The aim of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of transmitted drug-resistant (TDR) mutations and reverse transcriptase (RT) thumb subdomain polymorphisms in CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC virus among newly diagnosed, therapy-naive HIV-1 patients in Guangdong Province, China. One hundred and sixty-four samples were collected in the Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital. The entire protease gene and 300 codons of the entry part of the reverse transcriptase were amplified and sequenced. Furthermore, genotypic drug resistance, polymorphisms, and their phylogeny were analyzed. According to eligibility criteria, seven samples were excluded, and 119 of 157 (75.8%) samples (84 CRF01_AE and 35 CRF07_BC) were amplified and sequenced successfully. The prevalence of TDR identified in the present study was 6.7% [8/119, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8–11.6%]. Three major resistance mutations, K103N, M184V, and Y188L, each of which caused more than one drug resistance, appeared in only two patients; the prevalence [1.7 % (2/119)] was relatively low. Until now, this is the first observation of the five newly identified accessory mutations, V35T, K43E, V60I, K122E, and E203D, and seven thumb subdomain polymorphisms, A272P, K277R, K281R, T286A, E291D, V292I, and I293V, in the RT gene in China. These findings provide useful information for guidance on the antiretroviral therapy (ART) policy in China where therapeutic options are still limited.
Mutations 1 295 228 C>T and 1 295 250 C>T (termed C228T and C250T respectively), corresponding to −124 C>T and −146 C>T from the translation start site in the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene, have recently been reported in human cancers, but not in thyroid cancers yet. We explored these mutations in thyroid cancers by genomic sequencing of a large number of primary tumor samples. We found the C228T mutation in 0 of 85 (0.0%) benign thyroid tumors, 30 of 257 (11.7%) papillary thyroid cancers (PTC), 9 of 79 (11.4%) follicular thyroid cancers (FTC), 3 of 8 (37.5%) poorly differentiated thyroid cancers (PDTC), 23 of 54 (42.6%) anaplastic thyroid cancers (ATC), and 8 of 12 (66.7%) thyroid cancer cell lines. The C250T mutation was uncommon, but mutually exclusive with the C228T mutation, and the two mutations were collectively found in 11 of 79 (13.9%) FTC, 25 of 54 (46.3%) ATC, and 11 of 12 (91.7%) thyroid cancer cell lines. Among PTC variants, the C228T mutation was found in 4 of 13 (30.8%) tall-cell PTC (TCPTC), 23 of 187 (12.3%) conventional PTC, and 2 of 56 (3.6%) follicular variant PTC samples. No TERT mutation was found in 16 medullary thyroid cancer samples. The C228T mutation was associated with the BRAF V600E mutation in PTC, being present in 19 of 104 (18.3%) BRAF mutation-positive PTC vs 11 of 153 (7.2%) the BRAF mutation-negative PTC samples (P=0.0094). Conversely, BRAF mutation was found in 19 of 30 (63.3%) C228T mutation-positive PTC vs 85 of 227 (37.4%) C228T mutation-negative PTC samples (P=0.0094). We thus for the first time, to our knowledge, demonstrate TERT promoter mutations in thyroid cancers, that are particularly prevalent in the aggressive thyroid cancers TCPTC, PDTC, ATC and BRAF mutation-positive PTC, revealing a novel genetic background for thyroid cancers.
TERT promoter mutations; thyroid cancers; BRAF V600E mutation; telomerase reverse transcriptase; thyroid tumorigenesis
Glioblastomas are the most aggressive forms of primary brain tumors due to their tendency to invade surrounding healthy brain tissues, rendering them largely incurable. The water channel protein, Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a key molecule for maintaining water and ion homeostasis in the central nervous system and has recently been reported with cell survival except for its well-known function in brain edema. An increased AQP4 expression has been demonstrated in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), suggesting it is also involved in malignant brain tumors. In this study, we show that siRNA-mediated down regulation of AQP4 induced glioblastoma cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. We further show that several apoptotic key proteins, Cytochrome C, Bcl-2 and Bad are involved in AQP4 signaling pathways. Our results indicate that AQP4 may serve as an anti-apoptosis target for therapy of glioblastoma.
