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author:("Liu, ganhua")
1.  Mismatch Negativity of Sad Syllables Is Absent in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e91995.
Background
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is an important and highly prevalent mental disorder characterized by anhedonia and a lack of interest in everyday activities. Additionally, patients with MDD appear to have deficits in various cognitive abilities. Although a number of studies investigating the central auditory processing of low-level sound features in patients with MDD have demonstrated that this population exhibits impairments in automatic processing, the influence of emotional voice processing has yet to be addressed. To explore the automatic processing of emotional prosodies in patients with MDD, we analyzed the ability to detect automatic changes using event-related potentials (ERPs).
Method
This study included 18 patients with MDD and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Subjects were instructed to watch a silent movie but to ignore the afferent acoustic emotional prosodies presented to both ears while continuous electroencephalographic activity was synchronously recorded. Prosodies included meaningless syllables, such as “dada” spoken with happy, angry, sad, or neutral tones. The mean amplitudes of the ERPs elicited by emotional stimuli and the peak latency of the emotional differential waveforms were analyzed.
Results
The sad MMN was absent in patients with MDD, whereas the happy and angry MMN components were similar across groups. The abnormal sad emotional MMN component was not significantly correlated with the HRSD-17 and HAMA scores, respectively.
Conclusion
The data indicate that patients with MDD are impaired in their ability to automatically process sad prosody, whereas their ability to process happy and angry prosodies remains normal. The dysfunctional sad emotion-related MMN in patients with MDD were not correlated with depression symptoms. The blunted MMN of sad prosodies could be considered a trait of MDD.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091995
PMCID: PMC3962367  PMID: 24658084
2.  miR-582-5p Is Upregulated in Patients with Active Tuberculosis and Inhibits Apoptosis of Monocytes by Targeting FOXO1 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e78381.
Macrophage apoptosis is a host innate defense mechanism against tuberculosis (TB). In this study, we found that percentage of apoptotic cells in peripheral blood monocytes from patients with active TB was lower than that from healthy controls (p<0.001). To understand whether microRNAs can modulate apoptosis of monocytes, we investigated differentially expressed microRNAs in patients with active TB. miR-582-5p was mainly expressed in monocytes and was upregulated in patients with active TB. The apoptotic percentage of THP-1 cells transfected with miR-582-5p mimics was significantly lower than those transfected with negative control of microRNA mimics (p<0.001), suggesting that miR-582-5p could inhibit apoptosis of monocytes. To our knowledge, the role of miR-582-5p in regulating apoptosis of monocytes has not been reported so far. Systematic bioinformatics analysis indicated that FOXO1 might be a target gene for miR-582-5p and its 3′UTR contains potential binding sites for miR-582-5p. To determine whether miR-582-5p could influence FOXO1 expression, miR-582-5p mimics or negative control of microRNA mimics were transfected into THP-1 cells. RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that the miR-582-5p could suppress both FOXO1 mRNA and protein expression. Co-transfection of miR-582-5p and FOXO1 3′UTR-luciferase reporter vector into cells demonstrated that significant decrease in luciferase activity was only found in reporter vector that contained a wild type sequence of FOXO1 3′UTR, suggesting that miR-582-5p could directly target FOXO1. In conclusion, miR-582-5p inhibited apoptosis of monocytes by down-regulating FOXO1 expression and might play an important role in regulating anti-M. tuberculosis directed immune responses.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078381
PMCID: PMC3813442  PMID: 24205217
3.  ERCC1 and ERCC2 Haplotype Modulates Induced BPDE-DNA Adducts in Primary Cultured Lymphocytes 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e60006.
Background
Benzo[a]pyrene(B[a]P), and its ultimate metabolite Benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol 9,10-epoxide (BPDE), are classic DNA damaging carcinogens. DNA damage caused by BPDE is normally repaired by Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER), of which ERCC1 and ERCC2/XPD exert an indispensable role. Genetic variations in ERCC1 and ERCC2 have been related to DNA repair efficiency. In this study we used lymphocytes from healthy individuals to show that polymorphisms in ERCC1 and ERCC2 are directly associated with decreased DNA repair efficiency.
