled 882 patients from January 2010 to April 2013. The status of Helicobacter pylori (H.p) infection was confirmed and blood samples from the same participants were taken on the same day to check the level of hemoglobin, serum iron, ferritin, and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC). Results. No significant difference was noted from the demographic data. The average level of hemoglobin (Hb) was not different between negative and positive groups, pos 13.57 g/dL versus neg 13.65 g/dL (P = 0.699). Although the levels of serum IDA related parameters were expected in positive group (lower serum iron and ferritin and higher TIBC) these differences did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.824 for iron, P = 0.360 for ferritin, and P = 0.252 for TIBC). Conclusion. Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is not attributed to IDA. The levels of hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin, and TIBC remain unaffected after chronic H.p infection. Large-scale clinical studies are needed to prove the association.
Colloidal CdTe quantum wires are reported having ensemble photoluminescence efficiencies as high as 25% under low excitation-power densities. High photoluminescence efficiencies are achieved by formation of a monolayer CdS shell on the CdTe quantum wires. Like other semiconductor nanowires, the CdTe quantum wires may contain frequent wurtzite–zinc-blende structural alternations along their lengths. The present results demonstrate that the optical properties, emission-peak shape and photoluminescence efficiencies, are independent of the presence or absence of such structural alternations.