The present study investigates the varied spatial distribution of syphilis cases in Shenzhen, China, and explores the individual-, neighbourhood- and district-level factors affecting the distribution.
This study uses spatial analysis and multi-level generalised estimating equations to explore the spatial distribution of reported syphilis cases among individuals in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. The spatial distribution of primary/secondary and latent cases was investigated using the Moran’s I-statistic. Primary/secondary syphilis cases were compared with all syphilis cases using a three-level model with individual (n=6496), neighbourhood (n=55) and district (n=6) levels.
A total of 6496 syphilis cases were reported in 2009 with 35.8% primary and secondary syphilis cases. Both primary/secondary syphilis cases (Moran’s I value=0.33, p<0.01) and latent syphilis cases (Moran’s I value=0.19, p<0.01) showed significant spatial clustering at the neighbourhood level. Adjusting for the number of reporting hospitals, the best model found that the following characteristics were associated with primary/secondary syphilis infection: individuals who are younger in age (p=0.003), male (p<0.001), migrant labourers (p=0.047) and those who live in districts with a higher gross domestic product (p<0.001).
There is substantial clustering of primary and secondary syphilis cases at the neighbourhood level in Shenzhen, suggesting the need for greater STD health service provision in these clustered neighbourhoods. Spatially targeted syphilis control measures may be useful to optimise testing, treatment and partner services.
This Letter proposes a new strategy of a three-dimensional (3D) scanning pipeline to achieve complete 3D digitization of complex objects in a real scene. This strategy consists of a one-dimensional array of optical 3D sensors combined with an automatically controlled turntable. An efficient calibration method for the sensor array is presented to guarantee the accuracy of the 3D measurement. Furthermore, an automatic registration technique is also proposed for aligning multiple range images taken from sensor array. Experiment results are also presented to demonstrate the proposed approach.
Acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing commonly refers to cell density-dependent regulatory mechanisms found in bacteria. However, beyond bacteria, this cell-to-cell communication mechanism is poorly understood. Here we show that a methanogenic archaeon, Methanosaeta harundinacea 6Ac, encodes an active quorum sensing system that is used to regulate cell assembly and carbon metabolic flux. The methanogen 6Ac showed a cell density-dependent physiology transition, which was related to the AHL present in the spent culture and the filI gene-encoded AHL synthase. Through extensive chemical analyses, a new class of carboxylated AHLs synthesized by FilI protein was identified. These carboxylated AHLs facilitated the transition from a short cell to filamentous growth, with an altered carbon metabolic flux that favoured the conversion of acetate to methane and a reduced yield in cellular biomass. The transcriptomes of the filaments and the short cell forms differed with gene expression profiles consistent with the physiology. In the filaments, genes encoding the initial enzymes in the methanogenesis pathway were upregulated, whereas those for cellular carbon assimilation were downregulated. A luxI–luxR ortholog filI–filR was present in the genome of strain 6Ac. The carboxylated AHLs were also detected in other methanogen cultures and putative filI orthologs were identified in other methanogenic genomes as well. This discovery of AHL-based quorum sensing systems in methanogenic archaea implies that quorum sensing mechanisms are universal among prokaryotes.
carboxylated acyl homoserine lactones; filI-encoded AHL synthase; methanogenic archaea; physiology transition; quorum sensing
To understand better the risk of tuberculosis transmission with increasing delay in tuberculosis treatment, we undertook a retrospective cohort study in Shenzhen, China.
All pulmonary tuberculosis cases in the Shenzhen tuberculosis surveillance database from 1993–2010 were included. Sputum smear positivity and presence of pulmonary cavity were used as proxies for risk of tuberculosis transmission.
Among 48,441pulmonary tuberculosis cases, 70% presented with symptoms of pulmonary TB, 62% were sputum smear positive, and 21% had a pulmonary cavity on chest x-ray. 95.3% of patients self-presented for evaluation of illness after a median 58 days of delay after symptoms began. The proportion presenting sputum smear positive (p<0.001) and with a pulmonary cavity (p<0.001) increased significantly with increasing duration of delay.
Delayed diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis is associated with a significantly increased risk of pulmonary sputum smear positivity and pulmonary cavity. To decrease risk of transmission, treatment delay needs to be reduced further.
