To design efficient spin traps for superoxide radicals, interest in the elucidation of substituent effects on the stability of superoxide spin adducts has become a necessary priority. In the present study, five cyclic nitrone superoxide spin adducts, i.e. DMPO-OOH, M3PO-OOH, EMPO-OOH, DEPMPO-OOH, and DEPDMPO-OOH, were chosen as model compounds to investigate the effect of 2,5-subsitituents on their stability, through structural analysis and decay thermodynamics using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Analysis of the optimized geometries reveals that none of the previously proposed stabilizing factors, including intramolecular H-bonds, intramolecular nonbonding interactions, bulky steric protection, nor the C(2)–N(1) bond distance can be used to clearly explain the effect of 2,5-substituents on the stability of the spin adducts. Additionally the effect of the 2,5-substituents on the stability of the superoxide spin adducts cannot be simply clarified by Milliken charges on both atoms (nitroxyl nitrogen and nitroxyl oxygen). Subsequent study found that spin densities on the nitroxyl nitrogen and oxygen are well correlated with the half-life times of the spin adducts, and consequently are the proper parameters to characterize the effect of 2,5-substituents on their stability. Examination of the decomposition thermodynamics further supports the effect of the substituents on the persistence of cyclic nitrone superoxide spin adducts.
Short AT base pair sequences that are separated by a small number of GCs are common in eukaryotic parasite genomes. Cell-permeable compounds that bind effectively and selectively to such sequences present an attractive therapeutic approach. Compounds with linked, one or two amidine-benzimidazole-phenyl (ABP) motifs were designed, synthesized and evaluated for binding to adjacent AT sites by biosensor-surface plasmon resonance (SPR). A surprising feature of the linked ABP motifs is that a set of six similar compounds has three different minor groove binding modes with the target sequences. Compounds with one ABP bind independently to two separated AT sites. Unexpectedly, compounds with two ABP motifs can bind strongly either as monomers or as cooperative dimers to the full site. The results are supported by mass spectrometry and circular dichroism, and models to explain the different binding modes are presented.
The recent boom of energy storage and conversion devices, exploiting ionic liquids (ILs) to enhance the performance, requires an in-depth understanding of this new class of electrolytes in device operation conditions. One central question critical to device performance is how the mobile ions accumulate near charged electrodes. Here, we present the excess ion depth profiles of ILs in ionomer membrane actuators (Aquivion/1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium chloride (BMMI-Cl), 27 μm thick), characterized directly by Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) at liquid nitrogen temperature. Experimental results reveal that for the IL studied, cations and anions are accumulated at both electrodes. The large difference in the total volume occupied by the excess ions between the two electrodes cause the observed large bending actuation of the actuator. Hence we demonstrate that ToF-SIMS experiment provides great insights on the physics nature of ionic devices.
Development of reporter genes for multimodality molecular imaging is highly important. In contrast to the conventional strategies which have focused on fusing several reporter genes together to serve as multimodal reporters, human tyrosinase (TYR) – the key enzyme in melanin production – was evaluated in this study as a stand-alone reporter gene for in vitro and in vivo photoacoustic imaging (PAI), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Human breast cancer cells MCF-7 transfected with a plasmid that encodes TYR (named as MCF-7-TYR) and non-transfected MCF-7 cells were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Melanin targeted N-(2-(diethylamino)ethyl)-18F-5-fluoropicolinamide was used as a PET reporter probe. In vivo PAI/MRI/PET imaging studies showed that MCF-7-TYR tumors achieved significant higher signals and tumor-to-background contrasts than those of MCF-7 tumor. Our study demonstrates that TYR gene can be utilized as a multifunctional reporter gene for PAI/MRI/PET both in vitro and in vivo.
Two cases of asymptomatic double aortic arch with tetralogy of Fallot are reported. One presented with a non-dominant left arch and left-sided descending thoracic aorta and the other with a non-dominant left arch, a right-sided descending thoracic aorta and a patent ductus arteriosus. One-stage operation was performed and both patients were discharged free of symptoms and signs related to the double aortic arch and tetralogy of Fallot after the operation. A preoperative recognition of DAA is important, especially in echocardiographic investigation.
