Aim: Poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) based bioabsorbable stents with or without amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) were implanted and compared the inflammation in coronary arteries. Methods: 6 PLLA and 6 PLLA/ACP based paclitaxel-eluting stents were randomly implanted into the coronary arteries of 12 healthy mini-pigs. The segments with stent were used to evaluate inflammation score and endothelialization score by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Results: At the 28th day after stent implantation, no in-stent restenosis or stent thrombosis was found in both PLLA and PLLA/ACP group. Histological analysis indicated that the inflammation score in PLLA/ACP group was less than that of in PLLA group (2.20±0.42 vs. 2.80±0.48, P<0.05). Consist with that, the expression of NF-κB was lower in PLLA/ACP group. The results from immunohistochemistry showed that the expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and CD 31 in PLLA/ACP group were dramatically higher than those in PLLA group respectively. The serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nitric oxide (NO) in PLLA/ACP group were significantly higher than those in PLLA group respectively (509.86±49.37 pg/ml vs. 322.04±35.16 pg/ml and 139.46±7.52 μmol/L vs. 29.55±16.55 μmol/L, P<0.05). Conclusion: The application of ACP helps to reduce the inflammation caused by PLLA, and is also helpful in endothelial formation and function for PLLA-based bioabsorbable stent.
Poly-l-lactic acid; amorphous calcium phosphate; bioabsorbable stent; inflammation
There are currently no U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved vaccines or therapeutics to prevent or treat Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). The causative agent of AHF is Junin virus (JUNV); a New World arenavirus classified as a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention category A priority pathogen. The PTAP late (L) domain motif within JUNV Z protein facilitates virion egress and transmission by recruiting host Tsg101 and other ESCRT complex proteins to promote scission of the virus particle from the plasma membrane. Here, we describe a novel compound (compound 0013) that blocks the JUNV Z-Tsg101 interaction and inhibits budding of virus-like particles (VLPs) driven by ectopic expression of the Z protein and live-attenuated JUNV Candid-1 strain in cell culture. Since inhibition of the PTAP-Tsg101 interaction inhibits JUNV egress, compound 0013 serves as a prototype therapeutic that could reduce virus dissemination and disease progression in infected individuals. Moreover, since PTAP l-domain-mediated Tsg101 recruitment is utilized by other RNA virus pathogens (e.g., Ebola virus and HIV-1), PTAP inhibitors such as compound 0013 have the potential to function as potent broad-spectrum, host-oriented antiviral drugs.
IMPORTANCE There are currently no FDA-approved vaccines or therapeutics to prevent or treat Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). The causative agent of AHF is Junin virus (JUNV); a New World arenavirus classified as an NIAID/CDC category A priority pathogen. Here, we describe a prototype therapeutic that blocks budding of JUNV and has the potential to function as a broad-spectrum antiviral drug.
Positive traits, such as life satisfaction, optimism, and core self-evaluation (CSE), have garnered increasing attention from researchers and professionals. However, the trilateral relationship among them remains unclear.
This study examines the effect of dispositional optimism on life satisfaction and primarily verified the mediator role of CSEs.
Six hundred thirty college students from two general universities completed a questionnaire packet containing life orientation test–revised (LOT–R), core self-evaluations, and satisfaction with life scale. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to assess the dimension of LOT–R. Bootstrap was used in structural equation modeling to analyze mediation effect.
Results revealed that dispositional optimism and core self-evaluations were significantly correlated with life satisfaction. CFA identified the bidimensional structure of dispositional optimism. SEM indicated that core self-evaluations partially mediated the effect of dispositional optimism on life satisfaction. The final model also revealed significant paths from optimism and pessimism to life satisfaction through core-self evaluations.
The findings extended prior studies and shed light on how dispositional optimism influences life satisfaction. This study provides valuable evidence on how to promote the life satisfaction of human beings in positive psychology. A further study can fully explore the relationship among them in multi-cultural follow-up studies.