Background & Aims
Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is one of the most deadly, prevalent, and costly diseases in Asia. However, no prognostic model has been developed that is based specifically on data gathered from Asian patients with ACLF. The aim of the present study was to quantify the survival time of ACLF among Asians and to develop a prognostic model to estimate the probability of death related to ACLF.
We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study to analyze clinical data from 857 patients with ACLF/pre-ACLF who did not undergo liver transplantation. Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to estimate survival rates and survival affected factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (auROC) was used to evaluate the performance of the models for predicting early mortality.
The mortality rates among patients with pre-ACLF at 12 weeks and 24 weeks after diagnosis were 30.5% and 33.2%, respectively. The mortality rates among patients with early-stage ACLF at 12 weeks and 24 weeks after diagnosis were 33.9% and 37.1%, respectively. The difference in survival between pre-ACLF patients and patients in the early stage of ACLF was not statistically significant. The prognostic model identified 5 independent factors significantly associated with survival among patients with ACLF and pre-ACLF: the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score; age, hepatic encephalopathy; triglyceride level and platelet count.
The findings of the present study suggest that the Chinese diagnostic criteria of ACLF might be broadened, thus enabling implementation of a novel model to predict ACLF-related death after comprehensive medical treatment.
Coastal line is now polluted by many kinds of sewage including heavy metals discharged by intensive human activities. Cadmium is a nonessential heavy metal for organisms and can cause many kinds of adverse effect on the organisms. Suaeda salsa, a pioneer halophyte in intertidal zone of the Bohai coast, was proved to have cadmium-tolerant capacity. Given that, S. salsa was suggested as a potential coastal bio-indicator plant for cadmium contamination in the intertidal zone. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the responsive mechanism of S. salsa to cadmium since few studies focus on this subject till now. In the present study, six genes were selected to investigate the variation profiles of mRNA expression by fluorescent real-time quantitative PCR, including those involved in myo-inositol synthesis, redox reaction, salt-tolerant reaction. Results showed that cadmium exposure significantly modulate the mRNA expressions of MIPS, Nhx1, CAT2, GST, Prx Q genes. It suggested that cadmium exposure exerted an oxidative stress on S. salsa, disturbed Na+ homeostasis across membranes and interfered with the metabolism of inositol. In addition, CAT2 gene could be used as a gene marker in S. salsa to indicate cadmium pollution.
Suaeda salsa; qRT-PCR; Gene expression; Cadmium
As an environmental contaminant, mercury is of great concern due to its high risk to environmental and human health. The halophyte Suaeda salsa is the dominant plant in the intertidal zones of the Yellow River Delta (YRD) where has been contaminated by mercury in some places. This study aimed at evaluating the chronic effects of mercury (Hg2+, 20 µg L−1) and the influence of an environmentally relevant salinity (NaCl, 500 mM) on mercury-induced effects in S. salsa. A total of 43 protein spots with significant changes were identified in response to Hg2+, salinity and combined Hg2+ and salinity. These proteins can be categorized into diverse functional classes, related to metabolic processes, photosynthesis, stress response, protein fate, energy metabolism, signaling pathways and immunosuppression. Metabolic responses demonstrated that Hg2+ could disturb protein and energy metabolisms in S. salsa co-exposed with or without salinity. In addition, both antagonistic and synergistic effects between Hg2+ and salinity were confirmed by differential levels of proteins (magnesium-chelatase and ribulose-l,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) and metabolites (valine, malonate, asparagine, glycine, fructose and glucose) in S. salsa. These findings suggest that a combination of proteomics and metabolomics can provide insightful information of environmental contaminant-induced effects in plants at molecular levels.
A sinusoidal modulation scheme is described for selective heteronuclear polarization transfer between two dilute spins in double cross polarization magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. During the second N → C cross polarization, the 13C RF amplitude is modulated sinusoidally while the 15N RF amplitude is tangent. This modulation induces an effective spin-lock field in two selective frequency bands in either side of the 13C RF carrier frequency, allowing for simultaneous polarization transfers from 15N to 13C in those two selective frequency bands. It is shown by experiments and simulations that this sinusoidal modulation allows one to selectively polarize from 15N to its covalently bonded 13Cα and 13C′ carbons in neighboring peptide planes simultaneously, which is useful for establishing the back-bone connectivity between two sequential residues in protein structural elucidation. The selectivity and efficiency were experimentally demonstrated on a uniformly 13C,15N-labeled β1 immunoglobulin binding domain of protein G (GB1).