Double aortic arch; Tetralogy of Fallot; Congenital heart disease
Although cryptococcosis mainly occurs in the central nervous system and lungs in immunocompromised hosts, it can involve any body site or structure. Here we report the first case of primary cryptococcosis of a lumbar vertebra without involvement of the central nervous system or lungs in a relatively immunocompromised individual with rheumatoid arthritis and scleroderma.
A 40-year-old Chinese woman with rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed 1 year beforehand and with a subsequent diagnosis of scleroderma was found to have an isolated cryptococcal infection of the fourth lumbar vertebra. Her main complaints were severe low back and left leg pain. Cryptococcosis was diagnosed by CT-guided needle biopsy and microbiological confirmation; however, serum cryptococcal antigen titer was negative. After 3 months of antifungal therapy with fluconazole the patient developed symptoms and signs of scleroderma, which was confirmed on laboratory tests. After taking fluconazole for 6 months, the progressive destruction of the lumbar vertebral body had halted and the size of an adjacent paravertebral mass had decreased substantially. On discharge symptoms had resolved and at an annual follow-up there was no evidence of recurrence on the basis of symptoms, signs or imaging investigations.
Although cryptococcosis of the lumbar vertebra is extremely rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients with lumbar vertebral masses to avoid missed diagnosis, misdiagnosis and diagnostic delay. Early treatment with antifungals proved to be a satisfactory alternative to surgery in this relatively immunocompromised patient. Any residual spinal instability can be treated later, once the infection has resolved.
Cryptococcosis; Lumbar vertebra; Rheumatoid arthritis; Scleroderma; Fluconazole
Background and objectives
Nephrotic syndrome (NS) represents a common disease in pediatric nephrology typified by a relapsing and remitting course and characterized by the presence of edema that can significantly affect the health-related quality of life in children and adolescents. The PROMIS pediatric measures were constructed to be publically available, efficient, precise, and valid across a variety of diseases to assess patient reports of symptoms and quality of life. This study was designed to evaluate the ability of children and adolescents with NS to complete the PROMIS assessment via computer and to initiate validity assessments of the short forms and full item banks in pediatric NS. Successful measurement of patient reported outcomes will contribute to our understanding of the impact of NS on children and adolescents.
This cross-sectional study included 151 children and adolescents 8-17 years old with NS from 16 participating institutions in North America. The children completed the PROMIS pediatric depression, anxiety, social-peer relationships, pain interference, fatigue, mobility and upper extremity functioning measures using a web-based interface. Responses were compared between patients experiencing active NS (n = 53) defined by the presence of edema and patients with inactive NS (n = 96) defined by the absence of edema.
All 151 children and adolescents were successfully able to complete the PROMIS assessment via computer. As hypothesized, the children and adolescents with active NS were significantly different on 4 self-reported measures (anxiety, pain interference, fatigue, and mobility). Depression, peer relationships, and upper extremity functioning were not different between children with active vs. inactive NS. Multivariate analysis showed that the PROMIS instruments remained sensitive to NS disease activity after adjusting for demographic characteristics.
Children and adolescents with NS were able to successfully complete the PROMIS instrument using a web-based interface. The computer based pediatric PROMIS measurement effectively discriminated between children and adolescents with active and inactive NS. The domain scores found in this study are consistent with previous reports investigating the health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with NS. This study establishes known-group validity and feasibility for PROMIS pediatric measures in children and adolescents with NS.
Patient reported outcomes; Quality of life; Nephrotic syndrome; Pediatrics
Pseudomonas putida strain SJTE-1 can utilize 17β-estradiol and other environmental estrogens/toxicants, such as estrone, and naphthalene as sole carbon sources. We report the draft genome sequence of strain SJTE-1 (5,551,505 bp, with a GC content of 62.25%) and major findings from its annotation, which could provide insights into its biodegradation mechanisms.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain SJTD-1 can utilize long-chain alkanes, diesel oil, and crude oil as sole carbon sources. We report the draft genome sequence of strain SJTD-1 (6,074,058 bp, with a GC content of 66.83%) and major findings from its annotation, which could provide insights into its petroleum biodegradation mechanism.