Most highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses cause only mild clinical signs in ducks, serving as an important natural reservoir of influenza A viruses. However, we isolated two H5N1 viruses that are genetically similar but differ greatly in virulence in ducks. A/Chicken/Jiangsu/k0402/2010 (CK10) is highly pathogenic, whereas A/Goose/Jiangsu/k0403/2010 (GS10) is low pathogenic. To determine the genetic basis for the high virulence of CK10 in ducks, we generated a series of single-gene reassortants between CK10 and GS10 and tested their virulence in ducks. Expression of the CK10 PA or hemagglutinin (HA) gene in the GS10 context resulted in increased virulence and virus replication. Conversely, inclusion of the GS10 PA or HA gene in the CK10 background attenuated the virulence and virus replication. Moreover, the PA gene had a greater contribution. We further determined that residues 101G and 237E in the PA gene contribute to the high virulence of CK10. Mutations at these two positions produced changes in virulence, virus replication, and polymerase activity of CK10 or GS10. Position 237 plays a greater role in determining these phenotypes. Moreover, the K237E mutation in the GS10 PA gene increased PA nuclear accumulation. Mutant GS10 viruses carrying the CK10 HA gene or the PA101G or PA237E mutation induced an enhanced innate immune response. A sustained innate response was detected in the brain rather than in the lung and spleen. Our results suggest that the PA and HA gene-mediated high virus replication and the intense innate immune response in the brain contribute to the high virulence of H5N1 virus in ducks.
We characterized 7 highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses isolated from poultry in China during 2009–2012 and found that they belong to clade 2.3.4 but do not fit within the 3 defined subclades. Antigenic drift in subtype H5N1 variants may reduce the efficacy of vaccines designed to control these viruses in poultry.
influenza; avian influenza virus; clade 2.3.4; China; clade; influenza virus; flu; H5; H5N1; highly pathogenic; viruses; avian; AIV; phylogeny; chickens; birds; HPAI
Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus remains a substantial threat to public health. To understand the molecular basis and host mechanism for the high virulence of H5N1 viruses in mammals, we compared two H5N1 isolates which have similar genetic backgrounds but greatly differ in their virulence in mice. A/Chicken/Jiangsu/k0402/2010 (CK10) is highly pathogenic, whereas A/Goose/Jiangsu/k0403/2010 (GS10) is nonpathogenic. We first showed that CK10 elicited a more potent innate immune response than did GS10 in mouse lungs by increasing the number and expression levels of activated genes. We then generated a series of reassortants between the two viruses and evaluated their virulence in mice. Inclusion of the CK10 PA gene in the GS10 background resulted in a dramatic increase in virulence. Conversely, expression of the GS10 PA gene in the CK10 background significantly attenuated the virulence. These results demonstrated that the PA gene mainly determines the pathogenicity discrepancy between CK10 and GS10 in mice. We further determined that arginine (R) at position 353 of the PA gene contributes to the high virulence of CK10 in mice. The reciprocal substitution at position 353 in PA or the exchange of the entire PA gene largely caused the transfer of viral phenotypes, including virus replication, polymerase activity, and manipulation of the innate response, between CK10 and GS10. We therefore defined a novel molecular marker associated with the high virulence of H5N1 influenza viruses, providing further insights into the pathogenesis of H5N1 viruses in mammals.
To evaluate the performance of automatic segmentation of atherosclerotic plaque components using solely multi-contrast 3D gradient echo (GRE) MR imaging.
Materials and Methods
A total of 15 patients with a history of recent transient ischemic attacks or stroke underwent carotid vessel wall imaging bilaterally with a combination of 2D turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences and 3D gradient echo (GRE) sequences. The TSE sequences included T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted scans. The 3D GRE sequences included time-of-flight (TOF), magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo (MP-RAGE), and motion-sensitized driven equilibrium prepared rapid gradient echo (MERGE) scans. From these images, the previously developed morphology-enhanced probabilistic plaque segmentation (MEPPS) algorithm was retrained based solely on the 3D GRE sequences to segment necrotic core (NC), calcification (CA) and loose matrix (LM). Segmentation performance was assessed using a leave-one-out cross-validation approach via comparing the new 3D-MEPPS algorithm to the original MEPPS algorithm that was based on the traditional multi-contrast protocol including 2D TSE and TOF sequences.
