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author:("Liu, sluice")
1.  Expression and clinical significance of annexin A2 and human epididymis protein 4 in endometrial carcinoma 
It is well-known that the treatment and monitoring methods are limited for advanced stage of endometrial carcinoma. Biological molecules with expression changes during tumor progression become potential therapeutic targets for advanced stage endometrial carcinoma. Annexin A2 (ANXA2) has been reported to be overexpressed in recurrent endometrial carcinoma, and the expression of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is upregulated in endometrial carcinoma. What’s more, ANXA2 and HE4 interacted in ovarian cancer and promoted the malignant biological behavior. We speculated that their interaction may exist in endometrial carcinoma as well. We evaluated the expression and the correlation relationship of ANXA2 and HE4 in endometrial carcinoma.
The expression of ANXA2 and HE4 protein in 84 endometrial carcinoma, 30 endometrial atypical hyperplasia, and 18 normal endometrial tissue samples were then measured using an immunohistochemical assay in paraffin embedded endometrial tissues. The structural relationship between ANXA2 and HE4 was explored by immunoprecipitation and double immunofluorescent staining.
ANXA2 and HE4 co-localized in both endometrial tissues and endometrial carcinoma cells. ANXA2 and HE4 were expressed in 95.2 % and 85.7 % of the the endometrial carcinoma, respectively, which were significantly higher than normal endometrium (55.6 % and 16.7 %, both p < 0.05). The expression of ANXA2 and HE4 was significantly correlated with FIGO stage, degree of differentiation, myometrial invasion, and lymph node metastasis. ANXA2 was an independent risk factor for the prognosis of endometrial carcinoma (p < 0.05, hazard ratio [HR] = 8.004). The expression of ANXA2 and HE4 was positively correlated (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.228, p < 0.05). HE4 was an independent factor for ANXA2 in multivariate linear regression model (p < 0.05).
We revealed the co-localization of ANXA2 and HE4 in endometrial carcinoma. Expression levels of ANXA2 and HE4 were closely related to the malignant biological behavior of endometrial carcinoma, and ANXA2 was an independent risk factor for poor prognosis. The expression of ANXA2 and HE4 can affect each other.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13046-015-0208-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4567805  PMID: 26362938
Annexin A2; Human epididymis protein 4; Endometrial carcinoma; Immunohistochemistry; Prognosis
2.  Lewis Y antigen modified CD47 is an independent risk factor for poor prognosis and promotes early ovarian cancer metastasis 
American Journal of Cancer Research  2015;5(9):2777-2787.
CD47 is a membrane receptor that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and plays an important role in the mechanisms of tumor immune escape. CD47 participates in tumor immune escape by combining with SIRPα to reduce the phagocytic activity of macrophages. There are six potential N-glycosylation sites on CD47, and glycosylation is known to be necessary for its membrane localization. However, it is still unknown to what extent glycosylation influences CD47 ligand binding properties and subsequent signaling. By using immunoprecipitation and confocal laser scanning microscopy, we showed that CD47 contains Lewis y antigen. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that both the positive expression and the overexpression of CD47 and Lewis y antigen in cancer tissues and borderline tumors were significantly higher than those in benign ovarian tumors and normal ovarian tissues (P < 0.05). A linear correlation between the expression patterns of CD47 and Lewis y antigen was evident (r = 0.47, P < 0.01). The high expression of CD47 and Lewis y antigen showed significant correlations with the clinical pathological parameters of ovarian cancer [International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) standards, lymph node metastasis, and degree of differentiation] (P < 0.05). The Cox model and Kaplan-Meier tests showed that high expression of CD47 was an independent adverse risk factor for the prognosis of ovarian cancer. Cases with both high CD47 and Lewis y antigen expression had poor prognoses. Our study demonstrates that Lewis y antigens of CD47 may play a crucial role in the development of ovarian cancer, and could be new targets for immunotherapy for ovarian cancer.
PMCID: PMC4633904  PMID: 26609483
CD47; Lewis y; ovarian cancer; tumor immune escape; prognosis
3.  Chemoresistance Is Associated with MUC1 and Lewis y Antigen Expression in Ovarian Epithelial Cancers 
The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation and clinical significance between the expression of Mucin-1 (MUC1) and the Lewis y antigen with chemoresistance in ovarian epithelial cancers.