Methods
ERCC1 (rs3212986 and rs11615) and ERCC2 (rs13181, rs1799793 and rs238406) were genotyped in 818 healthy Han individuals from the northeast of China. BPDE induced DNA adducts in lymphocytes were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 282 randomly selected participants. The effect of ERCC1 rs3212986 and ERCC2 rs238406 on DNA damage caused by B[a]P was assessed with a modified comet assay.
Results
We found that the variant genotypes of ERCC1 rs3212986 and ERCC2 rs238406 were associated with the high levels of BPDE-DNA adducts. Especially ERCC1 rs3212986 A-allele variant was significantly associated with the high BPDE-DNA adducts. Haplotype analysis showed that the ERCC1 haplotype AC (OR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.84–2.97), ERCC2 haplotype AGA (OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.06–2.15) and haplotype block AGAAC (OR = 5.28, 95% CI = 2.95–9.43), AGCAC (OR = 1.35 95% CI = 1.13–1.60) were linked with high BPDE-DNA adducts. In addition, we found that the combined minor alleles of ERCC1 rs3212986 and ERCC2 rs238406 were associated with a reduced DNA repair capacity.
Conclusions
Our results suggest that the variant genotypes of ERCC1 rs3212986 and ERCC2 rs238406 are associated with decreased repair efficiency of BPDE induced DNA damage, and may be predictive for an individual’s DNA repair capacity in response to environmental carcinogens.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060006
PMCID: PMC3617188  PMID: 23593158
4.  SOX2 Gene Regulates the Transcriptional Network of Oncogenes and Affects Tumorigenesis of Human Lung Cancer Cells 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(5):e36326.
Recent studies demonstrated that cancer stem cells (CSCs) have higher tumorigenesis properties than those of differentiated cancer cells and that transcriptional factor-SOX2 plays a vital role in maintaining the unique properties of CSCs; however, the function and underlying mechanism of SOX2 in carcinogenesis of lung cancer are still elusive. This study applied immunohistochemistry to analyze the expression of SOX2 in human lung tissues of normal individuals as well as patients with adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and large cell and small cell carcinoma and demonstrated specific overexpression of SOX2 in all types of lung cancer tissues. This finding supports the notion that SOX2 contributes to the tumorigenesis of lung cancer cells and can be used as a diagnostic probe. In addition, obviously higher expression of oncogenes c-MYC, WNT1, WNT2, and NOTCH1 was detected in side population (SP) cells than in non-side population (NSP) cells of human lung adenocarcinoma cell line-A549, revealing a possible mechanism for the tenacious tumorigenic potential of CSCs. To further elucidate the function of SOX2 in tumorigenesis of cancer cells, A549 cells were established with expression of luciferase and doxycycline-inducible shRNA targeting SOX2. We found silencing of SOX2 gene reduces the tumorigenic property of A549 cells with attenuated expression of c-MYC, WNT1, WNT2, and NOTCH1 in xenografted NOD/SCID mice. By using the RNA-Seq method, an additional 246 target cancer genes of SOX2 were revealed. These results present evidence that SOX2 may regulate the expression of oncogenes in CSCs to promote the development of human lung cancer.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036326
PMCID: PMC3352903  PMID: 22615765
5.  Resemblance of Symptoms for Major Depression Assessed at Interview versus from Hospital Record Review 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(1):e28734.
Background
Diagnostic information for psychiatric research often depends on both clinical interviews and medical records. Although discrepancies between these two sources are well known, there have been few studies into the degree and origins of inconsistencies.
Principal findings
We compared data from structured interviews and medical records on 1,970 Han Chinese women with recurrent DSM-IV major depression (MD). Correlations were high for age at onset of MD (0.93) and number of episodes (0.70), intermediate for family history (+0.62) and duration of longest episode (+0.43) and variable but generally more modest for individual depressive symptoms (mean kappa = 0.32). Four factors were identified for twelve symptoms from medical records and the same four factors emerged from analysis of structured interviews. Factor congruencies were high but the correlation of factors between interviews and records were modest (i.e. +0.2 to +0.4).
Conclusions
Structured interviews and medical records are highly concordant for age of onset, and the number and length of episodes, but agree more modestly for individual symptoms and symptom factors. The modesty of these correlations probably arises from multiple factors including i) inconsistency in the definition of the worst episode, ii) inaccuracies in self-report and iii) difficulties in coding medical records where symptoms were recorded solely for clinical purposes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028734
PMCID: PMC3256142  PMID: 22247760
6.  Neonatal Overfeeding Induced by Small Litter Rearing Causes Altered Glucocorticoid Metabolism in Rats 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(11):e25726.