Twenty arteries of 15 subjects were found to exhibit significant plaques within the coverage of all imaging sequences. For these arteries, between new and original MEPPS algorithms, the areas per slice exhibited correlation coefficients of 0.86 for NC, 0.99 for CA and 0.80 for LM; no significant area bias was observed.
The combination of 3D imaging sequences (TOF, MP-RAGE and MERGE) can provide sufficient contrast to distinguish NC, CA and LM. Automatic segmentation using 3D sequences and traditional multi-contrast protocol produced highly similar results.
MRI; 3D carotid imaging; atherosclerosis; segmentation; plaque composition
Here, the whole genome sequences of two Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) of genotype VIII, which were isolated from west China in the 1980s, were determined and characterized phylogenetically. This is the first report with respect to the complete genomic information of genotype VIII NDV strains.
Simultaneous and sequential allantoic cavity inoculations of Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicken eggs with Influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) demonstrated that the interaction of AIV and NDV during co-infection was variable. Our research revisited the replication interference potential of AIV and NDV using real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) for AIV and NDV to specifically detect the viral genomes in mixed infections.
Data from this survey showed that when different doses of NDV (Lasota or F48E8) and AIV (F98 or H5N1) were simultaneously inoculated into embryonating chicken eggs (ECE), interference with the growth of NDV occurred, while interference with the growth of AIV did not occur. When equal amount of the two viruses were sequentially employed, the degree of interference was dependent upon the time of superinfection and the virulence of virus.
AIV have a negative impact on NDV growth if they are inoculated simultaneously or sequentially and that the degree of interference depended upon the quantity and relative virulence of the virus strains used; however, interference with AIV was not observed. Only if NDV were inoculated at an earlier time will NDV able to interfere with the growth of AIV.
Viral interference; Influenza virus; Newcastle disease virus; Real-time RT-PCR
Availability of the complete genome sequence as well as high-density SNP genotyping platforms allows genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in chickens. A high-density SNP array containing 57,636 markers was employed herein to identify associated variants underlying egg production and quality traits within two lines of chickens, i.e., White Leghorn and brown-egg dwarf layers. For each individual, age at first egg (AFE), first egg weight (FEW), and number of eggs (EN) from 21 to 56 weeks of age were recorded, and egg quality traits including egg weight (EW), eggshell weight (ESW), yolk weight (YW), eggshell thickness (EST), eggshell strength (ESS), albumen height(AH) and Haugh unit(HU) were measured at 40 and 60 weeks of age. A total of 385 White Leghorn females and 361 brown-egg dwarf dams were selected to be genotyped. The genome-wide scan revealed 8 SNPs showing genome-wise significant (P<1.51E-06, Bonferroni correction) association with egg production and quality traits under the Fisher's combined probability method. Some significant SNPs are located in known genes including GRB14 and GALNT1 that can impact development and function of ovary, but more are located in genes with unclear functions in layers, and need to be studied further. Many chromosome-wise significant SNPs were also detected in this study and some of them are located in previously reported QTL regions. Most of loci detected in this study are novel and the follow-up replication studies may be needed to further confirm the functional significance for these newly identified SNPs.