Ovarian cancer patients (n = 92) treated at our hospital from May 2005 to July 2009 were divided, according to their treatment and follow-up outcomes, into a resistant group (n = 37) or sensitive group (n = 55). The expression of MUC1 and Lewis y antigen in ovarian cancer tissues was detected using immunohistochemistry and correlated with chemoresistance.
The positive rates of MUC1 and Lewis y antigen in the resistant group were both 91.89%, significantly higher than their positive rates in the sensitive group (65.45% and 69.09%, respectively, and both p < 0.05). MUC1 or Lewis y expression and the pathological stage of the tissue were independent risk factors for chemoresistance (all p < 0.05).
The increased expression of MUC1 and the Lewis y antigen is a significant risk factor for chemoresistance in patients with ovarian epithelial cancer.
PMCID: PMC3709716  PMID: 23708102
ovarian epithelial cancer; MUC1; Lewis y antigen; chemoresistance; immunohistochemistry
4.  Lewis y Regulate Cell Cycle Related Factors in Ovarian Carcinoma Cell RMG-I in Vitro via ERK and Akt Signaling Pathways 
To investigate the effect of Lewis y overexpression on the expression of proliferation-related factors in ovarian cancer cells.
mRNA levels of cyclins, CDKs, and CKIs were measured in cells before and after transfection with the α1,2-fucosyltransferase gene by real-time PCR, and protein levels of cyclins, CDKs and CKIs were determined in cells before and after gene transfection by Western blot.
Lewis y overexpression led to an increase in both mRNA and protein expression levels of cyclin A, cyclin D1 and cyclin E in ovarian cancer cells, decrease in both mRNA and protein expression levels of p16 and p21, and decrease of p27 at only the protein expression level without change in its mRNA level. There were no differences in proteins and the mRNA levels of CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 before and after gene transfection. Anti-Lewis y antibody, ERK and PI3K pathway inhibitors PD98059 and LY294002 reduced the difference in cyclin and CKI expression caused by Lewis y overexpression.
Lewis y regulates the expression of cell cycle-related factors through ERK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways to promote cell proliferation.
PMCID: PMC3269723  PMID: 22312289
Lewis(y) antigen; cell cycle; cyclin; cyclin-dependent kinases; cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors
5.  Study on the Expression and Clinical Significances of Lewis y Antigen and Integrin αv, β3 in Epithelial Ovarian Tumors 
To detect the expression and clinical significances of Lewis y antigen and integrin αv, β3 in epithelial ovarian tumors, and to explore the expression correlation between Lewis y antigen and integrin αv, β3.
Immunohistochemical staining was performed in 95 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer, 37 cases of borderline tumors, 20 cases of benign tumors, and 20 cases of normal ovarian tissue, for the detection of Lewis y antigen and integrin αv, β3 expressions, and to analyze the relationship between Lewis y antigen and integrin, and the relationship between clinical and pathological parameters of ovarian cancer. In addition, immunofluorescence double labeling was utilized to detect the expression correlation between Lewis y antigen and integrin αv, β3 in ovarian cancer.
In epithelial ovarian tumors, the expression rate of Lewis y antigen was 81.05%, significantly higher than that of borderline (51.53%) (P < 0.05) and benign (25%) (P < 0.01) tumors, and normal ovarian tissues (0) (P < 0.01). The expression rate of integrin αv, β3 in malignant epithelial ovarian tumors was 78.95% and 82.11%, respectively, significantly higher than that of the borderline (45.94%, 40.54%) (both P < 0.05), benign group (10.00%, 15.00%) (both P < 0.01) and normal ovary group (5%, 15%) (both P < 0.01).
Lewis y and integrins αv, β3 are relevant to pelvic and abdominal diffusion and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells, suggesting that these two molecules mediate a boosting function for tumor metastasis.
PMCID: PMC3131568  PMID: 21747684
epithelial ovarian tumor; integrin αvβ3; Lewis y antigen; immunohistochemistry; immunofluorescence double labeling method

Results 1-5 (5)