The distal portion of rotavirus (RV) VP4 spike protein (VP8*) is implicated in binding to cellular receptors, thereby facilitating viral attachment and entry. While VP8* of some animal RVs engage sialic acid, human RVs often attach to and enter cells in a sialic acid-independent manner. A recent study demonstrated that the major human RVs (P, P, and P) recognize human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). In this study, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of RVs and showed further variations of RV interaction with HBGAs. On the basis of the VP8* sequences, RVs are grouped into five P genogroups (P[I] to P[V]), of which P[I], P[IV], and P[V] mainly infect animals, P[II] infects humans, and P[III] infects both animals and humans. The sialic acid-dependent RVs (P, P, P, and P) form a subcluster within P[I], while all three major P genotypes of human RVs (P, P, and P) are clustered in P[II]. We then characterized three human RVs (P, P, and P) in P[III] and observed a new pattern of binding to the type A antigen which is distinct from that of the P[II] RVs. The binding was demonstrated by hemagglutination and saliva binding assay using recombinant VP8* and native RVs. Homology modeling and mutagenesis study showed that the locations of the carbohydrate binding interfaces are shared with the sialic acid-dependent RVs, although different amino acids are involved. The P[III] VP8* proteins also bind the A antigens of the porcine and bovine mucins, suggesting the A antigen as a possible factor for cross-species transmission of RVs. Our study suggests that HBGAs play an important role in RV infection and evolution.
Several epidemiologic studies have evaluated the association between statins and lung cancer risk, whereas randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on cardiovascular outcomes provide relevant data as a secondary end point. We conducted a meta-analysis of all relevant studies to examine this association.
A systematic literature search up to March 2012 was performed in PubMed database. Study-specific risk estimates were pooled using a random-effects model.
Nineteen studies (5 RCTs and 14 observational studies) involving 38,013 lung cancer cases contributed to the analysis. They were grouped on the basis of study design, and separate meta-analyses were conducted. There was no evidence of an association between statin use and risk of lung cancer either among RCTs (relative risk [RR] 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76–1.09), among cohort studies (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.82–1.07), or among case-control studies (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.57–1.16). Low evidence of publication bias was found. However, statistically significant heterogeneity was found among cohort studies and among case-control studies. After excluding the studies contributing most to the heterogeneity, summary estimates were essentially unchanged.
The results of our meta-analysis suggest that there is no association between statin use and the risk of lung cancer.
Here we described a paclitaxel (PTX) nanocrystals formulation using D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) as the sole excipient for overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR), a key challenge in current cancer therapy. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report on PTX nanocrystals which can reverse MDR. TPGS serves as a surfactant to stabilize the nanocrystals and a P-gp inhibitor to reverse MDR. The size and morphology of the nanocrystals were studied by transmission electron microscopy and the crystalline structure was determined by powder X-ray diffraction. In vitro drug release profile showed that the nanocrystals exhibited sustained release kinetics compared to Taxol which is the clinical paclitaxel formulation. The cytotoxicity and antitumor efficacy in xenograft models were also investigated. It is demonstrated that PTX/TPGS nanocrystals have significant advantages over Taxol in achieving better therapeutic effect in Taxol-resistant cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, which was also confirmed by apoptosis assays. We envision that further development of this type of nanocrystals will provide a novel strategy for drug delivery and multidrug resistance treatment.
multidrug resistance; paclitaxel; nanocrystals; TPGS; cancer
Low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma (LGCCC) is a recently described rare tumor of salivary gland which exhibits clinically indolent behavior. This tumor predominantly consists of intraductal components and frequently exhibits papillary-cystic or cribriform proliferation pattern. Considering the histological features of LGCCC, it should be distinguished with papillocystic variant of acinic cell carcinoma, conventional salivary duct carcinoma, cystadenocarcinoma, polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma and mammary analogue secretory carcinoma. Herein, we presented two cases of LGCCC. One arose in the left parotid region in a 48-year-old male, and the other one arose in the right parotid gland in a 59-year-old female. For both cases, immunohistochemically, the luminal tumor cells showed diffuse expression of CK and S100; p63 and smooth muscle actin displayed a continuous rim of myoepithelial cells around all tumor islets; no myoepithelial cells were admixed with the luminal cells. Both patients were alive with no tumor recurrence or metastasis at follow-up.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2593621568999135
Salivary; Low-grade; Duct; Carcinoma; Cribriform; Cystadenocarcinoma
To analyze the effects of IL-10 on the HLA-G expression and the apoptosis of trophoblasts infected with Toxoplasma gondii.