Double cross polarization (DCP); NCA/NCO; Solid-state MAS NMR; Heteronuclear polarization transfer
The search for a strategy to provide temporary liver support and salvage the patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) remains an important issue. This study was designed to evaluate the experience in artificial liver support system (ALSS) combined with liver transplantation (LT) in the treatment of ACLF.
One hundred and seventy one patients with HBV related ACLF undergoing LT between January 2001 and December 2009 were included. Of the 171 patients, 115 received 247 sessions of plasma exchange-centered ALSS treatment prior to LT (ALSS-LT group) and the other 56 received emergency LT (LT group). The MELD score were 31±6 and 30±7 in ALSS-LT group and LT group. ALSS treatment resulted in improvement of liver function and better tolerance to LT. The average level of serum total bilirubin before LT was lower than that before the first time of ALSS treatment. The median waiting time for a donor liver was 12 days (2–226 days) from the first run of ALSS treatment to LT. Compared to LT group, the beneficial influences of ALSS on intraoperative blood loss and endotracheal intubation time were also observed in ALSS-LT group. The 1-year and 5-year survival rates in the ALSS-LT group and LT group were 79.2% and 83%, 69.7% and 78.6%.
Plasma exchange-centered ALSS is beneficial in salvaging patients with ACLF when a donor liver is not available. The consequential LT is the fundamental treatment modality to rescue these patients and lead to a similar survival rate as those patients receiving emergency transplantation.
Recent studies demonstrate that UHRF1 is required for DNA methylation maintenance by targeting DNMT1 to DNA replication foci, presumably through its unique hemi-methylated DNA-binding activity and interaction with DNMT1. UHRF2, another member of the UHRF family proteins, is highly similar to UHRF1 in both sequence and structure, raising questions about its role in DNA methylation. In this study, we demonstrate that, like UHRF1, UHRF2 also binds preferentially to methylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) through its conserved tudor domain and hemi-methylated DNA through the SET and Ring associated domain. Like UHRF1, UHRF2 is enriched in pericentric heterochromatin. The heterochromatin localization depends to large extent on its methylated H3K9-binding activity and to less extent on its methylated DNA-binding activity. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that both UHRF1 and UHRF2 interact with DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b and G9a. Despite all these conserved functions, we find that UHRF2 is not able to rescue the DNA methylation defect in Uhrf1 null mouse embryonic stem cells. This can be attributed to the inability for UHRF2 to recruit DNMT1 to replication foci during S phase of the cell cycle. Indeed, we find that while UHRF1 interacts with DNMT1 in an S phase-dependent manner in cells, UHRF2 does not. Thus, our study demonstrates that UHRF2 and UHRF1 are not functionally redundant in DNA methylation maintenance and reveals the cell-cycle-dependent interaction between UHRF1 and DNMT1 as a key regulatory mechanism targeting DNMT1 for DNA methylation.
UHRF2; UHRF1; DNA methylation; histone methylation; DNMT1
Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) associated with PCV2 is one of the most costly diseases currently faced by the swine industry. The development of effective vaccines against PCV2 infection has been accepted as an important strategy in the prophylaxis of PMWS.
In the present study, a PK-15 cell-adapted formalin-inactivated prototype vaccine candidate was prepared using a strain of PCV2 from China. Inactivation of the virus was accomplished using a standard formalin inactivation protocol. The protective properties of the inactivated PCV2 vaccine were evaluated in piglets. Ten 28-day-old pigs were randomly assigned to two groups, each with five. Group 1 was vaccinated intramuscularly with the inactivated virus preparation; Group 2 received sterile PBS as a placebo. By 28 days post-vaccination (DPV), Groups 1 and 2 were challenged intranasally and intramuscularly with 5 × 107 TCID50 of a virulent PCV2 isolate.
The vaccinated pigs seroconverted to PCV2 and had high levels of serum antibodies to PCV2 at 28 days after vaccination, whereas the control pigs remained seronegative. No significant signs of clinical disease were recorded following the challenge with PCV2, but moderate amounts of PCV2 antigen were detected in most lymphoid organs of the control pigs. PCV2 was detected in two out of the five vaccinated pigs. Furthermore, pathological lesions and viremia were milder in the vaccinated group.
