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1.  Copy Number Variation in CNP267 Region May Be Associated with Hip Bone Size 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(7):e22035.
Osteoporotic hip fracture (HF) is a serious global public health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality. Hip bone size (BS) has been identified as one of key measurable risk factors for HF, independent of bone mineral density (BMD). Hip BS is highly genetically determined, but genetic factors underlying BS variation are still poorly defined. Here, we performed an initial genome-wide copy number variation (CNV) association analysis for hip BS in 1,627 Chinese Han subjects using Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping SNP 6.0 Array and a follow-up replicate study in 2,286 unrelated US Caucasians sample. We found that a copy number polymorphism (CNP267) located at chromosome 2q12.2 was significantly associated with hip BS in both initial Chinese and replicate Caucasian samples with p values of 4.73E-03 and 5.66E-03, respectively. An important candidate gene, four and a half LIM domains 2 (FHL2), was detected at the downstream of CNP267, which plays important roles in bone metabolism by binding to several bone formation regulator, such as insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 (IGFBP-5) and androgen receptor (AR). Our findings suggest that CNP267 region may be associated with hip BS which might influence the FHL2 gene downstream.
PMCID: PMC3137628  PMID: 21789208
2.  Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies ALDH7A1 as a Novel Susceptibility Gene for Osteoporosis 
PLoS Genetics  2010;6(1):e1000806.
Osteoporosis is a major public health problem. It is mainly characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and/or low-trauma osteoporotic fractures (OF), both of which have strong genetic determination. The specific genes influencing these phenotypic traits, however, are largely unknown. Using the Affymetrix 500K array set, we performed a case-control genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 700 elderly Chinese Han subjects (350 with hip OF and 350 healthy matched controls). A follow-up replication study was conducted to validate our major GWAS findings in an independent Chinese sample containing 390 cases with hip OF and 516 controls. We found that a SNP, rs13182402 within the ALDH7A1 gene on chromosome 5q31, was strongly associated with OF with evidence combined GWAS and replication studies (P = 2.08×10−9, odds ratio = 2.25). In order to explore the target risk factors and potential mechanism underlying hip OF risk, we further examined this candidate SNP's relevance to hip BMD both in Chinese and Caucasian populations involving 9,962 additional subjects. This SNP was confirmed as consistently associated with hip BMD even across ethnic boundaries, in both Chinese and Caucasians (combined P = 6.39×10−6), further attesting to its potential effect on osteoporosis. ALDH7A1 degrades and detoxifies acetaldehyde, which inhibits osteoblast proliferation and results in decreased bone formation. Our findings may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of osteoporosis.
Author Summary
Osteoporosis is a major health concern worldwide. It is a highly heritable disease characterized mainly by low bone mineral density (BMD) and/or osteoporotic fractures. However, the specific genetic variants determining risk for low BMD or OF are largely unknown. Here, taking advantage of recent technological advances in human genetics, we performed a genome-wide association study and follow-up validation studies to identify genetic variants for osteoporosis. By examining a total of 11,568 individuals from Chinese and Caucasian populations, we discovered a susceptibility gene, ALDH7A1, which is associated with hip osteoporotic fracture and BMD. ALDH7A1 might inhibit osteoblast proliferation and decrease bone formation. Our finding opens a new avenue for exploring the pathophysiology of osteoporosis.
PMCID: PMC2794362  PMID: 20072603
3.  The role of cellular oxidative stress in regulating glycolysis energy metabolism in hepatoma cells 
Molecular Cancer  2009;8:32.
The Warburg effect has been found in a wide spectrum of human cancers, however the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. This study aims to explore the role of cellular oxidative stress in relation to glycolysis and the Warburg effect in hepatoma cells.
Various cell lines combining environmental hypoxia was used as an in vitro model to mimic tumor microenvironment in vivo. Superoxide dismutases (SOD) and xanthine oxidase (XO) gene transfection were used to produce various cellular redox levels. 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCF) fluorescence and ESR spectrum were used to detect cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS).
We found that endogenous or exogenous interference with the cellular oxidative stress can sensitively regulate glycolysis and the Warburg effect in hepatoma cells. Hepatoma cells displayed a high level of free radicals compared to immortalized normal hepatocyte cells. Increasing the level of ROS stress in hepatoma cells can directly upregulate HIF-1 and activate glycolysis without requirement of a hypoxic condition. This explains the mechanism whereby aerobic glycolysis, i.e. the Warburg effect arises. Either endogenously upregulating SOD or exogenously administration with antioxidant can, through downregulating ROS level, effectively regulate energy pathways in hepatoma cells and can inhibit the growth of tumor cells and xenograft tumors.
This study suggests that the Warburg effect was related to an inherently high level of cellular ROS and HIF-1. Hepatoma cells adaptation to hypoxia for survival and rapid growth exploits oxidative stress ectopically activated glycolysis to compensate the energy supply. This specific mechanism in which tumor cells through cellular oxidative stress activate glycolysis to meet their energy metabolism requirement could be exploited to selectively kill tumor cells.
PMCID: PMC2702299  PMID: 19497135
4.  N-[2-(2-Methoxyphenyl)benzylidene]-tert-butyl­amine N-oxide 
In the mol­ecule of the title compound, C18H21NO2, the two benzene rings are oriented at a dihedral angle of 58.19 (3)°. Intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds result in the formation of one six- and one five-membered ring, which adopt twist and envelope conformations, respectively. In the crystal structure, C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules.
PMCID: PMC2961506  PMID: 21202613

Results 1-4 (4)