T. gondii-infected or uninfected human trophoblasts and immortalized human placental BeWo cells were cultured with or without human IL-10. Uninfected and infected cells without IL-10 cells served as controls. HLA-G expression was measured by real-time PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. Cells apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Apoptosis associated moleculars were measured by real-time PCR and Western bolt.
HLA-G expression was increased in the infected trophoblasts and BeWo cells compared to uninfected cells. Treatment of infected cells with IL-10 decreased HLA-G expression compared to infected cells while no change in treatment of uninfected cells compared with uninfected cells. Levels of apoptosis and apoptosis associated caspase-3 and caspase-8 decreased and c-FLIP levels increased in treated infected cells with IL-10 compared to infected cells and no difference in IL-10 treated uninfected cells compared to uninfected cells.
IL-10 regulates HLA-G expression in T. gondii-infected trophoblasts. IL-10 treatment of infected trophoblasts reduced levels of apoptosis. This may contribute to the improvement in pregnancy outcomes when women infected with T. gondii treated with IL-10.
Developing advanced ionic electroactive devices such as ionic actuators and supercapacitors requires the understanding of ionic diffusion and drifting processes, which depend on the distances over which the ions travel, in these systems. The charge dynamics of [C4mim][PF6] ionic liquid films and Aquivion membranes with 40 wt% [C2mim][TfO] were investigated over a broad film thickness (d) range. It was found that the double layer charging time τDL follows the classic model τDL = λDd/(2D) very well, where D is the diffusion coefficient and λD the Debye length. In the longer time regimes (t ≫ τDL) where diffusion dominates, the charge dynamics become voltage dependent. For low applied voltage, the later stage charge process seems to follow the d2 dependence. However, at high voltages (> 0.5 V) in which significant device responses occur, the charging process does not show d2 dependence so that τdiff = d2/(4D), corresponding to the ion diffusion from the bulk region, was not observed.
Ionic liquid; Iomomer; Ionic electroactive polymer actuators
The reversibility of alkylation by a quinone methide intermediate (QM) avoids the irreversible consumption that plagues most reagents based on covalent chemistry and allows for site specific reaction that is controlled by the thermodynamics rather than kinetics of target association. This characteristic was originally examined with an oligonucleotide QM conjugate but broad application depends on alternative derivatives that are compatible with a cellular environment. Now, a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) derivative has been constructed and shown to exhibit an equivalent ability to delivery the reactive QM in a controlled manner. This new conjugate demonstrates high selectivity for a complementary sequence of DNA even when challenged with an alternative sequence containing a single T/T mismatch. Alkylation of non-complementary sequences is only possible when a template strand is present to co-localize the conjugate and its target. For efficient alkylation in this example, a single-stranded region of the target is required adjacent to the QM conjugate. Most importantly, the intrastrand self adducts formed between the PNA and its attached QM remained active and reversible over more than eight days in aqueous solution prior to reaction with a chosen target added subsequently.
Accurate detection of breast malignancy from histologically normal cells (“field effect”) has significant clinical implications in a broad base of breast cancer management, such as high-risk lesion management, personalized risk assessment, breast tumor recurrence, and tumor margin management. More accurate and clinically applicable tools to detect markers characteristic of breast cancer “field effect” that are able to guide the clinical management are urgently needed. We have recently developed a novel optical microscope, spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy, which extracts the nanoscale structural characteristics of cell nuclei (i.e., nuclear nano-morphology markers), using standard histology slides. In this proof-of-concept study, we present the use of these highly sensitive nuclear nano-morphology markers to identify breast malignancy from histologically normal cells. We investigated the nano-morphology markers from 154 patients with a broad spectrum of breast pathology entities, including normal breast tissue, non-proliferative benign lesions, proliferative lesions (without and with atypia), “malignant-adjacent” normal tissue, and invasive carcinoma. Our results show that the nuclear nano-morphology markers of “malignant-adjacent” normal tissue can detect the presence of invasive breast carcinoma with high accuracy and do not reflect normal aging. Further, we found that a progressive change in nuclear nano-morphology markers that parallel breast cancer risk, suggesting its potential use for risk stratification. These novel nano-morphology markers that detect breast cancerous changes from nanoscale structural characteristics of histologically normal cells could potentially benefit the diagnosis, risk assessment, prognosis, prevention, and treatment of breast cancer.