The obtained results indicate that the inactivated PCV2 virus vaccine with an oil adjuvant induce an immunological response in pigs that appears to provide protection from infection with PCV2. The vaccine, therefore, may have the potential to serve as a vaccine aimed to protect pigs from developing PMWS.
Porcine circovirus type 2; Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome; Single-dose immunization; Formalin-inactivated vaccine
Sepsis remains the leading cause of death in critically ill patients despite modern advances in critical care. Intestinal barrier dysfunction may lead to secondary bacterial translocation and the development of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome during sepsis. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is highly upregulated in the intestine during sepsis and we hypothesized that it may be critical in the maintenance of intestinal epithelial barrier function during peritonitis-induced polymicrobial sepsis. COX-2−/− and COX-2+/+ BALB/c mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham surgery. Mice chimeric for COX-2 were derived by bone marrow transplantation and underwent CLP. C2BBe1 cells, an intestinal epithelial cell line, were treated with the COX-2 inhibitor NS-398, PGD2, or vehicle and stimulated with cytokines. COX-2−/− mice developed exaggerated bacteremia and increased mortality compared with COX-2+/+ mice following CLP. Mice chimeric for COX-2 exhibited the recipient phenotype suggesting that epithelial COX-2 expression in the ileum attenuates bacteremia following CLP. Absence of COX-2 significantly increased epithelial permeability of the ileum and reduced expression of the tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and claudin-1 in the ileum following CLP. Furthermore, PGD2 attenuated cytokine-induced hyperpermeability and ZO-1 downregulation in NS-398-treated C2BBe1 cells. Our findings reveal that absence of COX-2 is associated with enhanced intestinal epithelial permeability and leads to exaggerated bacterial translocation and increased mortality during peritonitis-induced sepsis. Taken together, our results suggest that epithelial expression of COX-2 in the ileum is a critical modulator of tight junction protein expression and intestinal barrier function during sepsis.
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein 2 (NOD2) stimulates diverse inflammatory responses resulting in differential cellular phenotypes. To identify the role of NOD2 in vascular arterial obstructive diseases, we investigated the expression and pathophysiological role of NOD2 in a vascular injury model of neointimal hyperplasia.
Methods and Results
We first analyzed for neointimal hyperplasia following femoral artery injury in NOD2+/+ and NOD2−/− mice. NOD2−/− mice showed a 2.86-fold increase in neointimal formation that was mainly composed of SM α-actin positive cells. NOD2 was expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and NOD2−/− VSMCs showed increased cell proliferation in response to mitogenic stimuli, PDGF-BB or fetal bovine serum (FBS), compared with NOD2+/+ VSMCs. Furthermore, NOD2 deficiency markedly promoted VSMCs migration in response to PDGF-BB and this increased cell migration was attenuated by a PI3 kinase inhibitor. However, PKC and JNK inhibitors exerted negligible effects. Moreover, muramyl dipeptide-stimulated NOD2 prevented PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs migration.
Functional NOD2 is expressed in VSMCs, and NOD2 deficiency promoted VSMCs proliferation, migration, and neointimal formation after vascular injury. These results provide evidence for the involvement of NOD2 in vascular homeostasis and tissue injury, serving as a potential molecular target in the modulation of arteriosclerotic vascular disease.