Elevated glucocorticoid (GC) activity may be involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome. Tissue GC exposure is determined by the tissue-specific GC-activating enzyme 11β-hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and the GC-inactivating enzyme 5α-reductase type 1 (5αR1), as well as 5β-reductase (5βR). Our aim was to study the effects of neonatal overfeeding induced by small litter rearing on the expression of GC-regulating enzymes in adipose tissue and/or liver and on obesity-related metabolic disturbances during development. Male Sprague-Dawley rat pup litters were adjusted to litter sizes of three (small litters, SL) or ten (normal litters, NL) on postnatal day 3 and then given standard chow from postnatal week 3 onward (W3). Small litter rearing induced obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and higher circulating corticosterone in adults. 11β-HSD1 expression and enzyme activity in retroperitoneal, but not in epididymal, adipose tissue increased with postnatal time and peaked at W5/W6 in both groups before declining. From W8, 11β-HSD1 expression and enzyme activity levels in retroperitoneal fat persisted at significantly higher levels in SL compared to NL rats. Hepatic 11β-HSD1 enzyme activity in SL rats was elevated from W3 to W16 compared to NL rats. Hepatic 5αR1 and 5βR expression was higher in SL compared to NL rats after weaning until W6, whereupon expression decreased in the SL rats and remained similar to that in NL rats. In conclusion, small litter rearing in rats induced peripheral tissue-specific alterations in 11β-HSD1 expression and activity and 5αR1 and 5βR expression during puberty, which could contribute to elevated tissue-specific GC exposure and aggravate the development of metabolic dysregulation in adults.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025726
PMCID: PMC3208550  PMID: 22073140
7.  (Z)-N-(2-Chloro­benzyl­idene)aniline N-oxide 
In the title compound, C13H10ClNO, the central C—N bond has considerable double-bond character and the N—O bond indicates a formal negative charge on the O atom. The mol­ecule is stabilized by an intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond. The geometry about the C=N bond is Z [C—C—N—O torsion angle = −4.2 (3)°] and the phenyl and benzene rings are trans-oriented around the C=N bond. The phenyl and benzene rings make a dihedral angle of 56.99 (2)°.
doi:10.1107/S1600536811015923
PMCID: PMC3120351  PMID: 21754718
8.  Specific Antibodies Elicited by a Novel DNA Vaccine Targeting Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Inhibit Murine Melanoma Growth In Vivo▿  
The elevated expression and receptor binding of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) in various types of cancer, especially in malignant melanoma of the skin, suggest that GRP might be a putative target for immunotherapy in neoplastic diseases. We have therefore constructed a novel DNA vaccine coding for six tandem repeats of a fragment of GRP from amino acids 18 to 27 (GRP6) flanked by helper T-cell epitopes for increased immunogenicity, including HSP65, a tetanus toxoid fragment from amino acids 830 to 844 (T), pan-HLA-DR-binding epitope (PADRE) (P), and two repeats of a mycobacterial HSP70 fragment from amino acids 407 to 426 (M). The anti-GRP DNA vaccine (pCR3.1-VS-HSP65-TP-GRP6-M2) was constructed on a backbone of a pCR3.1 plasmid vector with eight 5′-GACGTT-3′ CpG motifs and the VEGF183 signal peptide (VS). Intramuscular (IM) injections of anti-GRP vaccine in mice stimulated the production of high titers of specific antibodies against GRP and suppressed the growth of subcutaneous tumors of B16-F10 melanoma cells. Parallel results were obtained in vitro, showing inhibition of B16-F10 cell proliferation by GRP antisera. IM injections of the DNA vaccine also significantly attenuated tumor-induced angiogenesis associated with intradermal tumors of B16-F10 cells. In addition, lung invasion of intravenously injected cells was highly diminished, suggesting potent antimetastatic activity of the DNA vaccine. These findings support the highly immunogenic and potent antitumorigenic activity of specific anti-GRP antibodies elicited by the anti-GRP DNA vaccine.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00046-09
PMCID: PMC2708394  PMID: 19458203

Results 1-8 (8)