Field effect; Nanoscale structure; Phase microscopy; Nuclear nano-morphology markers
Sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma (SRMS) is exceedingly rare, and may cause a great diagnostic confusion. Histologically, it is characterized by abundant extracellular hyalinized matrix mimicking primitive chondroid or osteoid tissue. So, it may be easily misdiagnosed as chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, angiosarcoma and so on. Herein, we report a case of SRMS occurring in the masseter muscle in a 40-year-old male. The tumor showed a diverse histological pattern. The tumor cells were arranged into nests, cords, pseudovascular, adenoid, microalveoli and even single-file arrays. Immunostaining showed that the tumor was positive for the Vimentin, Desmin and MyoD1, and was negative for CK, P63, NSE, CD45, CD30, S-100, CD99, Myoglobin, CD68, CD34, CD31, and α–SMA. Based on the morphological finding and immunostaining, it was diagnosed as a SRMS. In addition, focally, our case also displayed a cribriform pattern resembling adenoid cystic carcinoma. This may represent a new histological feature which can broaden the histological spectrum of this tumor and also may lead to diagnostic confusion.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1615846455818924
Sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma; Rhabdomyosarcoma; Sarcoma
The outcomes of surgical treatment and related complications of post-tubercular kyphotic (PTK) deformity of the cervical spine or the cervico-thoracic spine were evaluated.
From January 2005 to October 2010, 12 cases with PTK (7 males, 5 females) with an average age of 30 years (range 21–43 years) formed the study group. There were ten patients with cervical deformities and two with cervico-thoracic kyphosis. Neurological function of all the patients was evaluated by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score and visual analogue scale (VAS) score. Two patients with severe cervico-thoracic deformity received modified skeleton traction pre-operatively. Ten patients underwent anterior debridement and reconstruction, using iliac crest or cages with autografts, while two patients with cervico-thoracic kyphosis received posterior instrumentation and fusion.
The mean pre-operative focal kyphotic angle was 42.58° (range 30–67°), reducing to −8° (range −15–11°) postoperatively (at the last follow-up visit). The average operating time was 117.50 min (80–200 min) with an average blood loss of 110 ml (range 50–300 ml). Neurological assessment of all the patients, using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score and visual analogue scale (VAS) score, was improved significantly after surgery. All patients had solid fusion and no major complication was observed in the follow-up.
One-stage anterior debridement, instrumentation and fusion for cervical spinal TB and single posterior instrumentation for cervico-thoracic spinal TB followed by chemotherapy is practical to correct PTK. The procedure has the advantage of lower blood loss, effective kyphosis correction and minimal complications. To patients with severe deformity, skeletal traction seemed indispensible.
There was a high percentage of macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae clinical isolates in China. The genetic relatedness of macrolide-resistant M. pneunomiae strains was investigated using the multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat assay (MLVA). Among 152 M. pneunomiae isolates, the 137 macrolide-resistant strains were clustered into 15 MLVA types, indicating that the high macrolide resistance rate in M. pneumoniae is a result of the dissemination of the multiple resistant clones.
We introduce a new technique, spectral contrast imaging microscopy (SCIM), for super-resolution microscopic imaging. Based on a novel contrast mechanism that encodes each local spatial frequency with a corresponding optical wavelength, SCIM provides a real-time high-resolution spectral contrast microscopic image with superior contrast. We show that two microscopic objects, separated by a distance smaller than the diffraction limit of the optical system, can be spatially resolved in the SCIM image as different colors. Results with numerical simulation and experiments using a high-resolution United States Air Force target are presented. The ability of SCIM for imaging biological cells is also demonstrated.
A microscopy technique, spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy (SL-QPM) is proposed for speckle-free, quantitative phase imaging of subcellular structures with subnanometer sensitivity. We quantified, for the first time to our knowledge, the refractive index of the cell nuclei on original unmodified histology specimens. We demonstrate that the refractive index of cell nucleus is highly sensitive in detecting cancer, especially in histologically normal-appearing cells from cancer patients. Because this technique is sensitive and does not require special sample processing, it can be disseminated to all clinical settings.