In the current study, five novel avian β-defensins (AvBDs) were identified and characterized in tissues from Peking ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). The nucleotide sequences of these cDNAs comprised 198 bp, 182 bp, 201 bp, 204 bp, and 168 bp, and encoded 65, 60, 66, 67, and 55 amino acids, respectively. Homology, characterization and comparison of these genes with AvBD from other avian species confirmed that they were Apl_AvBD1, 3, 5, 6, and 16. Recombinant AvBDs were produced and purified by expressing these genes in Escherichia coli. In addition, peptides were synthesized according to the respective AvBD sequences. Investigation of the antibacterial activity of the Apl_AvBDs showed that all of them exhibited antibacterial activity against all 12 bacteria investigated (P<0.05 or P<0.01). In addition, the antibacterial activity of all of the AvBDs against M. tetragenus and P. multocida decreased significantly in the presence of 150 mM NaCl (P<0.01). None of the AvBDs showed hemolytic activity. Consistent with their broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, the five novel Apl_AvBDs inhibited replication of duck hepatitis virus (DHV) in vitro significantly (P<0.05). The mRNA expression of all five Apl_AvBD in most tissues, including immune organs and the liver, was upregulated in response to DHV infection at different time points. These findings provide evidence that these defensins activate the immune response to combat microbial infection.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the modulatory effect of changes of subthalamic nucleus (STN) activity on the development of central fatigue during exhausting exercise, and reveal the possible mechanism that might affect STN activity from the perspective of neurotransmitters. Rats were randomly divided into electrophysiology and microdialysis study groups. For electrophysiological study, electrical activity in sensorimotor cortex and STN were simultaneously recorded before, during and 90min after the exhausting exercise. For microdialysis study, extracellular fluid of STN was continuously collected with a microdialysis probe and glutamate (Glu), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels were subsequently detected with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The behavioral studies showed that rats ran well initiatively with the treadmill exercise in the beginning, 45 ± 11.5min later, movement capacity reduced obviously (which was termed as ‘early fatigue’). Correspondingly, STN activity increased significantly compared with rest condition (p < 0.05), while, cortex activity decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Subsequently, rats continued their exercise with minor external stimulation till exhaustion. Cortex activity reached the minimum value under exhaustion condition, while STN activity changed insignificantly (p > 0.05). For microdialysis study, the dynamic change of Glu/GABA ratio was consistent with the change of STN activity during the development of ‘early fatigue’ rather than the development of exhaustion. In conclusion, the present study shows that, the development of the cortex fatigue during exhausting exercise consists of two phases, ‘early fatigue’ and exhaustion. Our results suggest that, dynamic changes of STN activity are closely relevant to the development of ‘early fatigue’ rather than exhaustion, and the changes of STN activity during the development of ‘early fatigue’ might be partly related to the variance of Glu and GABA levels in STN extracellular fluid.
The development of the cortex fatigue during exhausting exercise consists of two phases, ‘early fatigue’ and exhaustion.
Dynamic changes of STN activity are closely relevant to the development of ‘early fatigue’ rather than exhaustion.
The changes of STN activity during the development of ‘early fatigue’ might be partly related to the variance of Glu and GABA levels in STN extracellular fluid.
Subthalamic nucleus; central fatigue; exhausting exercise; electrophysiology; microdialysis
In this work, we report the complete genome sequence of an obligate aceticlastic methanogen, Methanosaeta harundinacea 6Ac. Genome comparison indicated that the three cultured Methanosaeta spp., M. thermophila, M. concilii and M. harundinacea 6Ac, each carry an entire suite of genes encoding the proteins involved in the methyl-group oxidation pathway, a pathway whose function is not well documented in the obligately aceticlastic methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the methyl-group oxidation-involving proteins, Fwd, Mtd, Mch, and Mer from Methanosaeta strains cluster with the methylotrophic methanogens, and were not closely related to those from the hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Quantitative PCR detected the expression of all genes for this pathway, albeit ten times lower than the genes for aceticlastic methanogenesis in strain 6Ac. Western blots also revealed the expression of fwd and mch, genes involved in methyl-group oxidation. Moreover, 13C-labeling experiments suggested that the Methanosaeta strains might use the pathway as a methyl oxidation shunt during the aceticlastic metabolism. Because the mch mutants of Methanosarcina barkeri or M. acetivorans failed to grow on acetate, we suggest that Methanosaeta may use methyl-group oxidation pathway to generate reducing equivalents, possibly for biomass synthesis. An fpo operon, which encodes an electron transport complex for the reduction of CoM-CoB heterodisulfide, was found in the three genomes of the Methanosaeta strains. However, an incomplete protein complex lacking the FpoF subunit was predicted, as the gene for this protein was absent. Thus, F420H2 was predicted not to serve as the electron donor. In addition, two gene clusters encoding the two types of heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr), hdrABC, and hdrED, respectively, were found in the three Methanosaeta genomes. Quantitative PCR determined that the expression of hdrED was about ten times higher than hdrABC, suggesting that hdrED plays a major role in aceticlastic methanogenesis.