N-linked glycans are composed of three major types: high-mannose (Man), hybrid or complex. The functional role of hybrid- and complex-type N-glycans in Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection and fusion was examined in N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (GnT I)-deficient Lec1 cells, a mutant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell incapable of synthesizing hybrid- and complex-type N-glycans. We used recombinant NDV expressing green fluorescence protein or red fluorescence protein to monitor NDV infection, syncytium formation and viral yield. Flow cytometry showed that CHO-K1 and Lec1 cells had essentially the same degree of NDV infection. In contrast, Lec2 cells were found to be resistant to NDV infection. Compared with CHO-K1 cells, Lec1 cells were shown to more sensitive to fusion induced by NDV. Viral attachment was found to be comparable in both lines. We found that there were no significant differences in the yield of progeny virus produced by both CHO-K1 and Lec1 cells. Quantitative analysis revealed that NDV infection and fusion in Lec1 cells were also inhibited by treatment with sialidase. Pretreatment of Lec1 cells with Galanthus nivalis agglutinin specific for terminal α1-3-linked Man prior to inoculation with NDV rendered Lec1 cells less sensitive to cell-to-cell fusion compared with mock-treated Lec1 cells. Treatment of CHO-K1 and Lec1 cells with tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-glycosylation, significantly blocked fusion and infection. In conclusion, our results suggest that hybrid- and complex-type N-glycans are not required for NDV infection and fusion. We propose that high-Man-type N-glycans could play an important role in the cell-to-cell fusion induced by NDV.
fusion; high-mannose-type; hybrid- and complex-type; N-glycan; Newcastle disease virus
In China, domestic ducks and wild birds often share the same water, in which influenza viruses replicate preferentially. Isolation of 2 novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N5) viruses from apparently healthy domestic ducks highlights the role of these ducks as reassortment vessels. Such new subtypes of influenza viruses may pose a pandemic threat.
H5N5; highly pathogenic avian influenza; reassortant; domestic ducks; viruses; influenza; China; dispatch
Many novel reassortant influenza viruses of the H9N2 genotype have emerged in aquatic birds in southern China since their initial isolation in this region in 1994. However, the genesis and evolution of H9N2 viruses in poultry in eastern China have not been investigated systematically. In the current study, H9N2 influenza viruses isolated from poultry in eastern China during the past 10 years were characterized genetically and antigenically. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these H9N2 viruses have undergone extensive reassortment to generate multiple novel genotypes, including four genotypes (J, F, K, and L) that have never been recognized before. The major H9N2 influenza viruses represented by A/Chicken/Beijing/1/1994 (Ck/BJ/1/94)-like viruses circulating in poultry in eastern China before 1998 have been gradually replaced by A/Chicken/Shanghai/F/1998 (Ck/SH/F/98)-like viruses, which have a genotype different from that of viruses isolated in southern China. The similarity of the internal genes of these H9N2 viruses to those of the H5N1 influenza viruses isolated from 2001 onwards suggests that the Ck/SH/F/98-like virus may have been the donor of internal genes of human and poultry H5N1 influenza viruses circulating in Eurasia. Experimental studies showed that some of these H9N2 viruses could be efficiently transmitted by the respiratory tract in chicken flocks. Our study provides new insight into the genesis and evolution of H9N2 influenza viruses and supports the notion that some of these viruses may have been the donors of internal genes found in H5N1 viruses.
The purpose of this study was to determine the therapeutic effect of salvianolic acid b and paeonol on coronary disease. The ischemia myocardial animal model is induced by administering pituitrin (20 μg·kg−1) intravenously via the abdominal vein. A combination of salvianolic acid b and paeonol (CSAP) (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg BW) was administrated to experimental rabbits. Biochemical indices were evaluated during six weeks of intervention. We found that the compound of salvianolic acid b and paeonol (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg BW) can markedly and dose-dependently reduce fibrinogen and malonaldehyde levels, increase the HDL level, improve blood viscosity and plasma viscosity in rabbits. In addition, the medicine can still reduce the ratio of NO/ET and the contents of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) in a dose-dependent manner. This study demonstrates that compound of salvianolic acid b and paeonol (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg BW) can improve the blood hemorrheology, decrease oxidative injury and repair the function of blood vessel endothelium, and subsequently prevent the development of Coronary disease.
coronary disease; hemorrheology; lipid peroxidation; salvianolic acid b