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of reduced cathartic bowel preparation with 2 L polyethylene glycol (PEG)-4000 electrolyte solution and 10 mg bisacodyl enteric-coated tablets for computed tomographic colonography (CTC).
METHODS: Sixty subjects who gave informed consent were randomly assigned to study group A, study group B or the control group. On the day prior to CTC, subjects in study group A were given 20 mL 40% wt/vol barium sulfate suspension before 3 mealtimes, 60 mL 60% diatrizoate meglumine diluted in 250 mL water after supper, and 10 mg bisacodyl enteric-coated tablets 1 h before oral administration of 2 L PEG-4000 electrolyte solution. Subjects in study group B were treated identically to those in study group A, with the exception of bisacodyl which was given 1 h after oral PEG-4000. Subjects in the control group were managed using the same strategy as the subjects in study group A, but without administration of bisacodyl. Residual stool and fluid scores, the attenuation value of residual fluid, and discomfort during bowel preparation in the three groups were analyzed statistically.
RESULTS: The mean scores for residual stool and fluid in study group A were lower than those in study group B, but the differences were not statistically significant. Subjects in study group A showed greater stool and fluid cleansing ability than the subjects in study group B. The mean scores for residual stool and fluid in study groups A and B were lower than those in the control group, and were significantly different. There was no significant difference in the mean attenuation value of residual fluid between study group A, study group B and the control group. The total discomfort index during bowel preparation was 46, 45 and 45 in the three groups, respectively, with no significant difference.
CONCLUSION: Administration of 10 mg bisacodyl enteric-coated tablets prior to or after oral administration of 2 L PEG-4000 electrolyte solution enhances stool and fluid cleansing ability, and has no impact on the attenuation value of residual fluid or the discomfort index. The former is an excellent alternative for CTC colorectum cleansing
Colorectal cancer; Screening; Computed tomographic colonography; Polyethylene glycol; Bisacodyl
ARID1A (AT-rich interactive domain 1A) has recently been identified as a tumor suppressor gene. Its mRNA expression is significantly low in many breast cancers; this is often associated with more aggressive phenotypes. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for its low expression has not been fully understood. This study was undertaken to evaluate the contribution of gene copy number variation, mutations, promoter methylation and histone modification to ARID1A’s low expression. 38 pairs of breast invasive ductal carcinomas and their normal breast tissue counterparts from the same patients were randomly selected for gene expression and copy number variation detection. Promoter methylation and histone modification levels were evaluated by MeDIP-qPCR and ChIP-qPCR, respectively. PCR product Sanger sequencing was carried out to detect the exon mutation rate. Twenty-two out of 38 invasive ductal carcinomas in the study (57.9%) revealed ARID1A mRNA low expression by realtime RT-PCR. The relative promoter methylation level was, significantly higher in ARID1A mRNA low expression group compared with its high expression group (p<0.001). In the low expression group, nineteen out of 22 invasive ductal carcinomas (86.4%) exhibited ARID1A promoter hypermthylation. In addition, the promoter hypermethylation was accompanied with repressive histone modification (H3K27Me3). Although five out of 38 invasive ductal carcinomas (13.2%) exhibited loss of ARID1A gene copy number by realtime PCR and nine exon novel mutations are seen from eight out of 33 invasive ductal carcinomas (24.2%), there was no statistically significant difference in both ARID1A mRNA low and high expression groups (p = 0.25,and p = 0.68, respectively). We demonstrate that promoter hypermethylation was the main culprit for ARID1A mRNA low expression in invasive ductal carcinomas. The influence of mutation and copy number variation on the expression were statistically insignificant at mRNA level, and were, therefore, not considered the main causes for ARID1A mRNA low expression in invasive breast cancer.
A dynamical system is controllable if by imposing appropriate external signals on a subset of its nodes, it can be driven from any initial state to any desired state in finite time. Here we study the impact of various network characteristics on the minimal number of driver nodes required to control a network. We find that clustering and modularity have no discernible impact, but the symmetries of the underlying matching problem can produce linear, quadratic or no dependence on degree correlation coefficients, depending on the nature of the underlying correlations. The results are supported by numerical simulations and help narrow the observed gap between the predicted and the observed number of driver nodes in real networks.