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is first to be discovered coronavirus which is probably endemic in all regions with intensive impact on poultry production. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-DIGE), coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS), to explore the global proteome profiles of trachea and kidney tissues from chicken at different stages infected in vivo with the highly virulent ck/CH/LDL/97I P5 strain of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and the embryo-passaged, attenuated ck/CH/LDL/97I P115 strain.
Fifty-eight differentially expressed proteins were identified. Results demonstrated that some proteins which had functions in cytoskeleton organization, anti-oxidative stress, and stress response, showed different change patterns in abundance from chicken infected with the highly virulent ck/CH/LDL/97I P5 strain and those given the embryo-passaged, attenuated P115 stain. In addition, the dynamic transcriptional alterations of 12 selected proteins were analyzed by the real-time RT-PCR, and western blot analysis confirmed the change in abundance of heat shock proteins (HSP) beta-1, annexin A2, and annexin A5.
The proteomic alterations described here may suggest that these changes to protein expression correlate with IBV virus' virulence in chicken, hence provides valuable insights into the interactions of IBV with its host and may also assist with investigations of the pathogenesis of IBV and other coronavirus infections.
Infectious bronchitis virus; Proteomics; Chicken; Trachea; Kidney
Rationale: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a progressive disease with unclear etiology. The significance of autophagy in PH remains unknown.
Objectives: To determine the mechanisms by which autophagic proteins regulate tissue responses during PH.
Methods: Lungs from patients with PH, lungs from mice exposed to chronic hypoxia, and human pulmonary vascular cells were examined for autophagy using electron microscopy and Western analysis. Mice deficient in microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3B (LC3B−/−), or early growth response-1 (Egr-1−/−), were evaluated for vascular morphology and hemodynamics.
Measurements and Main Results: Human PH lungs displayed elevated lipid-conjugated LC3B, and autophagosomes relative to normal lungs. These autophagic markers increased in hypoxic mice, and in human pulmonary vascular cells exposed to hypoxia. Egr-1, which regulates LC3B expression, was elevated in PH, and increased by hypoxia in vivo and in vitro. LC3B−/− or Egr-1−/−, but not Beclin 1+/−, mice displayed exaggerated PH during hypoxia. In vitro, LC3B knockdown increased reactive oxygen species production, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α stabilization, and hypoxic cell proliferation. LC3B and Egr-1 localized to caveolae, associated with caveolin-1, and trafficked to the cytosol during hypoxia.
Conclusions: The results demonstrate elevated LC3B in the lungs of humans with PH, and of mice with hypoxic PH. The increased susceptibility of LC3B−/− and Egr-1−/− mice to hypoxia-induced PH and increased hypoxic proliferation of LC3B knockdown cells suggest adaptive functions of these proteins during hypoxic vascular remodeling. The results suggest that autophagic protein LC3B exerts a protective function during the pathogenesis of PH, through the regulation of hypoxic cell proliferation.
autophagy; hypoxia; hypertension, pulmonary
Haemophilus parasuis (H. parasuis) is the etiological agent of Glässer's disease in pigs. Currently, the molecular basis of this infection is largely unknown. The innate immune response is the first line of defense against the infectious disease. Systematical analysis on host innate immune response to the infection is important for understanding the pathogenesis of the infectious microorganisms.
A total of 428 differentially expressed (DE) genes were identified in the porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) 6 days after H. parasuis infection. These genes were principally related to inflammatory response, immune response, microtubule polymerization, regulation of transcript and signal transduction. Through the pathway analysis, the significant pathways mainly concerned with cell adhesion molecules, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, complement and coagulation cascades, toll-like receptor signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, suggesting that the host took different strategies to activate immune and inflammatory response upon H. parasuis infection. The global interactions network and two subnetworks of the proteins encoded by DE genes were analyzed by using STRING. Further immunostimulation analysis indicated that mRNA levels of S100 calcium-binding protein A4 (S100A4) and S100 calcium-binding protein A6 (S100A6) in porcine PK-15 cells increased within 48 h and were sustained after administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Poly (I:C) respectively. The s100a4 and s100a6 genes were found to be up-regulated significantly in lungs, spleen and lymph nodes in H. parasuis infected pigs. We firstly cloned and sequenced the porcine coronin1a gene. Phylogenetic analysis showed that poCORONIN 1A belonged to the group containing the Bos taurus sequence. Structural analysis indicated that the poCORONIN 1A contained putative domains of Trp-Asp (WD) repeats signature, Trp-Asp (WD) repeats profile and Trp-Asp (WD) repeats circular profile at the N-terminus.
Our present study is the first one focusing on the response of porcine alveolar macrophages to H. parasuis. Our data demonstrate a series of genes are activated upon H. parasuis infection. The observed gene expression profile could help screening the potential host agents for reducing the prevalence of H. parasuis and further understanding the molecular pathogenesis associated with H. parasuis infection in pigs.
To investigate the changes of color vision and central visual field in a cohort of patients with Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada (VKH) syndrome.
Sixteen VKH patients (32 eyes) were enrolled in this study. All the patients were treated with immunosuppressive agents. The best visual acuity, visual field testing and color vision testing were available from the records in all these patients at different time points, i.e. before treatment and 1 month (±7 days), 3 months (±15 days), 6 months (±20 days) and 12 months (±30 days) after treatment.
All patients showed active intraocular inflammation at their first visit. A decreased visual acuity, abnormality of color vision and abnormal visual field were observed at presentation. Visual acuity and color vision rapidly improved at 1 and 3 months and gradually improved thereafter. Visual field defects significantly improved at 6 months and gradually improved thereafter. However, visual field defects were still observed in 27.5% of the tested patients following a 12-month treatment. Color vision returned to the normal level only in about one-third of these patients at this time point.
Visual function was severely impaired in VKH patients with active uveitis but rapidly improved following immunosuppressive therapy. Visual fields are much more severely affected by the disease than visual acuity and its improvement lagged behind that of visual acuity and color vision.
Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada syndrome; Color vision; Visual field; Medicine & Public Health; Ophthalmology
High score of model for end-stage liver diseases (MELD) before liver transplantation (LT) indicates poor prognosis. Artificial liver support system (ALSS) has been proved to effectively improve liver and kidney functions, and thus reduce the MELD score. We aim to evaluate whether downgrading MELD score could improve patient survival after LT.
One hundred and twenty-six LT candidates with acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure and MELD score ≥30 were included in this prospective study. Of the 126 patients, 42 received emergency LT within 72 h (ELT group) and the other 84 were given ALSS as salvage treatment. Of the 84 patients, 33 were found to have reduced MELD score (<30) on the day of LT (DGM group), 51 underwent LT with persistent high MELD score (N-DGM group). The median waiting time for a donor was 10 for DGM group and 9.5 days for N-DGM group. In N-DGM group there is a significantly higher overall mortality (43.1%) than that in ELT group (16.7%) and DGM group (15.2%). N-DGM (vs. ECT and DGM) was the only independent risk factor of overall mortality (P = 0.003). Age >40 years and the interval from last ALSS to LT >48 h were independent negative influence factors of downgrading MELD.
Downgrading MELD for liver transplant candidates with MELD score ≥30 was effective in improving patient prognosis. An appropriate ALSS treatment within 48 h prior to LT is potentially beneficial.
Although progenitor cells have been described in distinct anatomical regions of the lung, description of resident stem cells has remained elusive.
Surgical lung-tissue specimens were studied in situ to identify and characterize human lung stem cells. We defined their phenotype and functional properties in vitro and in vivo.
Human lungs contain undifferentiated human lung stem cells nested in niches in the distal airways. These cells are self-renewing, clonogenic, and multipotent in vitro. After injection into damaged mouse lung in vivo, human lung stem cells form human bronchioles, alveoli, and pulmonary vessels integrated structurally and functionally with the damaged organ. The formation of a chimeric lung was confirmed by detection of human transcripts for epithelial and vascular genes. In addition, the self-renewal and long-term proliferation of human lung stem cells was shown in serial-transplantation assays.
Human lungs contain identifiable stem cells. In animal models, these cells participate in tissue homeostasis and regeneration. They have the undemonstrated potential to promote tissue restoration in patients with lung disease. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.)